Skip to main content

Full text of "Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India"

See other formats


FOREWORD 



The Geological Survey of India's pioneering contributions to the Science 
of Seismology are well known. Of these, R. D. Oldham's Memoir on the 
Great Assam Earthquake of 12th June, 1897, which laid the foundations of 
modern seismological studies, will remain for ever a classic contribution. 
The subsequent Memoirs, on the Kangra Earthquake of the 4th April, 1905, 
by Middlemiss and on the Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of 1934, by officers of the 
G.S.I, and others, continued the fine tradition set by R. D. Oldham. These 
excellent accounts of three of the large magnitude Indian earthquakes, 
published by the G.S.I, respectively, in 1899, 1910 and 1939, had gone out 
of print, several years ago. 

Although the Science of Seismology has made rapid strides in recent 
years, the scientific workers throughout the World, who have been engaged 
in the study of the causes and the prediction of earthquakes, needed 
for their constant reference, the comprehensive accounts of past major 
Indian earthquakes. In early 1980, the demand for trie above-cited 
Memoirs on Indian earthquakes was voiced by Dr. Jai Krishna, President 
of the International Association for Earthquake Engineering, when he had 
requested that the G.S.I, may arrange to reprint and issue these three 
classical Memoirs for the use of the scientific community all over the World. 
The G.S.I, complied very willingly with this request 

I am very happy that all the three Memoirs, as reprinted now, will 
once again be available to all those who are interested in the study of 
earthquakes. The first Memoir to be reissued is the Volume 29 by R. D. 
Oldham, dealing with the Great Assam Earthquake of 1897, and this will 
be followed by the Volume 38 on the Kangra Earthquake of 1905 and the 
Volume 73 on the Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of 1934. If these three reprinted 
volumes of the classical Memoirs of G.S.I, further stimulate research on 
earthquakes and promote advances in the Science of Seismology, I shall 
consider the effort made by the G.S.I, to reprint these well-known Memoirs 
to be amply rewarded. 



ItiL^z- 



Dated, Calcutta V. S. KRISHNASWAMY 

the 30th June, 1981 Director General 



:: ^ 



PGSI. 128 



I/Toi^ . &<tt)\ 2000-1981 (DSK. II) 

MEMOIRS 

OF THE 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



VOL. XXXVIII 



THE KANGRA EARTHQUAKE OF 4TH APRIL, 1905 



By 



C. S. MlDDLEMISS.BA, F.G.S. 
Superintendent 

Geological Survey of India 




JUiV 2 8 198? 




Published by order of the Government of India 

1910 

Reprinted 1981 



© INDIA, GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (1981) 



First Printed 1910 
Reprinted 1981 



PUBLISHED BY THE DIRECTOR GENERAL, GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 
27, JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ROAD, CALCUTTA-700 016 



Price : Inland Rs. 41.50 Foreign £4.85 or $ 14.94 



MEMOIRS 



OF 



THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



MEMOIRS 



OF 



THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



VOLUME XXXVIII. 



The Kangra Earthquake of 4TH April 1905. By C. S. 
Middlemiss, B.A., F.G.S., Superintendent, Geological 
Survey of India. 



Published by order of the Government of India. 



CALCUTTA: 

SOLD AT THE OFFICE OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA, 
27, CHOWRINGHEE ROAD. 

LONDON : MESSRS. KEG AN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO. 
BERLIN: MESSRS. FRIEDLANDER UND SOHN. 



1910. 



CONTENTS. 

♦ 

PART I. 

RECORD OP OBSERVATIONS. 

Page 
Introduction. I 

Chapter I — Kangra Kulu Epioentral Area. 

Pathankot ........ 8 

Nurpur 9 

Shahpur 9 

Rehlu . . . 11 

Route between Shahpur and Dharmsala . . .12 

Dharmsala . . .14 

Dharmsala Cantonment ...... 15 

Dharmsala Civil Hill . . . „ • ,20 

Kangra town • . 31 

Route from Kangra to Dera Gopipur . . 38 

Route from Kangra to Palampur • . . .40 

Palampur • .40 

Route from Palampur to Mandi . , .44 

Mandi 49 

Route from Mandi to Bajaura • . * • .53 
Bajaura . • . . „ . .54 

From Bajaura to Sultanpur . . - . .57 
Sultanpur to Manikarn . . , . . .09 
Manikarn to Naggar via Rag hole and Malana . . 64 

Naggar to Barwar Lake 67 

Barwar to Jibhi 71 

Jibhi to Luri 72 

Luri to Simla 73 

Other Routes.— (a) Chamba to Lahoul .. 75 

(b) Suket to Simla .... 76 

Chapter II.— Mussoorie-Dehra Dun Epioentral Traot. 

Dehra Dun town ....... 80 

Dehra Dun Cantonment ...... 87 

Rajpur 94 

Mu8Soorie , , . . . . . .95 

Landour 107 

Hardwar . ....... 114 

Rurki . 119 

Sabaranpur ..... ♦ 126 



V| 



Chapter III. — Large Cities of the Plains in the vicinity of the 

Vllth Isoseist. Page 

Lahore including Mian Mir and Shahdara . . -131 

Jullundur . ....... 146 

Amritsar 151 

Tarn Taran . ., 15& 

Fjrozepur 159 

Wazirabad . . . . . . . .164 

Gujranwala ........ 165 

Gujrat ... 167 

Sialkot 168 

Jammu . . . .... 171 

Ludhiana . . . . . , . . 173 

Multan and Phagwara . . . • , .177 

CHAprEB IV.—Eemaining parts of India not visited by the 

Geological Survey. 

Group 1. — Comprising the states and districts of 
Chamba, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Simla, Dehra 
Dun, Garhwal . . . . . .181 

Group 2. — Comprising Kashmir and Jammu, Sialkot, 
Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jullundur, Ludhiana, 
Amballa, Saharanpur, Bijnor, Naini Tal, Almora, 
Azamgarh . . . . . . .186 

Group 3. — Comprising Gujrat, Gujranwala, Lahore, 
Ferozepore, Faridkot, Patiala, Karnal., Mozaffar- 
nagar, Meerut, Moradabad, Bareilly, Pilibhit . 203 

Group 4. — Comprising Hazara, Attock, Rawalpindi, 
Jhelum, Shahpur, J hang, Montgomery, Hissar, 
Jind, Rohtak, Delhi, Bulandshahr, Budaun, 
Shajahanpnr, Kheri .... . 214 

Group 5. — Comprising Chitral, Peshawar, Kohat, 
Mian wali, Mooltan, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Dera 
Ghazi Khan, Lyallpur, Bikaner, Jaipur, Alwar, 
Gurgaon, Bharatpur, Muttra, Aligarh, Agra, Etah, 
Mainpuri, Farukabad, Hardoi, Sitapur, Bahrarch . 224 

Group 6. — Comprising Jaisalmer, Marwar or Jodhpur, 
Sirohi, Merwara, Ajmer, Kishangarh, Tonk, Mewar, 
Karauli, Kotah, Jhalawar, Etawah, Jalaun, 
Cawnpore, Unao, Lucknow, Bara Banki, Gonda, 
Hamirpur, Fatehpur, Rae Bareilly, Fyzabad, Basti, 
Banda, Allahabad, Partabgarh, Mirzapur, Gorakb 
pur, Benares, Ghazipur, Ballia .... 239 



Vll 



Chapter V. — 



Chapter VI. 



Index. 



Page 
Group 7.— Comprising Afghanistan, Baluchistan. 
Bombay, Central India, Central Provinces, 
Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, Nepal, 

Madras, Burma 249 

List of contributors to the Earthquake Forms . , 270 

PART II. 



Time of earthquake. Rate of propagation. 

The Isoseists : Intensity and Character 

shock . .... 

Nature of Focus, depth, etc 
Cause of the Earthquake .... 
Extra-Indian Seismographic Records 
Earthquake Sound ..... 
Miscellaneous phenomena of the Earthquake 

Foreshocks and Aftershocks 

List of Aftershocks .... 



of the 



281 

300 
329 
335 
340 
341 
344 

355 
370 



LIST OF PLATES. 



FRONTISPIECE.— Golden Temple, Kangra Bhawan. 
( Bazar, Kangra Bhawan. 

pi ATP I < ° 

C Earth Fissures, Kangra Bhawan. 

PLATE — \ R * hlU Fort ' 
v Daulatpur. 

PLATE 3._(Cbarivi.lage. 

(. Shahpur. 

r Old British Barracks, Dharmsala. 
PLATE 4— j churchf Dharmsala. 

i Bazar, Dharmsala Cantonment. 
PLATE 5- [ McL eodganj, Dharmsala. 

( Kotwali Bazar, Dharmsala. 
PLATE 6.— [ Jftil sit ^ dharmsala. 

( Forsythganj, Dharmsala Cantonment. 
PLA 7.— i Q ur kha Lines, Dharmsala Cantonment. 

c Twisted Monument, Dharmsala Churchyard. 
PLATE 8.- £ M Bryn ,^ D harmsala. 

r Dust Cloud and Landslip, Neogal gorge. 
PLATE 9.-^ BazarPalampur 

atp f Dharmsala and Palampur Churches, before earthquake. 

PLATE io.- 1 palampur Qhvaoh. 

PLATE ii -J Baijnath * 
PLATE II. i Jawalflmukhi 

__ c Mandi, before the earthquake. 
I Mandi, after the earthquake. 

PLATE -,_ jS^kwP™' Kulu - 
FLA i c 13. j Temple> Sultanpur. 

PLATE i a - f ^ Village ' Kulu - 
KL M ' I Fallen rock near Manali. 

Pi ATE — 5 Ro °k 8l ^ de8 ' ^ lanft Gkn. 
( Lake near Barwar, Kulu. 

—. *—_ - C The Convent, Mussoorie. 
PLATE i6 — j ax ... _, 

C St. Albans, Mussoorie. 

J Verona Villa, Dehra Dun. 
I Police Station, Dehra Dun. 

PLATE 1 8 — ( ToWn Hal1, Lahore ' be * ore the earthquake. 
(. The same after the earthquake. 

PLATE. 9 .-{f"^ t,Uh T l , 

*. Law Courts, Lahore. 



PLATE 30 — Types of rooting, Dehra Dun. 

PLATE ai. —Bachelors' Quarters, Savoy Hotel, Mussoorio. 

PLATE 22. -The Convent, Mussoorie. 

PLATE 33. -Plan of Town Hall, Lahore. 

PLATE 24 -Plan of Post Office, Lahore, 

PLATE 35.— Ram Bagh Gateway, Amritsar. 

PLATE 26.— Fissures in Alluvium, Khanki. 

PLATE 37.— Variations of Level, Dehra Dun. 

PLATE 28.— Map of India showing Isoseiats. 

PLATE 39. — Map showing the four highest Isoseists. 

PLATE 30.— Route map in Kangra-Kulu epicentral area. 



MEMOIRS 

OF 

THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



The Kangra Earthquake of 4TH April 190J. By 
C. S. IVIiddlemiss, B.A., F.G.S., Superintendent, 
Geological Survey of India. 



INTRODUCTION. 

A preliminary account of this earthquake has already appeared in 
Preliminary Re- the publications of this department. 1 To save re- 
P ort ' petition the reader is referred to it for a brief narra- 

tive and summary of the main effects of the shock. 

The present larger work is an attempt to bring together a full 
Scope of present descriptive record of such of the phenomena of the 
Work - earthquake as have, or may have, a scientific bear- 

ing. In it the recording and arranging of facts observed at first-hand, 
and of well-authenticated evidence, hold the most prominent place, 
and constitute the bulk of the volume. 

As regards first-hand observations, no more need be said than that 

First-hand obser- tlle y were carried out b Y m J colleagues, Messrs. 
vations, and local Simpson, Pascoe and Hallowes, and myself, by 
reports. means of personal traverses over certain selected 

parts of the affected area ; and therefore it is hoped that they are as 
reliable as any other coordinated scientific work. As regards evidence, 
it always happens in the case of a large earthquake that enormous 
areas remain over which cannot be visited by experts, and for these 
it becomes necessary to weigh quantities of uncoordinated evidence 
derived from local sources. In the case of this earthquake such evi- 

1 Rec. G. S. of I., Vol. XXX11, pt. 4. 



2 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 






dence has been furnished by a great many local observers scattered 
all over India 1 by means of the nlled-in earthquake question-forms. 
From these I have drawn freely for my information, especially where 
no first-hand information was available ; and their assistance in build- 
ing up an account of the earthquake has been invaluable. But at 
the same time I have found it impossible to quote everybody and 
everything ; partly because over many areas the same phenomena are 
repeatedly referred to in the same way by many observers, and partly 
because a great deal of the information is of such a nature that it 
loses cogency by the side of more definite, though much simpler 
facts. It is nevertheless to be hoped that all those patient con- 
tributors who have assisted me in collecting the material for this 
report, but whose remarks have gone without mention in this book, 
will not on that account conclude that their work was useless. On 
the contrary, in matters of evidence it is just by means of a wealth of 
repetition and corroboration of certain phenomena, that a compiler 
can feel what is the next best thing to an absolute certainty with 
regard to them — which he could not do on the strength of only one 
or two, often imperfectly agreeing, accounts. 

From the cheerful and frequently painstaking way official and non- 
official contributors have sent in their experiences, one may deduce the 
dominant, and I think correct, point of view, that a destructive earth- 
quake, being a universal misfortune, imposes the moral obligation on 
all to unite in doing their best to understand it ; inasmuch as such an 
attempt is the first step in the direction of prevention, or at least 
mitigation, of its horrors. 2 

For the gathering of this evidence from all available parts of India 

Earthquake ques- where the earthquake was felt, a printed question 

tion.form. f orm containing a request for information on the 

following points was issued urgently by the Director of the Geological 

1 See list of names at end of Part I. 

2 Owing at least largely to the time of the earthquake, but also to its severity and 
suddenness in the more central areas, this earthquake was more than 10 times as dis- 
astroua to life as the Assam Earthquake of 1897. About 20,000 human beings are 
oetimated to have perished by it. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

Survey on the 6th instant, two days after the shock, and distributed 
officially all over the area likely to have been affected. At the same 
time an abbreviated question-form was sent to the chief newspapers 
calling for similar information : — 

1 . Full name and address of observer, given in sufficient detail to permit of 
adequate acknowledgment in published reports. 

2. Place and district in which the observations were made. 

3. Date on which the observations were first recorded in writing. 

4. Situation of the observer : — 

Please state whether you were — 

(a) indoors when the shock was first felt ; 

(6) in the open air ; 

(c) lying down, sitting, standing or moving. 

5. Time at which the shock was felt. Please state precisely the means by 
which the time was observed, that is, whether merely guessed, whether recorded 
at the moment by watch, and whether the watch was compared with a clock 
known to keep a recognized standard time, such as the clocks kept at railway 
and telegraph offices. 

6. Number of distinct shocks : — 

(a) Particulars of any tremulous vibrations, not distinguishable as separate 

movements which occurred before the principal and distinctly 

noticeable to-and-fro movements. 
(6) The number of principal and prominent shocks felt, the intervals in 

seconds between them and the order of their intensity, 
(c) Existence of tremulous vibrations after the principal shocks and the 

time of their duration. 

7. Apparent direction of shocks, judged by the fall of loose objects, hanging 
lamps, or movements of water in tanks and bath-tubs. 

8. Sound phenomena. — Please state the nature of any sounds noticed before, 
during or after the main shocks ; and, if possible, state the interval in seconds 
between the first sound and the first shock. 

9. Intensity of the shock. — Please state whether the shock was '« hardly felt " 
or " distinctly felt,' ' and if the latter, please give precise details of its effects in 
order that an estimate may be made of its intensity at your station. No appa- 
rently unimportant detail should be omitted, as in the absence of instrumental 
records, this form of evidence affords the only means of tracing the carves of 
equal intensity, and of making the first approximate determination of the focus 
of disturbance. 

10. Effects of the Earthquake. — Please give below any precise observations you 
have made on the following points : — 

(a) Particulars of objects overturned, their size, position and direction of 
fall. 

b2 



X MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

( b) Dotails of cracks in buildings, with sketches showing their directions, 

and an accurate record of the direction of every wall affected. 

(c) Effects on the water of tanks and bath-tubs, giving the direction of 

the movement, 
(e?) Direction and amount of movement of free swinging objects, such as 

hanging lamps. 
( i) Occurrence of earth-fissures, their direction and nature, with critical 

observations of any relative displacement of the ground on opposite 

sides of the fissures. 

11. Aftershocks. — Date, time and approximate intensity of shocks noticed sub- 
sequently to the main earthquake which occurred in the early morning of April 4th, 1905. 

That the observations entered in these forms must necessarily 

Th v . vary in accuracy and consequent value is obvious, 

curacy, but are since the writers vary from the completely irrespon- 

generally reliable. - 

sible person through a long list of more or less 
sincere and careful witnesses up to the trained officers of scientific 
departments under the Government of India, and a small sprinkling 
of unofficial observers, scientific in spirit, if not by profession. In 
spite of a few defects of exaggeration on the one hand, and of apathe- 
tic indifference on. the other, the evidence under this heading as a 
whole, though nowhere pretending to infallibility, may be said to 
convey a generally accurate picture of the visible and tangible pheno- 
mena of the earthquake ; whether evanescent, such as the recorded 
times, sounds, number of shocks and subjective sensations ; or whether 
of a less transitory nature, such as the damage to buildings, to com 
munications, ard to natural features of the country. Furthermore 
the very numerous and variously derived observations have all tended 
to check one another, and so eliminate any form of extreme error. 
The resulting body of data presented under this heading of evidence 
has therefore a strong warranty for being measurably, or even closely, 
in accordance with fact. It is fortunate that one can feel an assur- 
ance of this, for earthquake phenomena, even of the less transitory 
kind, soon become obliterated by time ; and no corroboration or revi- 
sion of observations is possible in later years, as it is for instance in 
the case of ordinary geological data. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

In the following pages, Part I has been devoted to a detailed 
How the present description of .all the impressions ar.d effects of 
work is divided. the earthquake as recorded both by the officers 

specially deputed to examine it, and also by the local observers 
through the medium of the earthquake -forms. It is divided into 
four chapters as follows : — Chapter I contains a description of the 
larger of the two epicentral areas, namely, that of the Kangra Valley 
and Kulu. For this I have trusted mainly to my own observations 
during ray two months' tour through the region ; only supplementing 
it by evidence derived from the earthquake-forms and from newspaper 
reports. Chapter II contains a description of the smaller epicentral 
tract of Mussoorie and Dehra Dun. For this the reports of Messrs.. 
Simpson and Hallowes have been of first importance, supplemented as 
before by evidence from the earthquake-forms and newspapers. Chap- 
ter III contains a description of the area embraced by the large cities 
of the plains in the vicinity of isoseismal No. 7. For this Mr. 
Pascoe's report has been of first importance, supplemented as before 
by the earthquake-forms and newspapers. Chapter IV contains a 
description of the remaining areas where the earthquake was sensibly 
felt. For this the material at my disposal has been entirely derived 
from the earthquake-forms, newspapers, etc. Part II is divided into 
two chapters, the first of which under seven sub-headings discusses 
certain of the more prominent features of the earthquake as embodied 
in the earlier descriptive part, and attempts to generalise concerning 
them. The last chapter is devoted to the foreshocks and aftershocks 
of the big event 

A word or two is perhaps necessary on my part in explanation of 
Delay in publka- the delay which has occurred in the compiling of 
tion - this memoir. It was interrupted by a period of 

six months leave to England in 1906, and later by a year's charge of 
current duties in the office of the Survey, duties which every year 
become heavier and leave little time, except holidays and overtime 
for original or compilatory work. Concurrently during this period I 
had charge of the Central India and Rajputana field party, and was 



6 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

personally engaged in survey work myself there and elsewhere during 
much of the time. 

As most of the material for this memoir had to be collected rapidly 

Co-operation of i n the central areas of devastation and at a time of 
other departments. g rea t public stress ; whilst all the rest of the 
material (as represented by the earthquake-forms) had to be. arranged 
for through the various local Governments and Native States ; it must 
be apparent that this department was greatly dependent on the co-oper- 
ation of many other departments and individual officers therein, as 
well as on that of a variety of private individuals who were public- 
spirited enough to assist. All the important newspapers of India also 
assisted by publishing a series of questions similar to those given at p. 3. 
It would be impossible to name all these, and I must therefore be 

Tlnnks content to thank in a body all members of the 

various civil departments under Government, offi- 
cials of Native iStates, the officers of the Gurkha regiments at Dharm- 
sala and other regiments quartered in the less seriously affected part 
of the area, all editors of newspapers and many private persons for 
their generous assistance to me in carrying out the field work or in 
otherwise gathering data for this book.i 






PART I. 
RECORD OF OBSERVATIONS. 



CHAPTER I. 
KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 

This portion of the country affected by the earthquake fell to my 
lot to investigate. It will be well at the outset to indicate briefly 
the route taken. (See map, PL 30.) 

I first proceeded to Lahore, where I halted to consult the local 

Route followed Government, and also to meet my colleague Mr, Pas- 

by the author. coe ^ an( j arran g e f or y s separate sphere of work. 

From Lahore I took train on 12th April to Pathankot, the nearest 
railway station to the centre of damage; thence by to)nja (mail cart) 
to Shahpur, situated among the foot hills of the Sub-Himalaya, which 
was then a busy base of operations for relief and reconstruction parties. 
From Shahpur I proceeded to the heart of the convulsed area at Dharm- 
sala and Kangra. where 1 spent eight days investigating the terrible 
effects there displayed. Thence I turned south to Ranital. Jawala- 
mukhi and Dera Gopipur, crossing thereby a descending scale. of damage 
similar, but in reversed order, to the ascending scale between Pathan- 
kot and Dharmsala. I next returned to Kangra, and thence jour- 
neyed E. N. E. to Palampur. which 1 used as a centre for traversing in 
various directions. From there I proceeded to Mandi via Baijnath, 
Dhelu, Guma, Jhatingri, l.'rla, and Drang. From Mandi I went to 
Kataula, thence crossed the Dulchi pass into the Lower Himalaya of 
the Kulu Valley at Bajaura, and traversed up the valley of the Beas 
to Sultanpur. Thence with a party organised by the Assistant Com- 
missioner, Mr. Calvert, into the higher valleys of the Parbati river, 
first over the Borso pass to Channi, Jari aiid Manikarn, and thence 
returning via Rashole, Malaria and Naggar. From Naggar I. returned 
down the Kulu valley to Larji, visiting the enormous landslips and 
damraed-up valleys of that part. Thence to Manglaur and JibJhi, and 
thence over the Jalori pass to Kot, Chawai, Dalash, and Luri in the 



g MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Sutlej valley. From Luri I travelled via Kotgarh. and Narkanda to 
Simla where I brought my tour in the Lower Himalayan region to a 
close on 15th June. During it I had covered along the line of march 
alone, a distance of about 365 miles : I had traversed the epicentral 
area along its whole length and also radially in five main directions. 
The record now to follow of observations of the earthquake phenomena 
and effects in the Kangra-Kuhi epicentral tract 

Personal observa- . . . . . . 

tions follow the line will be grouped mainly in the order m which I visit- 
of route taken. ed the localities For all the ^ Iect observations 

I am alone responsible. For all other sources of information, the name 
of the contributor, or the name and date of the newspaper or other 
s f authority will be quoted. As damage to buildings 

applied to house will form one of the most important phases of earth- 
quake effects herein noted, I give the following scale 
of terms (increasing downwards) as used by me in describing damage 
of varying intensity : — 

1. Cracked. ^ 

2. Rent. L Roof and walls still standing. 

3. Fissured--) 

4. Ruined. Roof gone, many walls standing. 

5. Destroyed. Only portions of walls standing. 

6. Levelled with the ground. Nothing left standing. 

Pathankot (Gurdaspur District). 

I spent one evening, 12th April, at this place which is the rail- 
way terminus for the Lahore- Pathankot branch of the N. W. Ry. 
Except for the throng of relief and reconstruction parties moving up 
to the front, one would have been unaware that a destructive earth* 
quake had passed over it only a week ago. I possess two earthquake- 
forms relating to this locality which arc here summarised : — 

Earthquake Form.— J. G. Skene, Lt., 7th Gurkha Rifles, was standing with 
feet apart in the road facing the railway station. Time 6-10 by watch compared 
with railway time shortly afterwards. One shcck, motion at first slight, then 
increased and then subsided. It was like a ship rolling. Hanging lamps in station 
swung lengthwise with the station. No sounds particularly noticed. No damage, 
only plaster fell from arch of station. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 9 

Earthquake Form. — Teiegraph and post master. Time 6-9, time compared 
with Lahore every day at 4 P. m. There were first, vibrations E.— -W. judged by 
hanging lamp. Secondly, main shocks. A cracking noise [prooably rafters of 
house]. 1 No damage. 

(See also account of the Ban Doab canal near Pathankot, p. 344.) 

My own observations showed that the railway station had do visible 
cracks. The line was completely undamaged. The travellers' bunga- 
low and houses in the bazar uninjured, so far as a cursory inspection 
could say although many of them were of a most unsubstantial kind. 

Nurpur (Kangra District). 
Frcm Pathankot to Nurpur the road follows along gravel and alluvial 
flats of the Chakka river and does not touch rock until close to Nurpur. No 
visible damage was detected on the way. 2 Nurpur itself stands on the 
crest of a normal fold in the younger Tertiary Siwalik conglomerate. 
Strike N. W.— S. E., steep limb of fold to S. W. At the travellers' bunga- 
low, built of local stone, there were just visible cracks at the joints of the 
walls. Nothing had fallen, including new mud plaster which had re- 
cently been applied to the doorways. The bungalow khitmatghar 
said the house rocked " this way and that," indicating a slow oscillatory 
motion and not a quick jerky motion. 

Shahpur (Kangra District). 
From Nurpur to Shahpur the road follows generally along the 
„. . , strike of the folded Siwalik conglomerate and the 

First violent ef- ° 

fects of the earth- underlying Nahan sandstones. Between these 
places the first violent effects of the earthquake were 
noticed at Siapari. 34 miles from Pathankot. Shops at road side, 
roughly built of sun-dried bricks and with heavy slate roofs, partly 
ruined. Similar effects at 37 m. 7 f., at 38 m. 4 f. and at 38 m. 6f. 
At Shahpur itself, 39 m. 5 f., there were also similar effects : perhaps 
half of the buildings ruined and the rest rent. All w r ere built of sun- 
dried bricks, roughly shaped, and sometimes with stone foundations 
raised 6 inches above ground. Slate roofs as* a rule, but sometimes 
thatch. (See plate 3, fig. 2, w T hich illustrates the end house of a row 

1 Remarks in square brackets [ ] are iny own comments. 

2 I was travelling rapidly by £on0a=mail cart. 



10 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

fallen.) The travellers' bungalow had been badly rent. It was a 
single-storied building and had a dressed-stone base and corner veran- 
dah pillars. Ihe walls were partly stone (dressed) and brick, set in 
mud mortar. The two chimneys had fallen arid crumbled irregularly. 
The slate roof, of rather low pitch on iron rafter frame, and pillars 
running round verandah had not suffered much. The end walls facing 
N. W. 5° N. and S. E. 5 C S,, just did not collapse. Cracks everywhere, 
and completely irregular, appearing through the plaster like the course 
of a river on a map. There were no clean-cut fractures. 

Beyond Shahpur, in the directions of Dharmsala and Kangra, ruin 
Country round ed and destroyed villages and hamlets were every- 

where in evidence. Most of these, including Shahpur 
itself, are situated on the flat expanses of what is the beginning of the 
Kangra valley, a broad nearly level area among the.Siwalik and Nahan 
cocks. These expanses consist of very thick sub-recent accumulations 
ot gravel, sand, alluvium and large granite boulders which begin as 
talus fans with a slope of about 1 in 10, continue over large areas with 
a slope of about I in 20, and finally mingle with one another in a nearly 
horizontal deposit. They are everywhere cut through by the present 
river and stream systems, making river cliffs of varying heights. Ex- 
cept for the large boulders, which owe their origin to the proximity of 
Geological struc, tne ni g n Dhauladhar range, the sub-recent deposits 
<l,re * of the Kangra vailey resemble those of other sub- 

Himalayan longitudinal valleys, such as thcDehraDum PatliDun, etc.; 
and their heterogeneous character and lack of cohesion as deposits must 
have greatly augmented the destructive action of the earthquake ; as also 
Destruction on must the circumstance that they are cut up into long 
■htculx subrecent! raised blocks or strips running N. E.—S. W. ? and only 
a mile or two wide, by the deeply scouring action of 
the rivers and streams of the present day, Thus W edge* in the sha** 
of river cliffs from 50 to 200 feet high are everywhere not far away. 
In contrast to the ruined villages there was no damage to the crops 

Cropi a*d trees or tr ees which presented simply an ordinary appear- 
undamag*. ance. 



KANORA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 



11 



Rehlu (Kangra District). 

The village of Rehlu, 2 miles N, E. of Shahpur, is situated at the 
Damage to vil- head of a gently sloping debris fan, like those de- 
age ' scribed in the last paragraph, of sub-recent clay and 

with boulders of Dhauladhar gneissose granite of great size and in great 
profusion. It is probably largely redistributed moraine material which 
originated in the higher snowy ridge of the Dhauladhar, rising steeply 
to the north. The damage to houses here was about equal to that at 
Shahpur. Twenty-eight persons are said to have perished in the ruins. 

The fort stands on an isolated ridge above Rehlu village and 200 — 
300 feet above the latter. (See plate 2, fig. 1.) 
Tts site also is composed of remade morainic material, 
i.e., clay and large boulders of granite, all derived from the snowy 
range above. The hill behind Rehlu Fort is composed of Nahan sand- 
stone and Siwalik conglomerate, and there are cracks in the steep hill- 
side running about N. W. — S. E. above the fort. These, I think, are 
only surface cracks, there being no evidence of anything but motion with 
gravity. The fort is a massive structure, standing four-square with 
corner octagonal towers. 

H PLAN 



Damage to fort. 




Fig. 1 



12 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE, 



A great part of the N., E, and S. towers had fallen. Also the 
house where the Rajah Azimulla Khan with one uncle, five cousins and 
twenty-eight retainers perished, A. The tower B still stood, but was 
badly fissured. C == high keep, not fallen. The N. E. wall of the 
fort showed a horizontal crack (which also passed through the towers) 
coinciding with the lowest shooting platform above where the wall was 
thinner and loopholed. 



? 



iiiiiimiimiimiiiiiiiiiiim 
iiiiiiiiiiiiiitf^^iiiliinii 




HOLE 
HWrr-rWl III. ill 



,-rrrv 



F IG . 2.— Elevation of N. E. wall. 

In the centre of this wall a great hole had been made. The wall 
just failed to rock over to the north-east. 



J— I 



Fig. 3.— Section of N. E. wall. 



Route between Shahpur and Dharmsala. 
This line of country showed intense damage to the villages, hamlets 
Intense damage an d lines of communication. The cart road, 2 
Mits in * miles S- E. of Shahpur, showed small falls of steep 

cliffs by the side of a stream-bed. Nerti village, 3 miles from Shahpur, 
was nearly all destroyed. All the upper stories had gone and most of 
the lower as well. At three and a half miles from Shahpur, where 
the road branches of! from the Kangra road and turns up the Khad 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 13 

Cliambi (winding under cliffs of talus and remade morainic material 
Road and cliff with alluvium, sometimes as much as 150 — 200 ft. 
falls - high), the road was broken away at many places 

All, however, were at steep points of the road and the destruction was 
not more than might have occurred during heavy rains. About | 
mile up stream the most recent alluvium in the bed of the valley was 
rent by little fissures running N. by E. — S. by W. Further up stream 
more and more frequent falls from the gravel banks were found at 
intervals of every hundred yards or so. 

The hamlets, Dhanotu and Dudharnb, were very badly wrecked, 

Dhanotu Dud- having & worse appearance than Nerti. At Chari we 

hamb, Chan. reached nearly the maximum of effect, the whole 

village being destroyed with the exception of one or two stronger 

buildings {e.g., the school) which were half ruined. Generally speaking 

the houses had become mere heaps of sun-dried bricks mingled 

with slates and rafters. (See plate 3, fig. 1.) Gharoh, which was only 

observed from a distance, appeared not so severely affected as Chari. 

During this journey I noticed the immunity enjoyed by the. little 

water-mills built by the banks of the streams of 

Immunity from 

damage in actual rounded rubble stone and mud mortar. No more 
unstable structures could be imagined than these 
low cabins. Their position in the very bottom of the boulder- strewn 
valleys seems to have had something to do with their preservation 
from destruction, as also with that of the heavy iron girder bridge 3j 
miles from Shahpur, built by Burn & Co. of Howrah, which remain- 
ed undamaged. In other large earthquakes such positions have by no 
means enjoyed immunity ; although the absence of much alluvium 
and the presence of loose rounded boulders may have made a difference 
in this case, the loose boulders serving (just as they do in Japanese 
foundations) to neutralise the shock. 1 



1 The Pioneer of 26th April states : — •' From Pathankot to Dharmsala there are 
hundreds of bridges, large and small, and only one was wrecked — within 2 miles of tho 
Kotwali bazar — some with fine stone arches and others with iron girders all remaining 
intact," 



j 4 M1DDLEMISS > KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

So far my route had taken me entirely across the sub-recent accumu- 
Hiil-spuraof Siwa- lations of the Kangra Valley. I next passed from 

lik and Nahan rucks. thege on tQ ^ ^^ dipping formations of the 

Siwalik and Nahan groups, as exposed in the hill-spurs running S. W. 
from Dharmsala Cantt. in the direction of Chari. At the head of the 
stream running due south to Gharoh, the strike in vertical Siwalik 
comglomerate is N. W. by N. following the general trend of the moun- 
tain inass. With the conglomerate are pale orange and greenish white 
sands and sandy shales. On the narrow ridge near 3,862 ft. point I 
Rock fissures and noticed a vertical fissure in these rocks. About £ 

loaning trees. ^^ beyond that p()int t ] ie ^fa ( mule trac k) c H m bs 

steeply up towards Dharmsala Cantt. over firmer and darker sandstone 
(Nahan sandstone). More fissures running W. N. W. — E. S- E. occurred 
in these rocks on steep places not far below the lowest cantonment 
bazar near the 5,287 ft. level. Near these fissures on steep slopes I 
noticed some of the trees in a slightly leaning condition (the lean being 
downhill), but much of this may possibly be ascribed to slow soil-cap 
movement — a common effect noticed on Himalayan slopes. 

Dharmsala. 
This hill-station, being the permanent head-quarters 1 of the Kangra 
District and summer head-quaTters of the officials 

District head- **..,- i ^ i , 

quarters and sani- of the Jullunder District, having also a Gurkha 
regiment permanently located there, and generally 
containing besides many other residents, either temporary or permanent, 
was consequently a place of considerable size and importance. Very 
fortunately the summer visitors to these hills had as yet hardly begun 
to arrive. It possessed the usual offices, barracks, public buildings, 
private dwellings and bazars such as are ordinarily found in our Indian 
hill-stations and sanitaria. The earthquake therefore found here an 
Severe destruction abundance of buildings to destroy and a crowded 
and loss of life. population who suffered with their lives. The damage 

was in fact very severe, amounting in many places to destruction whilst 



1 Removed to Nurpur after the earthquake. 



KANGRA KULU HP [CENTRAL AREA. I5 

the casualties reached a very high figure. Nevertheless, there were many 

cases of immunity to damage, or " earthquake shadows," which are of 

considerable interest. The greater part of the hill-station takes the 

form of a horse-shoe shaped ridge with the opening 

Orography and . . . 

geology of thesta- facing S. S. W. which together with other similar 
ridges and spurs in the neighbourhood constitute 
the southern lower outworks of the precipitously rising Dhauladhar 
range behind. The two free ends of the horse-shoe slope down to the 
low country whilst the middle portion is the more elevated and rises on 
one side into the Dharmkot hill, about 7,000 ft. high, which connects 
with the higher snowy range. The westerly arm of the horse-shoe is 
mostly cantonment, and the easterly, civil ; whilst private residences 
are dotted about at intervals. The whole of the station, both civil and 
military, is situated on rather soft, tertiary sandstone of Nahan age 
steeply dipping to the N. E. The damage on the free ends of the 
spurs of the horse-shoe was much greater as a whole than on the higher 
middle portion near Dharmkot and the higher parts of the Civil hill. 

It was doubtless due to the great pressure of relief work in ail its 

Paucity of local forms, falling as it did also on a civil and military 
reports - staff reduced by about one-half by death, that the 

independent evidence as furnished by the earthquake-forms is almost 
nil from Dharmsala, as also from other places near the focus of the 
earthquake. The newspaper accounts also relate very few actual 
experiences of survivors, they being mainly concerned in their lengthy 
reports with the death roll, lists of wounded, exhumations, medical, 
telegraphic and postal arrangements, and descriptions of the campaign 
carried on by the relieving bodies of all kinds. The fact that the 
earthquake took place so early in the morning when most people were 
in bed or at least indoors, also tended to reduce the number of narra. 
tive accounts. 

Dharmsala Cantonment. 
Taking first the cantonment part of the station situated, on the 

Accounts of the western spur of the horse-shoe, we have, however, 
the following imperfect narratives as to the sensa- 
tions and immediate effects of the shock or shocks. 



16 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Earthquake Form.- - Capt, C. Stansfeld, 7th Gurkha Rifles, was in the house 
known as " Suoalterns' quarters" belonging to the 1st Gurkha Rifles. Ke was 
indoors lying down in bed. Time about 6-15 (guessed). Two tremulous vibrations 
and two principal shocks, with about 3-4- seconds between the latter. The first 
shocks woke him, and he thought it was only a slight earthquake until he heard 
the roar which he diagnosed as the rumble of an earthquake shock, such as he had 
frequently heard in Shillong, Assam. It was this that made him leave, the house. 
The shocks were so intense that as he got out of his quarters, he was thrown to the 
ground and at the same time the house, consisting of four officers' quarters, 
absolutely " sat do wn " without any preliminary swayinc after the first shocks. 
The roar appeared to approach from the north-east or north. He was thrown 
down from N. W. to S. E. or W. to E. 

Verbal corroboration of the above was obtained from several other 
officers. The experiences of Major Clay, 7th Gurkha Rifles, are instruc- 
tive. He was living in " Woodside " (see p. 21), and whilst rescuing his 
little son was struck down insensible by a block of stone and partially 
buried under the debris from the chimney and wall. The continuation 
of the narrative is given in the words of the Pioneer correspondent, and 
they are quoted nearly in full as giving a vivid picture of the sudden- 
ness of the earthquake and the necessity for prompt action in cases of 
this kind to save the stunned and bruised from being suffocated : — 

When Major Clay recovered from the shock, which rendered him insensible, he 
made for the quarter -guard some distance above his house. The guard had 
' 'fallen in,' ' quietly awaiting orders. The assembly was sounded and all uninjured 
men appeared, and working parties were instantly formed under such officers as 
were unhurt. Most fortunately Major Hehir [Medical Officer], was among these., 
though one out of two hospital assistants was injured, and the other was suffering 
from shock. Both the latter, however, asked to share in the task before them. It 
had been seen that the European barracks [occupied by the 7th Gurkha Rifles] 
were wrecked, and Major Clay hurried there, disregarding his own injuries. The 
sight that met the fescue party was appalling. Some six or seven men were lying 
on the ground outside, and these seemed to be all the survivors out of over 250 
known to have been quartered within the two buildings. In spite of overhanging 
walls and buildings, which threatened to fall every moment, the officers and men 
set to work, and their efforts were well rewarded. It is calculated that over 100 
men inside the barracks were killed at once, while others who were dragged out of 
the ruins died shortly afterwards ; but many injured would have perished had not 
their comrades toiled to the point of exhaustion. It was a fight against time, and 
everyone felt this. Men who were dragged out insensible and half suffocated no 
sooner recovered their strength than they rushed back to the ruins and joined 
in the work of rescue. It is believed that at the time of the earthquake many 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 17 

were just getting ready to go out. They must have rushed towards the doors and 
been thrown back by the shock, and then been buried as the wails and roofs fell 
in. There is soarcely any case of men being found killed on their beds. 

As many of the 7th Gurkhas were in the 1897 earthquake in Assam, 
they had had experience of what a great earthquake shock was like. 

According to Subadar Khial Sing Gurung (who gave me the 
following evidence in the presence of Major Hatch, 2nd Battalion, 1st 
Gurkha Rifles) and who was an eye-witness of the earthquake, standing 
at the time on the magazine spur, — 

there was a certain order observed in the effects of the shock on the surrounding 
buildings and bazars. He said the old British Barracks and thd 1st Gurkha 
mess fell first and practically together. These were followed by McLeodganj bazar 
and then by the Kotwali bazar (both on the Civil hill opposite). Next fell the 
bazar at the S. W. end of the Cantonment spur, and lastly in the far distance 
he saw Kangra in a dust cloud. 

That the shock w T hich upset houses and bazars could be followed by 
the eye has independent testimony, and seems quite credible, but it should 
not be forgotten that the above order very nearly coincides with his 
range of vision as it would sweep round from left to right. Furthermore 
in the case of distant positions., the dust cloud, started by falling mud- 
built dwellings, would take some few seconds to ascend and materialise 
in suflicieDt volume to be visible from the position he was occupying. 
The following notes are based on my own observations : — 
The barracks occupied by the 2nd Battalion, 1st Gurkhas, were situ- 

Gurkha lines 2nd ate( * 0n *^ e ^* ^' s ^°P eS an( * s ^ e s P lirs of the main 

Battalion, 1st Gur- cantonment spur, and not far from the crest of the 
1 es ' latter. They consisted of long, single-storied build- 

ings, the principal walls being built of sun-dried bricks, and the two 
end walls of cut stone. They were roofed with thick, slates. They 
were arranged on slightly excavated sites as shown in the diagram (fig. 4.) 




o. 4 — End wall and slope. 



lg M1DDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

winch presented a cut face of soft rock behind and above, and a remade 
bank or terrace with retaining wall in front and below. The long axes 
of the buildings varied considerably in direction, but prevailing directions 
were N. — S. and N. E. — S. W., with the downward slope towards the E. 
and S. E., respectively. In all cases the two long walls had rocked over 
generally as a whole, in the downhill direction, with the exception of 
the portions immediately connected with the stone-built end walls, which 
latter stood (fig. 5). The heavy slate roof naturally collapsed with 




Fig. 5. — The dotted lines indicate fallen walls. 

the walls. All the sun-dried bricks lay approximately in position on 
the ground, but each separated from its fellows by the shock of the fall. 
Buildings in the immediate neighbourhood, such as the Armoury, 
built throughout of dressed stone, were badly cracked and rent, and 
portions, e.g., a gable end, had been flung out as a whole flat on to 
the ground. The iron- framed roof, and with tie-rods across from wall 
to wall, doubtless materially preserved the Armoury, etc., from complete 
collapse. On the other hand, a few sun-dried brick buildings with stone 
ends wherever there was not a steep slope below had also not fallen. 
The single men's quarters S. W. of the upper parade ground, and 
on the W. or N.W. slopes of the main cantonment ridge all fell as 
Gurkha lines S. regards the long walls on the down -hill side and lost 
W. of upper parade their roofs, whilst the walls on, the up-hill side re- 
mained standing. The style of building is the same 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 



19 



as before noted in tbe barracks to tbe S, of cantonment, namely, of 
sun-dried bricks as regards the long walls and with end walls of cut 
stone. Their general direction was N. E. — S. W. 

The Magazine stands on an isolated little knoll at the S. W. end of 
the cantonment ridge, and consists of a centra] 
square room very strongly built of well dressed stone 
and lime mortar. It possesses a strong and heavy arched masonry 
roof. The whole is surrounded at a few yards distance by a well built 
stone enclosure wall. The enclosure wall all fell more or less, whilst 
the building itself was undamaged save for a few cracks. 



Magazine. 




Fig. 6. — Magazine elevation. 



Fig. 7.— Plan of Magazine an. 
enclosure. 



The enclosure wall facing S. by W. fell outwards quite flat, the 
wall facing E. by 8. also fell outwards but rather inclined to the 
south, a little of the debris being inside. The N. by E. wall fell in- 
wards as a whole. Tbe W. by N. wall Cell irregularly partly inwards 
and partly outwards. This seems to give a general direction of shock 
about 8. 6. fi. or fci. Although the magazine was intact E was 
informed that the ammunition boxes inside were found fcossed 
about. 

It is clear that the heavy arched roof and the great strength and 
compact nature of the building preserved it from destruction 



20 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The Quarter Guard of 7th Gurkhas, a solid stone building with domed 
roof, also showed no damage, being of similar 

Quarter Guard. . . 

construction to the magazine. (Compare also the 
Treasury, and also the Sadr Kanungo's office and record-room on the 
civil hill which stand untouched. All were small and strong buildings 
without slate roofs.) 

This large double-storied building was solidly built of dressed stone. 
Old B Hash ^ ^ ac ^ a position on the crest of the ridge. Its de- 

struction by the earthquake was almost complete. 
The photograph (pi. 4, fig. 1) will give a fair idea of the ruins which, 
however, at the time of my visit had been considerably disturbed by 
digging parties. The long walls parallel to the ridge had almost entirely 
fallen, but many of the cross walls were standing as regards the lower 
storey. All the latter were traversed by diagonal fissures crossing one 
another and illustrating the violent rocking motion that must have been 
set up in the building as the free end of the ridge quivered under the 
shock. 

Like the old British barracks, the officers' mess house was a double- 
Officers* mess storied building, solidly constructed and situated on 
hou8e - the crest of the ridge below the British bar- 
racks. It was generally a complete ruin, although some walls and 
one or two upper rooms remained with their floors in position. 
The wine god own, a small domed detached building, was un- 
damaged. 

Many other buildings, private houses and quarters in the neighbour- 
, „ , hood were more or less demolished, with the excep- 

Other buildings, 

quarters and private tion of that occupied by Major Clay. They were 
described as crashing to the ground in a few seconds. 
The severity of the shock as experienced in Dharmsala Canton- 
C it lief ments may be gauged by the heavy casualty list 

of officers and men and their families. 
Of the 1st Gurkha Rifles all were present except the 1st Battalion. 
Its place was taken by the 7th Gurkha Rifles from Kohima on whom 
the greatest losses fell. 



KANGRA-KULU EPJCENTRAL AREA. 21 

There were: — 

Killed .- ... m . 272 (184 rank and file). 

Dangerously injured .. _ 32(31 ditto ). 

Severely injured . . „. 70 (54 ditto ). 

Slightly injured .. ... 261(188 ditto X- 

Total Casualties 635 

The following proportions among officers and their families is in- 
structive : — 

Killed .. .. .. ... .. 14 

Buried and rescued . . . . . . ... & 

Escaped . . . . . . . . . . 12 

Lieut-Col. and Mrs. Cowley were fortunately not present at the 
time, only returning on the evening of 4th. Lieutenant Skene was also 
absent. They are not included in the above figures. 

Of private houses " Woodside " presented the most remarkable in- 
_ , . , stance of immunity from the worst effects of the 

shook. Lying a little below the tennis courts it 
was surrounded on seyeral sides by higher spurs and ridges where the 
destruction to buildings was either total or very extreme. As in the 
case of other examples of immunity or f< earthquake shadows " that 
will be mentioned, it lay in a slight hollow or on a flattish slope on 
the S. E. aspect of the Cantonment hill. Its position thus was a 
favourable one, and to that was added the advantage of good building 
with good material (cut stone and lime mortar) and the fact that it 
was only one storey high. In this house whose long walls run N. 3° E. 
the worst effect was the fall of a chimney and part of the middle wall. 
There were of course also wall fissures, the prominent ones dipping E. 
at about 50° With the exception of these, the house presented to the 
eye an almost undamaged appearance, heightened by the fact that of 
the large panes of glass I foot 6 inches by 2 feet in the windows, not a 
single one was broken. This last fact, strange as it may seem, is paral- 
eled by others inDharmsala, e.g., Sessions House, Civil Hill (seep. 29). 

Due north of the upper parade ground (recently enlarged and a the 

1st Gurkha time of my visit— 18th April 1905— converted into a 

married quarters. yast ll0Spital camp) ]ics the ]st Gurkha Rifles mar- 



22 MIDDLEM1SS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

ried men's quarters, consisting of about 16 ranges of buildings run- 
ning lengthwise from N. N. E.— S. S. W. to N.— S., and situated on the 
N. W. or N. N. W. slopes of the cantonment ridge (fairly gentle slopes 
lying in a slight bay with a stream -bed running W. S. W. to Kajlot). 
The buildings are of the same nature as the ruined ones already de- 
scribed ; but in this case there was scarcely any apparent damage. All 
the walls were standing and all the roofs intact. In one range 8 win- 
dows of four panes each had not a single pane broken. This may be 
regarded as another instance of earthquake .shadow. 

Immediately below the magazine to the E, in a little bay on rather 
flat ground lie more lines of barracks (married quarters). They also 
escaped although they lie only about 200 yards away from the de- 
stroyed bazar. (See pi. 7, fig. 2.) 

The churchyard is situated near the head of the glen dividing the 
Dharmsala Cantonment from the Civil Hill. There is a steep 

Churchyard. slope of nearly 45° to the south of the churchyard 

for a .depth of 200 — 300 feet. Consequently its position near the free 
surface of a steep slope rendered it particularly unstable from the point 
of view of the earthquake. 

Nevertheless most of the tombstones, including several upstand- 
ing vertical crosses 1 and headstones,, remained unaffected by the 
earthquake. One, however, was twisted on its base, and one, the 
large, lofty and complex structure erected to the memory of the Earl 
of Elgin in 1863, had all of the upper parts fallen whilst the lower part 
was shattered. Of the gate posts one was twisted on its base, simi- 
le the tombstone mentioned above, whilst the church itself, a 
solidly built structure of cut and dressed stone, was ruined. (See pi. 

The tombstone of white marble, consisting of a cross on a pedestal, 

.■ ted to the memory of Capt. M. H. Burne, 

Royal Sussex Regiment, had been twisted round on 

its base. The base lay E. 4° S. The twisted pedestal lay E. 7° N. so 



iuggestcd that some of these may Lav.; been supported by an 
iron iod witl 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA 



23 



that the total angle through which the cross and pedestal have moved 
is 11°, the direction of movement being contrary to the hands of a 
watch. (See pi. 8, fig. 1, and fig. 8 below.) 



.--^ 



EJ*£. 



Fig. 8.— Plan. 
Ihe gate pillars at the W. entrance are about 10 feet high. One of 
Entrance gate these was twisted on its base through an angle of 

pillars. 11° in the opposite direction to the hands of a watch 

just as in the case of the- tombstone. (Figs. 9 and 10.) 



(\o 




Fig. 9. 



2-i 



MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 




JKM* 



■. 



Fig. 10.— Plan. 

Also about i way up the pillar from the base there was a hor: 
zontal crack and a similar twisting movement just begun. The other 
gate pillar had gone 1 foot or so in the other direction and been pushed 
eastwards (there was, however, a decided lean of the pillar as a 
whole in that direction). The gate posts at the east entrance were 
simply horizontally cracked along the comers with no decided move- 
ment. 

The three horizontal courses of stone making np the body of Lord 

Lard Elgin's Elgin's tomb had shifted differentially, generally 

Tomb. towards N. W. indicating- a thrust of the shock from 

N. W. — S. E. On the S. face and on the E. face the amount of the 

shift was a3 follows : — 





Fig. 11. — S. face. Fig- 12,— E. face. 

These two resolved amounts of shift indicate a true direction of total 

shift of N. 36° W. 



KANGRA-KULU JPICtfNTRAL AREA. 25 

The fall of the superstructure of slender pillars and cross appears 
to have been somewhat irregular — 

1 pillar fell nearly N. 
1 „ „ ,» E. 
1 „ „ „ S. E. 
1 „ „ „ W. S. W. 

The cross itself fell about S. E. by S. All the debris, however, was 
much mixed up with that from the E. end of the church. 

The three-stepped stone platform of the tomb was fissured in N. 
and S. lines both on the W. and E. sides, whilst en the S. side the 
middle step had parted from the one below. The whole platform 
some 12 feet across, seemed to have been buckled under a bending 
strain. It was quite near to the edge of the ravine. 

The church, a solidly built structure of good dressed stone and lime 
Dharmsala mortar, lies due E. — W. It is a complete ruin, such 

Church. walls as remain partially standing being fissured, 

bo that entire rebuilding will be necessary. The view (.pi. 10, fig. 1) 
showing the church before the shock, 1 and that of the ruin (pi. 4, 
fig. 2) will give an idea of the general effect of the shock. The tower 
at the W. end had scattered its debris all round the base but chiefly 
towards the south, where also the greatest breaking down had occurred 
to the S. wall, whereas the N. wall up to the eaves, though fissured 
was still standing at the time of my visit ( 16th April 1905 ), twelve 
days after the earthquake. 

The heavy stone cross from the top of the east end of the church 
had fallen almost 4ue S. (2 feet further east). Its horizontal projec- 
tion was 374 feet, its vertical distance about 32 feet. The former 
was directly measured with a tape, the latter was an estimate formed 
from the approximate number ( 77 ) of the courses of stone of about 5 
inches each. In the latter estimate the uppermost 10 or so courses 
had to be guessed as they were not left in position. It will be noticed 
that the greatest damage on the S. side of the church corresponds to 



1 1 am indebted to Mrs. Ballard of Palampur for this view. 



25 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

the direction of the free edge of the steep slope below the churchyard 
already mentioned. The tower and east end wall were fissured diago- 
nally like the walls of the British barracks, showing strains due to 
rocking about its long axis, and drag of the falling long walls. 

The bazar at the S. W. end of the cantonment ridge was a oom- 
ii, S. W. end plete ruin, but not utterly destroyed. Many walls 
of Cantonment. we re still standing especially those (see pi. 5, fig. 1) 

on the upper side of the slope. 

Forsythganj bazar lies about N. — S., the S. end beginning in a 
Foisythganj little bay along the E. slopes of the cantonment 

bazar - ridge. It consists of a double row of shops with 

the road dividing them, the buildings being constructed in the usual 
way, partly of sun-dried bricks especially in the lower stories and partly 
of wood especially in the upper stories and verandahs. Heavy slate 
roofs with a low pitch were everywhere apparent ( see pi. 7, fig. 1). 
The view 13 taken from the south, and it shows the N. end of th8 
bazar all down, at the S. end also the shops on the E. side of the 
road are all in ruins, whereas those on the W. side of the road are 
many of them still standing. The site especially at the N. end of the 
bazar was a bad one on slipping surface debris of Nahan sandstones 
and 3hales ; that to the E. of the road had a bad slope down hill, 
whilst only where the shops stood which were preserved from the 
earthquake was the site good. It seems to have b^en another case 
of an earthquake shadow occurring in the angle of the little bay 
already referred to. 

Dharmsala Civil Hill. 

Whilst some few private residences on the higher slopes, e.g., " Wel- 
come Hall" have not utterly collapsed, though rent, fissured and 
half ruined — as was also the case with some few houses on the higher 
slopes of the cantonment hili— -McLeodganj bazar half-way down the 
spur, the very large Kotwali bazar at the S. and lowest end of the 
3pur, and most of the surrounding private residences were perhaps 
more completely destroyed than anything on the cantonment hill. The 
nvortaiity also seems to have been somewhat greater in proportion, and 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 27 

the accounts of those saved show a shade less time for escape between 
the beginning of the earthquake and the fall of houses. 

We have the following accounts of the shock and its attendant 

Accounts of the phenomena derived from local sources. A native 

shock. correspondent in the Pioneer of 11th April wrote : — 

The vast majority of residents were abed at the time and got crushed in 
the ruins. The houses lurched forward with violence and came down as if they 
were made of cards, those left standing collapsing with the back movement. 

Rescue and exhumation went on during the day under Rajindar Pal, the 
only Magistrate left alive. 

At riight the scene was weird in the extreme. The wretched and grief - 
stricken survivors huddled themselves together in the open near the dak bunga- 
low, made piles of timber extracted from the debris and set fire to them to keep 
away the cold, while at some distance from them the dead lay burning on funeral 
pyres. Every second or third hour there was a shock, although not very severe 
and a roar like the boom of cannon. 

An eyewitness states in the Englishman of 15th April — 

The morning was calm and beautiful, and then in a moment with two fearful 
lurches every house collapsed amid the thunder of falling rocks, roar of the 
falling ratters and waUs and the thousand shrieks for mercy, confusion and terror 
and death. 

Mrs. Loxton's bearer related : — Our houses fell down. With difficulty we 
managed to get to the sahib's house only to find it fallen. The sahib in rushing 
out had been thrown back into a corner and was killed, and we could hear the 
memashib calling. Being guided by her voice, and after digging for what seemed 
like hours with our hands, for we had nothing else to dig with, we found her 
kneeling by her bed with stones and rubbish on her baek, her head was cut 
and bleeding and her face and bcdy much bruised. Her leg was broken. We 
wrapped her up in blankets and took her up to friends. 

In the Pioneer of 19th April, the Dharmsala correspondent, wrote 
referring to this part of the station : — 

It seems to be generally admitted by the survivors that a slight preliminary 
tremor was felt, followed by a sharp shock from north to south, with a still severer 
one in the opposite direction. There was a rumbling sound* which added to the 
terror inspired by the violent rocking of the ground. Mr. Longe, Assistant 
Engineer, was writing at a table in his bedroom placed against a door leading 
into a larger room when he first felt the earthquake. * * * * * 
He with his wife and two children escaped through the window amidst falling 
masonry and beams, and in clouds of dust. 

Mr. Williams, engineer to the local board, with his wife and two daughters 
had an extraordinary escape. He made several vain efforts to open the door 



2 g M1DDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

of the room in which he was standing, but the rocking of the house was so great 
that he could hardly stand. He got out at last into the passage to find his wife 
and daughters practically imprisoned in another room, the door of whioh was also 
difficult to open. They also reached the passage and the whole party rushed 
under an arch as the final crash came-. They saw one main watt fall outwards, 
thus opening out an avenue of escape across the debris* They reached the open 
air uninjured, though suffering from shock. The whole affair was a question of 
seconds and the arch undoubtedly saved them, as the house was wrecked. 

The E)iglishman of 10th April has the following from Lahore : — 

The experience of Mr. Horn an, one of the survivors-, is probably characteristic 
of them all ; he felt a shock and rushed for the door ; he had only just reached 
the doorway when the roof of a room fell in. At the same instant his two child- 
ren, sleeping in an adjoining room, were killed by the fall of tj>e roof. His wife- 
and baby had a marvellous escape, a great beam from the ceiling fell slantwise 
across the cot on which the baby was sleeping ; Mrs. Homan having rushed from 
her own bed to protect the baby when the first shock awakened her. 

Thus also the Pioneer of 10th April : — 

A native barrister, who has arrived in Lahore from Dharmsala, reports that 
the only building he observed intact was the domed strong room of the Treasury. 
This survivor had a narrow escape. His house came down before he had time to 
get out, but fortunately by the position in which a beam fell saved him from 
instant death. His cries for help were heard by two servants, and he was extri- 
cated uninjured. He borrowed some money and in his torn clothes walked to 
Shahpur, where he got an ekka to take him to Pathankot. 

Earthquake Form. — Nadir Nowrojee JLhujooria of McLeodganj bazar wrote 
that he was indoors on the 3rd floor facing the road, sitting at an office table 
writing. Time 6-10 by clock found afterwards stopped. The time is telegraph 
time. There were three shocks. Tremulous vibrations, like the rustling of leaves of 
trees preceded the 2nd shock. The interval between the shocks was a little over a 
minute. The direction of the shocks from goods which were hanging on the walls 
was first E. — W. The second shock collapsed the walls. No sound was heard 
before, but a shrill high note as if something was passing through the leaves of 
trees preceded the second shock. He noticed the upheaval of foundation stones 
and no side pressure. Parapet walls, etc., seemed twisted by some strong power. 
My own observations of the ruins are as follows : — 

McLeodganj bazar is situated on a very narrow portion of the Civil 
McLeodganj ridge forming a low saddle. The slopes descend 

bazar. very steeply on each side. The whole bazar was 

levelled to the ground with no buildings standing, even partially (see 
pi. 5, fig. 2}. Messrs. Framjee & Co.'s shop, a high building perched 
on the west face of the ridge, had also utterly collapsed, as also 



KANGRA-XtnjJ EPiCENTRAL AREA. 2U 

bad the Switzer Hotel a short way further south. The. devastation 
was so intense in this bazar, and the confusion of building material so 
complete that beyond the fact that the collapse was as perfect as 
could be, there is nothing more to be said. 

The same remarks apply to the very large Kotwali bazar, situated 
low down on the Civil ridge, which was also com- 

Kotwali bazar. , • ■■■ ' . m 

pletely levelled as regards the shops and native 
houses. The site of this immense bazar was not in fact merely a 
ruin but a thick deposit of house-rubbish some five feet high through 
which it had been necessary to cut out roaols and lanes for rescue and 
salvage operations. Plate 6, fig. 1, will give some idea of the appear- 
ance of the eastern half of this convulsed jumble of what had once 
been a busy town. 

The jail site was badly fissured, and a drop of about 10 ft. took 
place along a line parallel to those made by subsi- 
dences of the ground during previous years which 
damaged the jail site and led to its being condemned (see pi. 6, fig. 2). 
This drop of 10 ft. had cut through buildings and water channels and 
also through what was the wall of the jail compound. The latter 
-presented a curious appearance as it had become simply a rampart of 
loose blocks of stone. Both it and the subsidence clifl are seen in the 
photograph. Other minor subsideDces and fissures extended along 
the slope towards the west. 

The Sessions House, a heavv stone building, south of McLeodganj 
The Sessions bazar, had a portion of the walls still standing. One 

House. window frame vertically projecting out of the debris 

had a large number o"f panes unbroken. The ridge is very narrow here. 
The following private dwellings are only mentioned as being illustra- 
tive and not exhaustive. The first, situated on the 

Private dwellings. 

higher and broader part of the Civil Hill overlook- 
ing Bagsu JSath temple, is north of McLeodganj bazar. The other 
three are all south of that place : — 

" Welcome Lodge " was not an absolute ruin, but was severely fis- 
sured and partly destroyed. 

" Cedar House," a double -storied building, beautifully situated 
among green lawns and deodar pines, had utterly collapsed, and was 



30 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE 

simply a heap of stones with window frames and rafters projecting from 
the untouched debris. 

" Mortimer Cottage," also a double-storied building near by, was in a 
very similar condition. 

11 Bryn " stood on a very steep-sided spur, and as a consequence not 
only was this solidly built, single-storied stone house ruined (see pi. 8, 
fig. 2), but there were also fissures in the ground 3 — 6 inches wide, opened 
lengthwise parallel to the crest of the ridge. There were as many as 
20 or 30 of these on each side of the house. 

As compared with other steeper hillsides, neither the Cantonment 
Fissures in the hil] nor the Civil hill showed much in the way of 
earth fissures. Such fissures as appeared on the 
steeper ridge crests and the slopes on each side were frequently parallel 
to the present contour lines. On the crest of the Cantonment ridge in 
the steeper parts they consequently ran N. W. — S. E. especially above 
and below the parade ground, whereas along the cart road on the S. E. 
slopes of the higher parts of the same hill they ran N. E. and S. W. 

From the Cantonment hill, the steep scarps north of Bhag Devi 
(about 5 miles W. N. W. of Dharmsala) could be seen to be in- 
terrupted by frequent large landslips. 

Other prominent fissures on the Civil hill have been noticed in the 
previous descriptions. 

Naddi village, situated on a spur N. W. of the Dal lake, and which 

„.., ., ., is one of the ofishoots of the Dharmkot hill, was 

Hillsides and vil- 
lages N. and N. E. only about half damaged. Travelling round the N. 
of Dharmsala. s ^ e f Db arm kot hill from this village one looks 

across a wide valley which descends westerly from the saddle uniting 
Dharmkot hill with the higher ridges beyond to the N. This valley and 
saddle roughly mark the line of that great structural feature of the 
whole Himalayan range known as the main boundary fault 1 which 
separates the Nahans and other younger tertiary rocks from the older 
Himalayan series composed of slates and limestones. Across the valley 
and about one mile away several hamlets with crowded houses were 

1 See Mem. G. S. of I., Vols. Ill, XXlV, pt. 2, and XXVI. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 31 

visible, perched on the hillsides which slope steeply to the S. Very 
little apparent damage had been caused to these, certainly much less 
than to Naddi. The walls and roofs were standing as a rule. In a 
hamlet of 8 houses I could only see one house half damaged ; its upper 
storey having collapsed. That hamlet is N. by E. of Naddi. Others 
N. and N. N. W. of Naddi were equally undamaged. 

As these villages are quite close to the actual main boundary fault, 
it seems certain, even if we had no other evidence, that the shock did 
not originate actually along that feature just here. Beyond these 
hamlets further N. the ridge rises steeply and becomes forest-covered, 
with snow lying here and there. There were no more villages visible 
in this direction. But near the saddle already mentioned joining 
Dharmkot and the higher ridges, and a short way to the N. of the 
main-boundary fault, there were hamlets of from 4 — 5 houses which 
showed no damage or scarcely any. In the Dharmkot group of hamlets 
lying in the valley running S. E. from the gap the same remarks 
hold good for the greater part of the little group, but towards the 
S. E. end in. the lower parts of the valley some damage was discernible. 

Bagsu Nath temple, N. E. of the Civil hill in the valley descending 
from Dharmkot, was apparently undamaged. Also the slate quarry 
bungalow near it, and many hamlets further up the valley showed only 
1 house in 8 somewhat damaged. 

Kangra Town. 

Because the. direct road from Dharmsala to Kangra was interrupted 

Road between by numerous slips not yet reparied, it was necessary 

Dharmsala and f or rapid travelling by tonga to return to Chari and 

to the Khad Chambi, and from there continue along 

the main road from Pathankot to Kangra, where it follows a very 

nearly straight course along the wide and open Kangra Valley. This 

road was broken at many places, especially wherever it makes a V- 

shaped curve up-stream under gravel cliffs at each river crossing. A 

raised embankment of earth and stones leading to the bridge at one 

of these crossings was also shaken to pieces, leaving only a narrow 



32 MIDDLEM1SS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

knife-edge, difficult eveq, for pedestrians. No bridges, however -were 

broken. Near Kangra a few boughs' of tree* in the lont$ avenue were 

occasionally found detached, but only in the case of those already 

weakened by decay. There were no examples of tree trunks having 

been snapped across as in the Assam earthquake of 1'897. Nevertheless 

every village without exception was destroyed, and appeared as a mere 

rubbish heap disfiguring the landscape. 

Kangra Bhawan lies at the southern edge of the gravel and alluvial 

plain, just where the Siwalik conglomerate and asso- 
Kangra Bhawan. . . . 

elated sand-rock and shales emerge from under it, 

dipping gently at about 10° to the north-east. Further south again 

stretches old Kangra and the Fort, the former situated on a gravel 

terrace and the latter on a narrow neck of rock. Just below this is the 

meeting place of two main streams chaining the country north and 

east. They run in deep gorges cut through rock and gravels, and 

present innumerable free cliff surfaces, several hundred feet high, which 

must have been a most potent factor in magnifying the earthquake 

effects. 

No earthquake-forms have reached me from Kangra, owing to the 
deaths of officials. The following account, extracted from the Pioneer 
of 20th April, gives a vivid picture of the destruction wrought in the 
town : — 

looking tip from the camping ground to the low and beautifully wooded hill 
upon which tho town and temples stood, one could not see any sign of buildings, 
but among the trees there was a gleam of yellow light reflected from the roof oi 
the Xangra Bhawan or Golden Temple. 1 On the ridge still higher some heaps 
of masonry showed where Mr. Seiston's house and the missionary buildings were 
lying wrecked ; and following the road to the town one came within a hundred 
yards of significant signs of devastation. Immediately on the right was all that 
remained of the Municipal Dnp3nsAry, and near by on the same side was the 
Thana, with the Treasury buildings on the left. The last two had been solidly 
built with cut stone walls, and heavy beams and roofs. They had been literally 
shivered and the masonry disintegrated. An old masonry bridge had been 
broken up. It was little larger than a culvert, and was the first I had seen 
broken from Shahpur to Kangra. Following the road leading to the temple we 
had evidence on every hand of the earthquake. Not a house was standing, and 

* Correctly known as the temple of Bajresari or Vagreswari Devi. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 33 

the flatness of the ruins was terribly impressive. Passing among the ruins we 
came out above the wreckage of the great temple itself. A confused mass of 
masonry lay below. The thick walls were rent, small shrines broken up and only 
one miniature temple (sikra) left, and even this had been partly thrown down, 
and was standing tilted over at a sharp angle. The golden roof «nd cupola were 
resting on the ruins, some of the gilded 'metal plates having been broken off by the 
shock, but the roof as a whole not having lost its distinctive shape (see frontispiece). 
The thickness of the walls was enormous, as the temple was most strongly 
built, and yet the masonry was. shattered as if the structure had been weakly 
constructed. Below the temple we saw masses of ruins. These marked the site 
of the houses used for the reception of pilgrims and they have yet to yield up 
their dead. Those who perished there must have died instantaneously, for the 
debris is even now an almost impenetrable mass. The very height of these houses 
caused their fall to be appalling. Treasure and jewels, worth several lakhs of 
rupees, are said to be under the temple ruins, and the recovery of these will be 
attempted later. For the Kangra Bhawan was a most sacred place, pilgrims from 
even distant Southern India ooming to visit it. Ranjit. Singh once came to the 
temple, it is said ; while long before, 900 years ago, its riches attracted Mahmud 
of Ghazni, who plundered Nazarkote, as it was then called, carrying away the 
great idol and an immense store of treasure. 

From the site of the temple we passed upwards, still climbing among the 
trees until the broad paved way led us past the Amritsar Mission School houses 
and playground. The buildings were well constructed of stone, but were now 
mere piles of debris. Then the or est of the hi ill was reached. Here lay the smaller 
. temple of Devi utterly wrecked and the remains of the Mission Church with its 
bell lying among the shattered masonTy. The church and temple had stood side 
by side and their ruins were mingled. Lower down on the crest was the Mission 
House where the Rev. Mr. Rowlands, Mrs. Decauble and Miss Lorbeer were killed. 
One can see the verandah where the two ladies were sitting at the time the earth- 
quake occurred, and the suddenness of the shock is proved by the fact that they 
were unable to escape. Here on the crest can be seen long narrow fissures run- 
ning east and west (see pi. I, fig. 2). Big branches have been broken from the banian 
and peepul trees, while the cactus plants also show signs of damage. Fol- 
lowing the fissures upwards we found that they became more marked at the high- 
est point of the ridge, where the Sessions House 3tood on a small • plateau, bufr 
they were never more than four or fiVe inches in width* The soil, too, is rather 
loose, so they may not extend to any depth. The Sessions House was a large 
stone building commanding a magnificent view all over the Kangra. Valley. It 
was completely destroyed, being almost instantaneously shaken from its founda- 
tions and crumbling to pieces. One need not refer again to the lives lost here* for 
the story is too pitiful. 

South-west, on the lower spur, Kangra fort lies utterly wrecked. It stood in 
an isolated position overlooking the slope to the north-east . on which were a 
cluster of houses of old Kangra. These lie wrecked almost hidden amongst tue 

D 



34 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE, 



trees. Great landslips have occurred along the road which winds down the hill- 
side totally obliterating the track in some parts while other slips threaten, for 
these low hills about Kangra are made up of clay, rounded boulders and conglo- 
merate rocks easily displaced, and heavy rain would bring down masses of earth 
and trees. 

Such is the scene now presented at Kangra, but one's imagination cannot picture 
the horrors of trie actual calamity on the morning of the earthquake and those 
which followed before help arrived. There wag no one left alive who could direct 
operations for rescuing the people buried in the ruins or succouring those who 
had been maimed and were yet alive. All the subordinate officials were killed. 
No European was within reach and the people fled panic-stricken fearing that 
yet worse terrors would envelope them. 

My own observations generally corroborate the above, and I am 
Overthrown ob- able to add a few more details especially with refer- 
,octs * ence to overthrown objects. The following descrip- 

tion, which appeared in my preliminary account, may advantageously 
be reproduced here. 

The old European cemetery at Kangra Bhawan lies in the middle 
of a flat plain, and at the time of my visit exposed a number of 
rectangular masonry pillars, overturned or broken with more regularity 
of direction than I have seen elsewhere (see fig. 13). They comprise :— 





H=H,, 


i~ -;- 


/ 

/i 

/ 9 

/ \ 






xk 

- ■ -1 

f l 9 




x // 

9 

/s 

/"? 





(A) 



(C) 



(B) 
Fig. 13. 

(A) Two small, rectangular upright tombs, 3 ft. high, by 1J ft. 

square. Fallen as a whole towards N. E. 

(B) A pair of gate-pillars, of dressed stone and lime-mortar out- 

side, with rubble within, 5 ft. high by 2y l 7 ft. square. 
Fallen as a whole, one towards E. 25° N. and one towards 
W 20° S. (i.e., nearly in opposite directions), 
pair of piller-like tombs, constructed like the gate- 
pillars, b\ ft. high by 3J ft. square. Not upset as a 
whole, but shattered above the base into fragments. 



(C) A 



KANGRA KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 35 

Using West's simplified formula for determining the acceleration of 
the wave particle, a formula wnicu has stood the test of much experi- 
mental proof, we have : — 

1 x 

where x *s half diameter of the base and y = the height of the centre 
of gravity. 

Then, in the three cases above, we have as follows : — 

For (A) / = greater than 11§ ft. per sec. per sec. 
.For (B)/=* about 13 ,. „ 

For (C)/'= less than 19 „ 

Since in the case of (A) both bodies were upset towards the direc- 
tion of shock, and in the case of (B) one towards and one away from 
that direction, whilst in the ease of (C) they were not upset at all, we 
may deduce a rate certainly between ] If and 19, and probably near 
13 ft. per sec. per sec. for the acceleration of the wave particle at 
Kaugra. 

But according to Prof. Omori, the formula : — 

where 2c is the double amplitude or range of motion of the overturn- 
ing edge, will yield a limiting value for the amplitude oJ the earth 
vibrations in the case of short periods where the pillar is over- 
turned towards the direction of impulse. Using it we obtain the 
result, 

a = 9 J inches, 

an amplitude which is large, but not excessive in the case of soft 
ground near the epicentre of a great earthquake. 



1 Seismological Journ. of Japan, Vol. XVIII, p. 120 (1893). 

d2 



36 



MIDDLEM1SS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Using this value for a in the general formula 

a 






f 



4 * 2 a 



where t is the period of the wave and v the maximum velocity of the 
earth particle, we can obtain values of t and v. We thus have alto- 
gether : — 

Acceleration /== 13 ft. per sec per sec 

Amplitude a as 9f inches. 

Velocity # = 3i ft. per second. 

Period t = 1 * seconds. 

On the other hand, by using Prof. Omori's second formula for the 
case of a pillar overturned in the forward direction when the period of 
motion is comparatively long, and applying it to the second of the pair 
of gate-pillars overturned away from the direction of shock, we get :— 

y8g y {l—cos ») 
3 cos 2 $ 
where $ is the angle between a vertical side and the diagonal of the 
pillar. That is : — 

v& 3*87 ft. per second, 
a value which is sufficiently near the one previously obtained by the 
other method to be corroborative of it 

In the same cemetery also a large flat slab, 4 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 
and 4 in. thick had moved 4 in. towards N. 60° E. (Fig. 14.) 



PLAN 



N60E 



SECTION 




Fig. 14. 



fcAUGBA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 



37 



Temples 
Sikras. 



A pair of Suttee pillars, about 6 ft. by 3 J f t. near the cemetery had 
Suttee Pillai3. fallen E. by N. They were situated on a little ridge, 
^ d but fell diagonally to its length and to cracks in the 
ridge. There- were also a number of other little 
temples and shrines generally in the form of simple sikras like that 
depicted in pi. 2, fig. 2, which have been tipped up at an angle, shifted 
horizontally, or otherwise moved. The following vertical section (after 
Pergusson) of a typical sikra, or stumpy convex spire belonging to early 
Hindu temple art, will show the general nature of such rather stable 
and w % ell built structures. They are always erected over idols or other 
representations of the deity and are very numerous in Kangra and the 
valley parts of Kulu. They are about 15 to 20 ft. high. (Fig. 15.) 




Fig. 15. 

The old cemetery near the N. E. gate of the fort had suffered but 

Kangra fort cem- little damage. The walls and tombs were standing 

e ter y« as a rule. One cross had snapped, but the pieces had 

been picked up and put aside by the gardener. Other .square upright 



3g MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

tombs had horizontal cracks. One flat slab o[ stone had shifted i inch 
towards E. 3° S with a trace of twisting. 

The roads in the neighbourhood of Kangra wherever they pass 
alone the edge of a river-bed, and especially when 

Roads ; Bridge. , * . . ' ,,.-*, 

they pass up the mam river-beds under elms of sub- 
recent gravel or of Siwalik conglomerate, had been much broken away ; 
and at the time of mj" visit (24th April) were only just becoming 
passable for small vehicles. The large iron girder bridge with stone 
piers, which crosses the river just below old Kangra, and is elevated 
40 ft. above the river, had only suffered damage to the towers which 
rise from the piers. These had generally fallen towards the east. 

Route from Kangra to Dera Gopipur. 

This journey was made in two stages, and whilst at Dera Gopipur 
I visited Jawalamukhi returning the same day. The country lies in 
the heart of the Siwalik formation and is characterised by long 
parallel ranges of conglomerate, sand-rock and shales, striking N. W. — 
S. E., and with long dip-slopes facing N. E. and scarps facing S. W. 
as a rule, the" angle of dip increasing from 10° to 40°. This traverse 
well illustrated the rapid dying-out of the effects of the earthquake 
in this direction, for when Dera Gopipur was reached all visible signs 
of damage to buildings had ceased. Within this small radial distance 
we descend through the 10, 9 and 8 isoseismals 

Dauiatpur, the first considerable village met with on the way, 

differed in no material respects from Kangra itself 
Dauiatpur. 

The bazar had been completely destroyed, and the 

main road traversing it had to be re-cut through the debris. This 

and a Devi shrine, a simple sibra rolled over on its side, are well 

depicted in the view (see pi. 2, fig. 2). As regards the latter the heavy 

and solid superstructure had doubtless crushed the foundations before 

it toppled over into the road. 

Two large lopped trees within a few miles of Dauiatpur had fallen, 

one 8. 12° W. and the other N. W. They had scarcely any roots 

and were probably in a dying condition. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 39 

The few houses constituting the bazar at Ranital, lying in a line, 
had suffered at both ends ot the row. The post 

Ranital bazar. * 

office and another shop had collapsed. The pilgrims' 
rest-house and other long ranges of buildings below xhe bazar had 
their slate roofs twisted and buckled, and the same is true of others 
roofed with thatch. Otherwise they were comparatively uninjured. 
The travellers' bungalow was badly rent, and portions of the upper 
walls had fallen. This damage was partly influenced by the steep 
little hill on^ which the bungalow is perched, and partly by the fact 
that although the building is of cut stone, mud mortar had been used 
inside the walls, only their outer face being pointed with lime mortar. 

It will be seen that the intensity of the earthquake, as represent- 
ed by house damage, declined with extreme rapidity between Daulat- 
pur and Ranital. Whilst the former place resembled Kangra, the 
latter was the equivalent of Shahpur in this respect. 

On the way to Dera Gopipur the first-half of the' journey of 14 
^ _ . miles still showed considerable damage to the 

Dera Gopipur. • 

numerous hamlets, walls having fallen away or huge 
fissures appeared in them here and there. During the second-half of 
the distance where there was not so much slate roofing, and where 
tiles of light construction and thatch roofs began to be common there 
was but little damage. Tiles had fallen and been replaced, and there 
were some good cracks. Beyond this point at Paisa, and thence to 
Dera Gopipur there was no visible damage. A close scrutiny of the 
travellers' bungalow at the latter place showed merely a few minute 
cracks in corners, etc., where the whitewash had parted. Although the 
postmaster described the shock as having been of extreme severity 
here, the undamaged and of course habitable bungalow, and the 
ordinary every-day appearance of the pretty little town showed that it 
must, as regards intensity of the shock, be ranked with Nurpur. 

The Mangra tower, an old militar post some miles away on. the 
western of the two routes to Ranital, was visited by me on my 
return journey. Tt is situated on a steep ridge and had portions of 
the central cKitagonal tower crumbled away irregularly, whilst the 



40 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

whole of this lofty, old and heavy structure was seamed with old 
and new vertical cracks, all more evident at the summit of the walls. 
Jawalamukhi lies east of Dera Gopipur and at the base of and 
T . on the slopes of the scarp rising about 2,000 ft. 

Jawalamukhi. r i e> 

above the valley which runs N. W. to Ranital. The 
damage done is chiefly to the part of the town resting on the slopes 
(see pi. 11, fig. 2) and is about equal to that at Ranital and Shahpur. 
The celebrated temple had not suffered much, and the inflammable gas 
given off by the springs in the latter, I was told, had not been 
affected. But it was universally admitted that the water flowing 
down the ravine from springs had been doubled in volume. A large 
bell of bronze, weighing more than 18 maunds (of 40 seers) had fallen 
W. S. W- On the way to Jawalamukhi from Dera the damage made 
itself apparent by gradual stages, but there was very little serious 
damage until the slopes of the hill were reached. 

Route from Kangra to Palampur. 
This route, as far as Malan, passes along the flat Kangra Valley, 
composed as before of sub-recent gravels, etc. It then runs S. E. for 
a few miles between two ridges of Siwalik sandstone and then along 
the flat valley deposits to Palampur. The villages on the way, in- 
cluding Nagrota and Malan, were nearly equal to Kangra in point of 
destruction. Two stone bridges across the streams between Kangra 
and Nagrota were broken, and diversions and new bridges had been 
constructed. The Malan bridge, a stone arch, was intact, but the 
raised approach to it was shaken to pieces. 

Palampur. 
The pretty little town of Palampur with its surrounding Tea 
Estates suffered grievously from the earthquake. Its site on a long 
N — S. terrace of pub -recent gravels stretching from the foot of the 
higher mountain range out into the plains, and with a steep cliff on the 
west leading to the bed of the Maul Khad resembled that of the Kofc- 
wali bazar, and doubtless caused a local magnification of the surface 
effects. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 41 

A few accounts have come to hand from Palampur. Captain 
McKechnie, I. M.S., is reported as estimating that about 100 lives 
were lost at Palampur and 10 — 20 per cent, in the surrounding villages. 

A letter from Mr. Millar, I.C.S., which appeared in most of the 
newspapers, described his narrow escape. He was staying in the 
travellers' bungalow vvith the Raja of Mandi : — 

He was awakened by bricks and plaster falling on his head and ribs. He 
took refuge under the bed and then the roof fell in. He* was pinned down by 
the bed which broke, but his servant hearing his cries came in and extricated him. 
They then went and got the Raja out of his room. The latter was buried 
under bricks and timber and had a marvellous escape as the whole place fell 6 
minutes after getting him out. 

Mr. F. Ballard's son was similarly buried, tut for a considerable period of 
time, and Dr. Owen had to use artificial respiration for an hour. 

Earthquake Form.— "Mr. A. N. Macbean of Clachnacuddin Tea Estate reported 
three shocks, the second longer and more violent, than the first, and from the 
north-east or east. The third seemed a sudden jerk from north-east and back 
again. He himself had a narrow escape, being protected by a window of a wall 
which did not fall. 

My own observations showed that the bazar and station had 
Bcazar and public suffered not quite so severely as lower Dharmsala 
buildings. and Kangra (see pi. 9, fig. 2). There were the 

relics of several houses standing, also the post office, which was still 
partly in use! But the other public buildings, such as the court-house, 
sessions houst, school and church, were total ruins, though portions 
of the walls still stood. A number of small crosses in the church- 
yard were standing uninjured as at Dharamsala, only one flat slab 
having been slightly moved. 

The church (see pi. 10, figs. 2 and 3) * had the arches on the 

north side of the central aisle all down, whilst those 

of the south side were standing. The west end of 

the church (which had only a small bell-tower) was much broken, and 

the eaSt end remained as depicted in pi. 10, fig. 3. It should be 

noted that the steep cliff down into the Maul Khad was in the near 

1 I am also indebted to Mrs Ballard for the photograph of this church before the 
bhock. 



42 MIDDLEMISS : KANGEA EARTHQUAKE, 

proximity of the west end of the church. The heavy stone cross from 
the summit of the east gable -end of the chancel was found on the 
ground to the south a horizontal distance of 27 feet 4 inches from its 
original position. The pedestal of the same was 4 feet away to the 
north-east of the cross. The indentation on the ground made by the 
falling cross was, however, only 21 feet 10 inches horizontally from its 
original position. The original height of the cross in place was 37 feet 

1 inch as determined with an Abney's level. The pedestal of another 
cross from the east gable-end of the nave was found on the ground 
to the north 22° E., the horizontal distance being 24 feet 3 inches. The 
height from which it came can only be guessed from the appearance 
of the photograph of the church before the earthquake. It was about 
46 feet. Both the pedestals can be detected in the photograph.* 

The tea factories near Palampur were ruined, most of the walls and 
roof being down and the machinery buried and 

Tea Faciories. 

considerably damaged. 
One of the most striking local efiects of the earthquake as witness- 
lAndslros and ec * near Palampur, was the column of black dust 
dust cloud, Neogal which appeared ascending from the precipitous 
Gorge slopes of the Dhauladhar range at the head of the 

Neogal Gorge. On the 28th and 29th April, some days before my visit 
to Palampur and whilst at Kangra, I had noticed the above-mentioned 
dark grey cloud ascending rather like smoke from the ravines below. The 
appearance lasted for several hours, but was most distinct between 
10 and 11 a. m. The snow of the ridges near could be seen to be 
covered, and almost black with the fallen particles. On arriving at 
Palampur I found there was a certain amount of disquietude among the 
inhabitants as to what the cloud might portend. With the assistance 
of Mr. Ballard who knew the locality and also along with Captain 
McKechnie, T.M.S., I visited the Neogal Gorge and penetrated as near to 
the scene of the phenomenon as we could get. This took us well among 
the older slates and quartzites of the higher range. From^the summit 
of a side spur 4 or 5 miles N. N. E. of Palampur, marked 8,256 ft. on the 

2 inch = l mile map, and about 3,500 feet above the bed of the gorge 






KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 



43 



we could see and watch clearly the scarred surface of the rock from 
which the pufis of dust arose at intervals (fig. 16). It was evidently a 




Fig. 16. 

Ghief slips marked (X). 

A— B 8,256 ft. spur, 
steep precipice among the older rocks at the head of the gorge due N. 
of our 'position, many thousands of feet high on which landslips and fis- 
sures, originally started by the earthquake, were still in action, helped 
by the melting of snow along the top. Whenever a more than usual- 
ly large slice of hillside collapsed it was followed by a gigantic pufT 
of dust simulating volcanic action (See pi. 9, fig. 1.) In spite 
of the size and activity of this slipping area, it did not warrant the 
belief said to be common among the natives that the range as a whole 
had moved and settled down at a lower elevation. In addition to the 
prominent slip just referred to, the eye could detect minor slips all 
round, whilst the soil-cap of the small and narrow ridge on which we 
stood was exceedingly rent and fissured in E. — W. lines. Furthermore 



44 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

the intervening slopes and spurs, including that marked 8,961 on the 
'2 inch = l mile maps, were so much shattered by the earthquake that 
we could not have advanced further in the direction of the dust cloud 
oven if we had had time. In the lower parts of the gorge the numerous 
falls of the western edge of the gravel plateau near Sahan had carried 
away with them long sections of the water channels which supplied the 
fields below. These at the time of my visit were being repaired by 
the " Pioneers." During my stay at Palampur there were several 
slight aftershocks felt there, eich one being accompanied by a fresh 
shower of material from the surface of the landslip. 

The town of Bhawarna, 6 miles S. S. W. of Palampur, was almost 
a complete ruin like Palampur itself. All the 

Bhawarna. . 

upper stories and most of the lower stories were 
gone. One or two mostly wood-built shops with wooden pillars 
supporting the verandahs did not fall, but evidently swayed with 
and so escaped, the shock. A small Hindu temple had not fallen a 
a whole, but the top circular amalaka stone had fallen S. W. 

Route from Palampur to Mandi. 

This route followed generally along the northern and eastern limits 
of the low-lying sub-Himalayan tract and skirting the foot of the 
higher ranges. 

On the Holta Tea Estate, a short distance from Palampur on the 

, „, way to Baiinath, seven bungalows were ruined or 

Holta Tea Estate. J J ' .'■,.,''", 

thrown down. The damage varied in degree, but 

was not so great as at Dharmsala. Mr. Ballard's house, a well-built, 

double-storied structure of stone had portions still standing, the lower 

storey generally, and the upper storey in parts. The standing part 

was very severely fissured and ruined. The factory, situated on a bit 

of rising ground between two streams, had suffered still more. 

At Banuri the damage had mostly been repaired, but the shops 

and houses appeared to have been about half destroyed. Paprola had 

mostly fallen. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 45 

Baijnath had not suffered so much as Paprola, although the two 
towns were only separated by a river. Many wood- 
fronted shops still stood, and a newly built, three- 
storied house of sun-dried brick (see pi. 11, fig. 1). There were a few 
falls of canopies and cornices from the temple buildings, mostly in a 
direction S. by W. The travellers' bungalow was worse damaged than 
at Shahpur and not so much as that at Ranital. 

Earthquake Form. — Mul Rajpuri, Sub-Postmaster of Baijnath, noted the time 
as 6-15 by a pocket watch compared at 4 p.m. with Madras time telegraphed 
from Amritsar. No tremulous vibrations before. Great shock lasted 3 to 5 
seconds. Direction W. to E. by movements of houses. Many landslips of river 
cliffs. Road bridge broken. All houses and shops levelled to the ground. [This 
is a gross exaggeration, see pi. 11, fig. 1.] 

South of Baijnath Mr. "FitzGerald's houses suffered considerablv, 
Mr. FitzGerald's but his tea-factory escaped, and numerous hamlets 
houses - round about were still standing. 

Earthquake Form. — Mr. FitzGerald noticed a tremulous motion, increasing in 
intensity, until he was nearly thrown off his feet. There were no distinct shocks, 
all appeared one huge vibration. The ground appeared to be moving in waves. 
Trees swayed with terrific force to within a few feet of the ground. Puffs .of dust 
marking villages falling, progressed from south to north. Birds rose with deafen- 
ing shrieks, and a dog and cat ran away terrified. The sound was a terrific roar 
as if a gale was approaching from the south, 5 seconds before the shock began. 

On the whole it may be stated that the plain of the Kangra Valley 
between Palampur and Baijnath marks a diminution in the visible 
effects of the earthquake shock, but this diminution isnot rapid, and 
as we shall see further on, the intensity characteristic of this locality 
continues unabated for long distances into Mandi and Kulu. 

But about l\ miles S. E. of Baijnath in a little bay in the Nahan 
Road from Baijna Sandstone ridge up which the road goes there was 
to Dhelu. the village of Ghartoli, which so far as I could see 

was quite intact. Slate and thatch roofs alike were standing. Also 
2 miles E. S. E. of Baijnath there were a few shops on the northern 
dip-slopes of the Nahan Sandstone ridge which were similarly un- 
affected visibly . At the same time in the valley to the north between 
that ridge and the main mountain range there was considerable ruin 



45 MIDDLEM1SS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE, 

to the villages which could be seen to be half down. They were 
situated on alluvium. The same contrast was noticeable 5 miles before 
reaching Dhelu. 

At Dhelu the travellers' bungalow was standing though the chimney- 
had fallen. 

Between Dhelu and Guma the road approaches the main boundary 
fault lying near the S. W. foot of a distinctive and steep little con- 
tinuous ridge striking N. W. — S. E. and finally closing up in this 
direction all that might structurally be con&idered as a part of the 
Kangra Valley. The villages and hamlets scattered along the way 
are built very roughly of irregular lumps of rock set in dried mud 
and with thatohed roofs. About one-half of these cabins were down. 
About 2 miles from Dhelu, on the way, there were many cracks and 
fissures across the road. Near Guma many small landslips were seen 
scarring the hillsides in the vicinity of the main-boundary fault, 
especially where steep crags of limestone occur. At Guma itself the 
shops and houses are chiefly stone-built below, and with wooden super- 
structure. These were generally half ruined, and some had collapsed 
altogether. 

At the Guma salt mines the salt-bearing pebbly and earthy layers 
strike W.N.W. — E.S.E. in a nearly vertical anti- 

Guma Salt M^es. , M . 

chne outcropping beneath rocks consisting of epidi- 

o rites, amygdaloidal trap and white quartzite. The former, imme- 
diately associated with the salt, are brightly coloured a brick-red r pale 
purple, or greenish gray, and during the earthquake gave way in 
numerous slips, bringing down with them much of the rocks above. 
The rock-salt is said to continue as a bed from here to Drang, but 
obscured by talus and soil-cap. 

Jhatingri lies on the crest of the little ridge alluded to in the last- 
paragraph but one, at an elevation of about 6,000 

Jhatingri. ft ^ ^^ of Mund j ugeg ^ ag ft ^1].. station, 

and had just built a large bungalow there. It lay with its long axis 






KANGRA-KTJLU EPICENTRAL AREA. 47 

N. W. — S. E. that is, parallel to the ridge. The chowkidar said the 
shock came along the ridge, and not across it. Many of the wails 
were partly broken down, and the roof had been buckled somewhat. 
Being a strongly built, single-storied house, however, it had stood 
fairly well. The very ancient travellers' bungalow, badly built of 
fragments of undressed slate and mud mortar, was in nuns, and the 
outhouses partly down . 

From the summit of this ridge we get a first glimpse into the 
Country beyond to mountainous area of the next geological zone, 
east ' instead of the view being blocked (as happens 

N. of Dharmsala) by lofty ridges of gneissose granite forming the 
Dhauladhar range. We can see for many miles into a quite different 
style of country, the much sculptured, and broadly and deeply eroded 
older rock series of the Outer or Lower Himalaya of the Kulu Divi- 
sion. In this direction which takes one to the Bubu pass, the steep E. 
slopes of the Jhatingri ridge, composed of finely foliated mica schists, 
showed very few signs of landslips. The wooden bridge with stone 
piers at the bottom of the intervening valley was intact, and so ap- 
peared most of the villages as seen from thi3 distance. The Bubu 
pass, however, was not as yet open to traffic. With a telescope it 
appeared to be blocked in the narrow summit defile by fallen masses 
of rocks. 

As it was impossible to cross by the Bubu pass into Kulu, I 
returned from Jhatingri to the main road to Mandi, and made my 
first halt at Urla. On the way I noticed the prevalence of small 
landslips and soil-cap slips as the main-boundary fault was approached. 
The travellers' bungalow at Urla was in much the same state as that 
at Shahpur. It was built of rough stone slabs of slates, etc., fitted 
together without mortar or mud cement, and with wooden beams 
horizontally laid among the stones at intervals. This style of building 
is a debased, form of the hill type of wood and stone buildings, so 
common in Kuiu and other hilly parts of the Himalaya, and to which 
I shall have to refer to again later on. The chimney had fallen W. 



4 g MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 






N. W., either having been projected clear of, or slipped down, the 
roof, and then having crashed through the verandah. The shops in 
the village were not much damaged. 

Earthquake Form.— A. Gardner, N. I. Salt Revenue Department, at Drang. No 
tremulous vibrations felt. Direction of the shock N. W.— S.'E. by sensation. 
Three times he attempted to stand without success. Upper roof of Salt Depart- 
ment bungalow fell. Walls cracked. Large landslips on steep slopes of Salt 
Mines, completely blocking many of the workings. Sound like rushing water, 
about 1£ seconds before the main shock. 

Along the main -boundary fault between Urla and Drang I noticed 
the presence of Siwalik conglomerate and sand- 
rock for a considerable distance. At Drang the 
limestone on the inner (Himalayan) side of the fault was considerably 
brecciated. The salt mines at Drang are more extensive than those 
at Guma, but as they similarly consist of mere excavations in the bed 
of the ravines, exactly as they were when described by Mr. Medlicott 1 
in 1864, it was natural that they should have been much damaged and 
filled up by landslips during and subsequent to the earthquake. The 
salt was, however, still being excavated at one place, but, owing to 
the treacherous nature of the very steep cliff of the peculiarly coloured 
sandy and earthy, rotten rock, or salt-gossan , which is barren of salt, 
and lies above the salt, it was necessary to keep a careful watch for 
cracks in order to warn the miners when to desist. The rocks here 
were generally the same as at Guma, but the salt, and the salt-gossan, 
above the former, were much thicker and about horizontal. It is 
curious that the salt beds should occur as the core of an anticlinal 
fold coincident with much crushing and brecciation (a condition which 
reminds one also of those obtaining in connection with the salt-bear- 
ing marl of the Salt Range), near the main -boundary fault, and, so 
far as actually known, only along the 14 miles between Guma and 
Drang, i.e., just in the extreme angle made by the main-boundary 
fault as it changes its course in sweeping round the N.E. end of the 

1 Mem. G. S. of I., Vol. Ill, pt. 2, pp. GO— 62. 



KANGRA KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 49 

Kangra Valley. Considering the way all the rocks of the Himalaya 
generally, especially near the main-boundary fault, have been packed 
up and slipped over each other by thrust planes, one can quite legiti- 
mately speculate on there being repetitions of the salt-bearing beds 
below the present surface. Whether such could in any way have 
been implicated in the chief or contributary conditions which deter- 
mined the sudden snap or movement at great depths which caused 
the earthquake, is, however, a question one cannot very well discuss. 
It is noticeable that the salt-bearing area at the surface is very nearly 
centrally disposed across the middle of the Kangra-Kulu epicentral 
area. 

The presence of salt-bearing beds jn other parts of the Kangra- 
Ix . Kulu epicentral area is indicated bv saline springs, 

Salt springs near r J r ° 

Jawalamukhi, and as for instance in the neighbourhood of Jawala- 
in Klllu - mukhi, where such occur at intervals extending 

over some 30 miles. They are 6 in number and issue from the 
southern base of the range of hills known by the name of Jawala- 
mukhi. They contain from 2*20 to 2*63 per cent, of mineral matter, 
chiefly common salt and iodide of potassium. 1 There are also saline 
springs situated 1 mile N. N. W. of Larji, and under Girauli trigono- 
metrical station in Kulu. Of the latter Calvert says : 2 " further, near 
Barogi village the mountain is said to be all rock salt." 

Mandi. 

Mandi lies in the valley of the Beas R. at its junction with the 
Suketi Khad; not far from where the former emerging 'rom its gorges 
in Kulu crosses the main- boundary fault and then turns north. The 
town is situated on a plateau of gravels, partially covering Nahan 
sandstone, which latter strikes N. and S. The plateau is elevated 



1 Gazetteer of KangTa District, Vol. I, pp. 22—24, quoting Punjab Pro! nets. 
* Kulu, the Silver Country, by Join Calvert. 



50 MIDDLEMtSS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

about 50 ft. above the level of the Beas R. About 204 deaths oc- 
curred here. 

Enrthqvake Form. — Sri Gopal, Vakil to the Mandi State. No tremulous vibra- 
tions. Three almost successive shocks. Direction N. W.— S. E. A booming 
noise preceded the shock. 

Most buildings of the type of the travellers' bungalow, guest- 
house, school and post office, all one-storey high and stone-built, had 
not suffered much. Their walls were generally standing though much 
damaged, and the roofs also though buckled in places. 

The palace, a lofty building, and very old 
The Palace. . ' , _ , _ . . • .. 

m parts, had suffered by portions of the walls 

collapsing. 

Of other buildings, all those with rounded water-worn boulders. in 
the composition of their walls, had collapsed as a rule, sometimes 
wholly, and sometimes partially. 

The well-built stone silcras of temples near the river generally had 

not been damaged ; but the anialaka of an old 
Temples. 

temple S. W. of Mandi had rolled down the surface 
of the dome in a N. E. by E. direction. Another temple had its 
golden pinnacle upset according to report to the W. N. W., and after- 
wards stones fell the other way. 

The tahsil, a double-storied building, was badly cracked, and por- 
tions of the walls including the S. W. corner had 
fallen. It was, however, a top-heavy structure 
roofed with heavy Mandi slates, which are sometimes as much as I to 
1 inch in thickness. 

Many houses of two and even three stories, with a solid stone base 
(often dressed stone) and with an entirely wooden upper storey ; as 
well as many three-storied buildings made of wood and stone inter- 
mixed, the wood courses being at intervals of 4 to 5 ft. and bonded 
at the corners, stood the shock very well, especially if they were roofed 
with light slates. 






KANGRA-KULU EPI CENTRAL AREA. 



51 



Much of the relative))? severe damage done to Mandi was due to 
the use of very heavy slates, and to the mixture or water -worn 
boulders in the walls- 
Mr. Millar's house, double-storied and lying approximately N. -and 

Sj that is, along the valley, had its end walls most 
Mr. Millar's- house. j -, - „ ,, _. _„ -'2-' 

"amaged, especially at the S. W. and N. E. corners. 

The suspension bridge at Mandi across the river, a' fine structure- 
built in 1877 by Rajah Bige Ben, was intact, and bad not sutlered 
more than a good shaking. The towers, however, rising 25 ft. high 
above the roadway, and 50 ft. above the river-level, were furnished 
with 4 flying turrets one at each corner, each finishing in a pinnacle . 
The top conical stones of these pinnacles had been shifted horizontally 
along the rest of the pinnacle without falling, in the manner shown in 
the sketch and plan below, which represents the northern tower. (Figs. 
17 and 18.) 




Fig. 17. —View from N. W. 



e 2 



52 



MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE, 




t 



BRIDGE 
ROAD WAY 



NORTH 
TOWER 





PLAN 



Fig. 18. 

From the southern tower all the capping stones had fallen, except in 
the case of the S. *E. turret where the top stone and lower courses had 
shifted opposite ways in a N. N. E. — S. S. W. direction. In the case 
of the N. E. turret 2 courses of masonry below the conical capping 
stone had also fallen. 

A comparison of the nominal damage to this structure with the 
total destruction of the similar bridge at Buin in Kulu will illustrate 
the difference of the effects of the earthquake on good and bad buildings. 
The latter structure was largely built of rounded river boulders, the 
former of cut and dressed stone. 

The general appearance of the town before 1 and after the shock 
is shown in plate 12, where it will be observed there is considerably 
less roof area visible in the second view. 



1 I am indebted to Mr. A. Gardner, Northern India Salt Revenue Department, for 
the photograph of the town before the shock. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 53 

There was considerable destruction wrought in Parli Mandi, on the 
ParliMandi. north side of the Beas R. 

On the whole the evidence in Mandi shows a direction of overthrow 
of bodies about N. N. E.— S. S. W. 

In Mandi State and also in that of Suket large numbers of cattle 
are reported to have been killed owing to the custom of placing them 
in the lowest stories of houses, the second storey being used for grain 
and the third for living quarters. (Pioneer, 14th April 1905.) 

Route from Mandi to Bajaura. 

The bridle-road to Kataula mounts first across the ridge which is 
the direct southern continuation of that at Jhatingii 
and above Drang. It, therefore, takes us across the 
main-boundary fault once more, and also across the great melange of 
torn and brecciated limestones, epidiorites, and quartzites which have 
been involved in the main-boundary movements ; whilst the deep gorges 
seen to the north, in which are the villages Kalwana and Maigal, 
expose the salt rocks of Drang. Before the top of the ridge is reached 
schistose slates appear, and also form the eastern steep slop&s down to 
the Ool R. and on to Kataula, with a small but distinct band of 
gneissose granite at Hulog. 

We have now in fact left behind us altogether the younger zone 
of Sub-Himalayan Siwalik and Nahan rocks, and definitely penetrated 
into the heart of the older rock zones of the greater Himalaya. Gentle 
slopes and flowing ridges with cart-road communication are done with, 
and ridges, spurs and valleys are now on a more colossal scale, and with 
only bridle track communication. 

The villages on the way showed considerable damage and many 
boulder-built huts were completely thrown down, there were a few 
small landslips. 

The travellers' bungalow at Kataula, an old and badly built small 
structure made of slate fragments roughly fitted together, was destroyed 
with the exception of one corner. 



54 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The road to Kandi crosses the Dulchi pass, 6,740 ft. high, a very 
steep climb, especially near Kataula, where the route 
followed was a steep diversion on account of the 
regular bridle-ioad having fallen a few miles above Kataula. A hurri- 
cane, blowing at the time of my visit, almost necessitated crawling 
along- soine of the more exposed spurs. Just below the Dulchi pass, 
on the Kataula side, there was an extensive slip in fractured schistose 
slates which had Carried away some mules a short while before. None 
of the slips here, however, were as bad as those near Guma, the schistose 
rocks holding together better than the jumble of rocks at the main 
boundary fault.. 

Earthquake Form .—Rev. Jas. Tunbridge, C.M S., in Kandi travellers' 
bungalow. Main shock impelled him W. and E. Earth fissures ran mainly down- 
hill, S. E. and N. W. Loud rumbling noises underground. Chimney fell in, and 
aide-walls fell outwards [this seems to be an error, as the walls were standing 
at the time of my visit]. Fore-shock ? About 4 A, M. a loose board rattled, 
which Mrs. Tunbridge declared to be an earthquake shock, Rocks from cliff 
opposite, N. eide of the pass, fell in thousands of tons below, and continued to fall 
for hours afterwards. 

My own observations showed the bungalow to lie with its length N. 
by E. and S. by W., the verandah looking down a steep slope towards 
W. by N. The bungalow was not more damaged than Shahpur. The 
cross walls were a little fractured and the plaster had fallen from them. 
Otherwise the bungalow was standing fairly well. The outhouses below 
to the W. N. W. had been much smashed and some of Mr. Tunbridge's 
servants were temporarily buried under them. 

Bajaura. 

Between Kandi and Bajaura the same schistose rocks continue, and 

there was not much damage along the road until 

to n*' ™ m ^ l -^°P ru was cached. All the wooden bridges across 

small streams were intact. Ropru itself with its flat 

roofs was not seriously damaged. Report says that many cattle were 

killed, but onl} r one human being. Landslips became rnore frequent at 

Ropru and on to Bajaura. They were not very large, but had partially 

blocked the read. 



KANGRA-KTJLU EPICENTRAL AREA. 55 

At Bajaura we are once more in the valley of the Beas river but in 
its higher reaches, having taken a short cut over passes instead of 
following its complicated windings. These upper reaches form the wide 
and very open valley of Kulu where also the Beas receives numerous 
tributaries. As a consequence it flows among sub-recent gravel and 
talus fan deposits of considerable thickness, and the slopes on all sides 
rise, some steeply and some gently, to enormous heights, although in its 
lower windings between this point and Mandi the river follows narrow 
defiles or profound gorges. Here and there the steeper crags and slopes 
were streaked by gullies filled with broken and powdered rock whose 
white and fresh appearance indicated that it was the result of the 
earthquake. 

Earthquake Form. — Col. R. H. F. Rennick (Indian Army, retired). At Bajaura, 
Kulu Valley. Time 10 mins. to 6 a. m. [This is probably a slip for 6-10.] Dura- 
tion fully 5 mins. At the first shock things fell W. It was of extreme violence 
resembling a bombardment. The ground quivered. Walls' rocked to and fro 
N. — S. and E. — W. and danced up and downlike a bubble of water on a hot plate. 
One could hardly walk. Several people were sent sprawling on all-fours. Doors 
of rooms jammed and then opened again. Pictures 36 in. by 30 in. hung by 6£ ft. 
wire from roof were flung out E. and then returned to wall, backs outwards. Large 
almirah8 fell. A heavy upright (Brinsmead) piano fell against the wall. A heavy 
lamp 12 in. high and with a base of 6 in. fell W. Bowis, cups, glass and other 
objects were scattered all over the rooms. The sound was a dull rolling noise, 
which became a roar like a cannonade when the principal shock was felt. It 
began about 10 sees, before the shock. Also the roar of stones, chimney stacks 
falling, furniture, together with the underground noises was something abominable 
for about 5 minutes [probably too long]. Upper storey walls partially in ruins, 
Manager's house, fruit house, stables, mills, pigeon and grain houses badly shaken. 
Springs of water increased their discharge. Free-swinging objects swung E. and 
W. but N. and S. in Naggar. Fissures along the Beas river, and also across. Jets* 
of water rose 4 to 6 ft. shooting out spray and sand. No sinking of ground except 
where ground was artificial. Fissures on hillsides at Naggar. Trees not uproot od 
except by falling boulders and in the case of those whose roots were rotten. Many 
villages crushed in like a box of matches. About 50 deaths on the estate. 

Earthquake Form.— Lieut. -Genl. W. Osborn, at Bajaura during the earthquake. 
He had lived many years in the West Indies, where earthquakes are common. 
Time 6-10. Duration 1$ mins. taken by watch. One single accelerating motion, 
until it reached its climax of greatest violence, where it remained for some few 
seconds and then died away as it had begun. He ran out of the house into the 
orchard at the first tremor. Direction S. and N. by movements of orchard trees. 



56 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA. EARTHQUAKE. 

lie bad to hold on to the branches of trees to steady himself when the earthquake 
was at its most violent point. He saw the chimney on the N. face of Col. 
Rennick's house fall due N. Flower-pots also fell over in that direction. Being 
r deaf he does not offer any opinion on the sounds. Road from Bajaura to 
Naggar impassable. Had to ride along the alluvial bed of the river. Fissures 
there chiefly E. and W. Other fissures on slopes. At Naggar his house hardly 
damaged at all [probably by beiog protected by being in a bay of the hills and on 
solid rock.] A chief characteristic of many of the aftershocks, as contrasted with 
the big shock, .was that they commenced with a strong vertical upward thrust, or 
push, followed by a gentle horizontal vibration. 

Through the kindness of Colonel Rennick I was able to examine his 
house and other buildings. The former was situated on the high 
Colonel Re nick's pl a t eau P af t of the valley deposits formed of sub- 
house and other recent gravels, which as already mentioned are* very 
buiidmgs. extensive along the course of the Beas river. The 

house is a solidly built double-storied structure made of selected flat 
slabs of rock. Its upper storey was damaged, but not severely. The 
guest-house, which lay with its long axis N. W. by N. had suffered 
as to its end walls of the upper storey, but the side walls were standing. 
A solidly built stone dove-cot had been turned through an angle of 5° 
in a direction with the hands of a watch. Its lower part was shaken 
to pieces, but its upper part, supported on timbers from below, had 
stood. It had been repaired as it stood without taking down, and with 
the, twist remaining in it. Servants' houses, bazar, and the surrounding 
hamlets showed varying damage, but mostly severe. Wherever houses 
had fallen it was apparent that the building material was chiefly round 
river boulders and mud mortar. Altogether the damage was about 
equal to that of Mandi. 

The Shiva temple at Bajaura, a very ancient well built sikra of cut 

stone, 800 to 900 years old, had been shifted a little 
Temple. t ii i • ii i 

laterally by many an ancient earthquake, as shown 

by the discontinuous sections of the doorway pilasters. It had suffered 

very slightly from the present earthquake. The priest showed me one 

fresh horizontal plane of separation only, high up on the lower part of 

icture. The roughly built quarters round the temple were ruined, 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 57 

as also was another wood and stone built Devtas' temple situated a 
ittle nearer the river. 

The travellers' bungalow was in a half ruined state. It was built 
partlv of sun-dried bricks, and partly of flat blocks 

Travellers' bunga- r J r J 

l ow . of schistose slate. 

Route from Bajaura to Sultanpur, 

Samsi village, near the Buin suspension bridge across the Beas river, 
was a great ruin. The suspension bridge was also 
destroyed, the piers on each side having crumbled 
away, and the wire ropes and foot-way having subsided into the swiftly- 
flowing stream. This collapse was manifestly due to the use of rounded 
river boulders in the masonry, instead of cut stone, as at Mandi. 

The hillsides enclosing the wide Kulu Valley were in many places 
scored by landslips, especially as seen looking up the Parbati river 
from its junction with the Beas. Schistose slates, quartz-schists and 
quartzites prevail the w r hole way. 

Sultanpur, or Kulu town as it is also called, is largely situated on a 
high plateau or tongue of sub-recent river-gravels 
town) l between where the Beas river and the Sarvari river 

join. Like Bajaura, Samsi and other villages along the 
valley bottom, it had especially suffered on account of its varied, mixed 
and debased styles of architecture, the result of the influx of traders 
from S. and N. The bazar buildings, being half modelled on the low 
country style and half on the hill type (presently to be described), 
possess none of the merits of either. The rounded river boulders used 
in the walls were in fact not so effective even as sun-dried brick for 
iesisting the earthquake, whilst the use of timber in the walls appears to 
have been frequently indiscriminate, and often as a mere substitute for 
stone and without it effectively holding the walls together by any 
bonding process. Heavy slates for roofing were universal. 

Hence the damage to Sultanpur proper, especially the older part on 
4ie W. slopes of the plateau, was very considerable (see pi. 13, fig. 1). 



58 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE 

The palace being rather more strongly built had not suffered quite so 
muoh, the temple moderately so (see pi. 13, fig. 2). The lower town and 
bazar, situated below the high level plateau, had been considerably 
ruined, though much had been repaired by the date of my visit (19th 
May). A stone- built Shiva temple, like that at Bajaura, had stood 
but the top stone, the amalaka, had been thrown one portion S. W. and 
one W. S. W. (See fig. 10.) 



w.s.w 




Fig. 19.— Plan. 

On the wide camping ground south of Sultanpur the travellers' 
bungalow, hospital, post office and tahsil had suffered considerably but 
not so much as at Bajaura. They were being repaired as they stood 
without completely dismantling. At the time of my visit this camping 
ground was covered with tents belonging to the Assistant Commissioner 
(Mr. Calvert) and to other officials of Kulu who were gathered together 
there. There was also a camp post office and hospital. 

The following account by Capt. A. T. Banon of Manaliof the Upper 

Kulu Valley is taken from the Pioneer of April 27th, 1905 : — 

Whenever in Kulu houses were properly constructed in the old timber and 
itone style, no damage or loss occurred ; and to this also I must ascribe my own 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 59 

welfare and security. For the two minutes the earthquake lasted J observed with 
curiosity, awe and alarm, the strange gyrations and contortions of my bungalow, 
and when it was all over I could not persuade myself that my bungalow was very 
much in its former state, and not a heap of ruins. In the Upper Kulu Valley the 
damage and loss of life was nearly all due to immense rocks and boulders tumbling 
down from above on to the houses. At Sunag one huge rock rolled out a house as 
flat as a pancake, killing all the inmates, eleven in number. (See pi. 14). * * 
When the earthquake came it precipitated several miles of snow into the ManaliR. 
The fall of this snow generated a whirlwind, or snow blizzard, which, besides the 
old fort, damaged several of the houses. To me it looked like smoke, and although 
the morning was cloudless, and the whole subsequent day was cloudless, five 
minutes after the earthquake we were enveloped in a dense mist, composed of snow 
particles, for several minutes. This fall of snow also blocked up the Manali river 
for a day or two ; and even now there is very little water in the river, and what 
there is very muddy. 

The earthquake did not extend above two or three miles from Manali ; and 
the villagers in Palchan, Kolrng and Koti near Raila at the foot of the Rhotang 
pass, which were buried in snow, were unaware that anything had happened. 
From this one would suppose that there was no earthquake in Lahoul ; but the 
Lahoulis say there was, and that five persons were killed and injured at Kailong, 
where the Moravian missionaries reside, * * * 

As Mr. Calvert and a medical officer with hospital assistants were 
just about to start on a journey into the higher valleys of the Parbati 
and Malana rivers, I was kindly invited to join them, and so was able to 
visit an area which would have been difficult of access by myself alone 
at such a time. 

Sultanpur to Manikarn. 

The Buin bridge being destroyed, our party crossed the river by 
the wooden bridge above Sultanpur. We then ascended to the 
Borso pass which crosses the ridge-spur north of Bijli temple, 8,076 
feet, and so down to Tipri and Channi on the Parbati river. This 
climb was necassitated by the low road round the precipitous Jiya 
spur having been destroyed by landslips. 

The long gentle slope from the Beas river up to the pass, a total 
ascent of about 4,000 feet, was not remarkable for much damage to the 
villages and hamlets situated thereon. This at first sight appeared 
unnatural on account of the apparently rather top-heavy construction 
of the houses — all of the hill type — until one came to realise the natural 



GO 



M'IDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



resisting power of their timber-bonded walls. As all the houses we shall 
meet with in the description of this paro of the Kangra-Kulu epicentral 
area are of the hill type, differing entirely from the sun-dried brick- 
built structures of the Kangra Valley, and the mixed structures of the 
bazars in the valley parts of Kulu, a few words are necessary regard- 
ing the method of timber-bonding in vogue, which, whether intentional 
or not, seems a suitable form of hill architecture* for earthquake 
countries. 

I take the following extract from the Punjab Gazetteer of Kulu, 
Timber-bonded slightly abridging it :— 
houses in Kulu. 

A Kulu hill village is frequently built on a spur or other rocky ground that 
is useless for cultivation. The houses are generally detached and grouped with 
a delightful disregard of method and plan. In structure they are very quaint 
and pretty, like square or oblong turrets much greater in height than in length 
or breadth and crowned by sloping gable roofs covered with slates or fir shingles. 
From a foundation of the dimensions 9 liaths by 9 Jiaths, 11 by 9, 15 by 9, 15 by 11 
8 by 11 (a hath being 1^ feet) the house shoots up three or four stories high 
Xo mortar is used in its construction ; the walls are of dry stone masonry, the 
stones being kept in place by timbers placed upon them at vertical intervals 
of 2 or 3 feet. The ground floor is used for cattle and has no windows, the seconc 
storey as a granary lit by 
small windows, whilst the 
third storey is the living 
part of the house. Its 
space area is increased by 
a more or less closed-in 
wooden verandah conti- 
nuous with the upper 
floor, and protruding out- 
wards from the walls on 
all or several sides. It 
is this projecting balcony 
which gives the houses 
the false appearance of 
being top-heavy and 
unstable (fig. 20). 




Fig. 20. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 



61 



The method of inserting the wood-bonding requires, however, fur- 
ther illustration. In houses of ordinary pretensions this wood bonding 
takes place at vertical intervals of from 3 to 5 feet. Two parallel 
beams are laid along the layer of masonry, one on the inside and one 
on the outside. At the end of one wall they are crossed by the beams 
of the wall at right angles, and wooden pins hold the crossings to- 
gether. Cross-ties of wood, dove-tailed or tongued, similarly hold the 
two parallel beams in position at intervals along their length (fig. 21). 



szz 



S^£ 



zs zrr 



Fig. 21. 



Usually rubble masonry, cr roughly shaped blocks carefully packed 
together, occupy the interspaces and form the next courses until 
another wooden course is begun. 

In the best constructed houses and temples the wooden layers are 
Kat-ki-Kuni build- in continuous contact at the corners of the build- 
ings " ing 5 whilst long and beautifully shaped flat slabs of 

stone alternate with wood along the face of the walls. This style of 
building is called Kat-ki-Kuni, or " timber- cornered," and combines 
the weight, solidity, and coolness of a stone building with the flexibility 



fl2 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

and earthquake-resisting qualities of a* wooden one. In the figure 
the shaded part is stone (fig. 22). 




Fig. 22. 

In pi. 14, fig. 1, is illustrated this hill type of house structure. 
The central four-storied tower is built very nearly Kat-ki-Kuni but it 
shows the uppermost storey and roof destroyed, probably owing to 
decay, as the building was old. 

Shortly before reaching Tipri village, near Danogi, we crossed 
several well-marked bergschrund-like fissures separating the rocky part 
of the hill from the talus and soil-covered fields below, and superposed 
one above the other. Immediately above Tipri to the north there was 
a much fissured quartzite cliff with a stream of very muddy water 
issuing from it which was said to have run muddy since the earth- 
quake, nearly 7 weeks before. The fissure could not be traced con- 
tinuously into the low ground in the vicinity. Of the surrounding 
villages those on gravel banks seemed to have suffered most. Many 
on exposed spurs of solid rock had escaped wonderfully. 

During our second march from Channi to Jari the rocks, which 
are exposed the whole way, gradually take on a 
more nletamorphic aspect and become true mica 
schists, frequently with garnets, and white quartzites and quartz- 
schists. The precipitous quartzitic scarps of Gagyani Dhar on the 
N. E. slopes of the Shat Nal, which enters the Parbati river from 
a S. E. direction, were seen to have been much scored by land- 
slips, a few of which may be recognised in the distant view of the 
valley beyond Tipri village (see pi. 14, fig. 1). In the neighbourhood 

Rock avalanches of ^ ari a * so > wnere r ° c k s along the same strike 
in the Maiana glen, come into prominence, and where the wild and 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 63 

picturesque gorge of the Malana glen unites with the Parbati, the 
rugged crags of white quartzite and quartz-schist had crumbled exten- 
sively during the earthquake. From these cliffs, which are frequently 
crowned by patches of inaccessible forest, the steeply cat gullies now 
poured down torrents of the white debris, resembling snow culoirs in 
the distance (see pi. 15, fig. 1). Every now and then a portion of the 
mountain could still be seen to be " smoking "where slipping areas, 
had not yet attained the angle of repose. Along with the rock, 
acres of fine deodar forest had frequently been involved in the falls ; 
a near or telescopic view of which presented a scene of colossal wreck- 
age impossible to describe. It is views such as those illustrated in 
plate 15 that demonstrate how potent a factor an earthquake may 
become in the denudation of a region characterised by precipitous 
cliffs. In spite of this wholesale shedding of scarps, the villages round 
about generally showed but little damage. Whole villages had some- 
times escaped, and others, such as Jari, had only a few houses par- 
tially wrecked. Portions of Chowki village, opposite Jari (seen in the 
foreground of plate 15, fig. 1) situated on a narrow gravel terrace 
were, however, destroyed, and among the inhabitants some serious 
surgical cases awaited the visit of our medical officer. The wooden 
cantilever bridge (of native design) across the Parbati at this point 
had escaped with nothing worse than a bad wrenching. The travel- 
lers' bungalow was intact and habitable. A careful examination of 
the whole road and lower valley for signs of faults or tectonic move- 
ments showed there were none such. All fissures that could be seen 
were local and superficial. Thus, notwithstanding the torrents of 
shed rock and forests reduced to matchwood, the comparative energy 
of the shock here must have been so much less than in the Sultanpur 
valley that we are, I think, warranted in drawing isoseismal No. IX 
between these places. 

Between Jari and Manikarn the geological conditions remain much 

Manikarn : Hot the same, quartz-schists predominating most of the 

springs. wav> followed by schists anil a band of gneissose 

granite crossing the river a little way below Manikarn. Landslips 



64 



MTDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



and rock slides were again seen here in profusion, some being still 
active as shown by occasional wreathing puffs of dust smoke. Manik- 
arn, which presents some beautiful examples of kat-ki-kuni archi- 
tecture had bat very slight damage, except to some roof slates and 
to one or two houses where rocks fell from the cliffs above. Of the 
several temples here, including an ancient stone-built one resembling 
that at Baijnath, none were damaged. The people said that the 
village did not rock much, but that the hills did so, and scattered 
fragments all round. The celebrated boiling springs had not been 
affected by the earthquake, except that they had slightly varied their 
points of exit. The large one by the river side at the west end of the 
village was seen to be in full operation, and giving off clouds of steam 
visible from afar. At one of the covered bathing places the source of 
the hot water had been cut off. Another spring in a private house 
was shown to us, still flowing, although for 8 days after the earth- 
quake it had dried up. These springs deposit masses of yellow cal- 
careous tufa, and they also throw up small white seed or pearl-like 
bodies called ' c manis, ' ' which are prized as ornaments and mementoes. 
They also give off sulfuretted hydrogen, and stain the rocks, drains 
and baths a reddish-brown colour. At Manikarn the valley narrows 
considerably, and there is not very much more in the way of habita- 
tions further east towards the source of the Parbati K. 

Manikarn to Naggar via Rashole and Malana. 

Returning part of the way down the Parbati as far as Shallal, we 
Shattered crags, next ascended the steep little V-shaped valley of 
near Rashole. Rashole. On the way we passed across numerous 

rock avalanches, then between frowning cliffs of quartz-schist and undeT 
still smoking rock torrents that had left a trail of stripped and dead 
deodar stumps showing far above our heads. The slipped surfaces of 
the latter always showed some pale green mica along foliation and 
shear planes. The sheared and splintered condition of this quartz- 
schist must have been a potent factor in assisting the landslips and 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 65 

rock avalanches. At Shall al and Rashole slabs of this rock, much 

heavier than convenient, are used as roofing material. 

Rashole village itself, a group of old and weather-beaten houses of 
the regular hill type, evinced some damage, one 
out of a dozen buildings having sagged, sunk at 

one end, or bulged, owing to some of the horizontal timbers having 

rotted or burst away from their corner pins and cross- ties. 

The route from Rashole to Malana took us over a pass of 10,600 
feet among schistose strata with thin bands of 
gneissose granite forming the fir-clad craggy sum- 
mits near the pass. These beds, like those met with at Manikarn, 
appear in apparent order above the quartzitic rocks. A steep descent 
of 1,000 feet on the other side of the pass through forests of fir, 
spruce and larch, and then over gentle slopes below, brought us to the 
Malana gorge, with its two villages resting on the platform made by 
the upper surfaces of the quartzites, at an elevation of about 8,600 
feet. The precipitous ravine stretching away to the Parbati, lay below 
us, with its already described shattered sides, a fresh rock avalanche 
taking place the evening of our stay there. Whilst these rocks had 
everywhere yielded under the strain of the earthquake the schistose 
and gneissose rocks which continue above them, both on the Rashole 
and Naggar routes, had remained comparatively unaffected. Only a 
few houses, and those old ones, had suffered from the earthquake by 
leaning, bulging, and partial destruction of the roof, etc., but the 
majority of the private houses, the grain house, temples and other 
buildings, all in the beautiful and efficient timber-bonded style, ap- 
peared (so far as we were permitted to see them by their conservative 
inhabitants) practicaUy undamaged. 

Malana to Naggar over a steep pass of 13,000 feet, still snow- 

covered (27th May) on the crest and N. slopes, 

the extensive view from the pass up to the great 

open valley and snow-fieMs that constitute the source of the Malana 

stream also yielding no fresh earthquake data, until quite near Naggar 



66 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

itself, when houses began again, one or two of which were partially 
ruined. 

At Naggar itself, the "castle," which is an extensive and ancient 
House damage at native built timber-bonded house, the residence of 
Naggar. the Assistant Commissioner, had suffeied on the 

side towards the river which is rather steep. It presented many 
assures in the walls and soil along the line of the decliv ty and was 
not in a permanently habitable conditi The Executive Engineer's 
house, a double-storied modern building, a mile away on the nearly 
hori .ontal gravel terraces, had not been much damaged except in its 
upper story. On the other hand Colonel Rennick's house at Naggar, 
which is situated on a spur from the main range with a steep slope to 
the N., had been much more conspicuously fissured, and much damage 
was done to furniture and other articles within. General Osborn's 
house, placed in a little bay in the hills and fixed on solid rock, had 
almost entirely escaped the shock ; and its owner told me that 
nothing inside was damaged, not even pictures, crockery, or glass. 
It was a well-built modern house, stone below and wood above. 
Among the native houses the damage done was irregular, but I should 
judge not greater as a whole than at Jari, Manikarn or Malana. 

Whilst he, e, a point on the main range, 8 miles due W. of Naggar 
Fojal Nullah dust at the head of the Fojal Nullah, was seen to be 
oIoud * giving off a dense black dust smoke in a thin as- 

cending column, and I was informed by Mr. W. H. Donald, Executive 
Engineer in Kulu, that a similar dust cloud was seen at the same spot 
on 24th May 1894, and that it kept rising for four months afterwards. 
Tt was accompanied by a flood which did some damage in the lower 
parts of the nullah. On the day of the present earthquake also the 
water of the same nullah where it joined the Beas river ran black 
with mud in suspension. 

A number of aftershocks were experienced here during my stay 
from 28th to 30th May (for which see list of aftershocks). 

Beyond Naggat to the north I did not personally investigate the 
earthquake, but an account by Captain Banon, relating to this part 



KANGRA KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 67 

as well as to the area N. of the Dhauladhar, will b© found at pp, 

58 and 75. 

Naggar to Barwar Lake. 

During the 31st May and 1st June I marched back along the Beas 
Boas valley below valley to Bajaura, finding nothing fresh to remark 
Bajaara. on fae wav From Bajaura to Larji the route 

continues along the Beas valley. During the early part of the journey 
and about 1 or 2 miles from the former place there is some massive 
limestone of white, grey and sometimes pinkish colours on the right 
bank of the river. After this come schists the whole way until 2 or 3 
miles from Larji, when white and grey limestone or dolomite sets in. 
This rock forms a narrow gorge for the Beas, and there are numerous 
slips, which had temporarily blocked the road but which had since 
been cleared away and a fair pony track made. The dip is steep, the 
strike being generally along the course of the river. 

The damage done to buildings the whole way was not great, or an 

least very little was visible at the time of my visit. 
ing8 Most of the houses of the hamlets along the valley 

were mud- walled and grass-roofed, low buildings, 
which either had not suffered or had been rebuilt. On the distant 
hill-slopes some of the timber-bonded stone buildings could be seen, 
but rarely. On the whole this part of the route was sparsely inhabit* 
ed. At one place, only, I noticed a house said to belong to the Rajah 
of Mandi which had been considerably damaged, most of the roof 
and some of the walls being destroyed, 

A little way below Larji the course of the Beas is deflected to the 

W. S. W. It ceases to occupy the wide strike 
Larji. valleys and plunges by profound gorges transverse 

to the strike of the rocks and to the general run 
of the main ranges. At the point of deflection, surrounded by 
rugged precipices on all sides, the Sainj river meets it from the 
S. E. 

f2 



gg MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

This river focus had been prolific in landslips during the earth- 
quake, a result to be expected from the way the 

Slips and rock aval- , . , . . ,, - 

an rL .. gorges close in and increase in the steepness of 

their slopes at the water level. Immediately 
opposite Larji where the roads takes a V-shaped curve up the Sainj river 
the hill spur between it and the Beas was terribly shattered, and the 
ever-moving talus cones being too wide for travellers to cross in safety, 
a temporary rope bridge had been thrown across the Sainj at a point 
below them. The rock of the spur showed intensely crushed lime- 
stone, slate, epidiorites and diorites in the form of either dykes or 
interbedded masses. The general strike is (as usually in this reach of 
the Beas) N. W.— S. E. and the dip N. E. at 40°— 60°. Looking up 
at the much-riven spur from the bed of the Sain] on the Larji side, 
one had to crane one's neck to see the summit which made an angle 
considerably over 40°. Two long and narrow debris cones descended the 
crag from fissures in its upper parts and met at the bottom. These 
were still in a constant state of movement when I was there, two 
months after the earthquake ; and every now and then they discharged 
small rocks and dust, the latter being caught by eddies of wind 
and blown up in clouds, giving the' appearance of rising steam. I 
attribute the same origin to these fissures as to those at the head of 
the Neogal gorge, namely, gravitation acting with the earthquake 
shock. I could see no trace of any primary fissures extending deep 
into the rock such as might have caused the earthquake itself or 
been part of its original manifestation. Near Larji some caves are 
said to have fallen and killed some shepherds with their dogs 
and sheep. 

A lake had been formed some few miles up the Sainj river, but 
although I penetrated some 1 or 2 miles up-stream, 
river e I found it impossible to reach it by the* river-bed 

route. In the distance on the left bank could be 
detected further fresh land-slips and active screes which doubtless 
were in the neighbourhood of the dam that had temporarily caused 
the lake. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 69 

The travellers' bungalow at Larji was seriously damaged and not 
weather-proof, but the verandah could be used. 

So great is the shattering of the hill-spurs in the neighbourhood 

of this river focus that I anticipate considerable 

„ _ difficulties for many years to come alone this route 

o m m u n i cations J J ° 

lear Larji. from Simla to Kulu. At any moment expensive 

bridges and miles of difficultly constructed road may 

be carried away by a fresh landslip. 

Ascending the deep rift of the Tirthan river from Larji, for about 
4 miles to Barwar hamlet and the newly formed 

Damage to slopes ,,"'-, , T . , 

and villages be- ia ^ e ' tne same rocks as at Larji, together with 
tween Larji and quartzites and quartz-schists continue, owing to 
the general strike remaining constant. They also 
present a similarly smashed condition, the limestone in particular 
being much brecciated and having a crumbled and greatly weathered 
aspect. The slopes also are very steep, and towering crags of lime- 
stone have frequently discharged enormous rock avalanches into the 
valley below. Twara, a hamlet of a few houses, had suffered severely, 
and 6 out of 30 inhabitants had been killed. Kotla, a large village 
with high, double-storied timber-bonded houses, had also been much 
smashed a3 to its roofs and upper stories, and the inhabitants I was 
informed had left. It lies about 1,000 feet above the big landslip which 
formed the Barwar lake. Several other little hamlets on the way 
were also almost ruined. Generally in this valley, not only as far as 
Barwar but beyond to Plach, the extra damage to hill-sides and 
house property may be attributed to the steep angle of slope and the 
crumbled condition of the rock material. 

The Barwar lake on the Tirthan river, like the similar lake on the 
Sainj, was formed by a dam of slipped rock tailing 
athwart the stream. The lake lay in a deep gorge 
roughly of a reversed S-shape, and it gradually lost itself to the S. E. 
in the Tirthan river itself. It was from 100 to 200 yards across in its 
widest part at the time of my examination of it, and about J mile 
long. The dam was necessarily at the N. W. end, and the broken 



70 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

face of the hill from which it came was of a roughly crescent-shape, about 
300 yards high, and about 200 long. The level of the lake above the 
lower part of the outflow was, on 3rd June 1905, about 60 to 80 feet. 
The fallen rock composing the dam was white and pale ochre coloured 
limestone, and dipped originally at high angles. The water in the 
lake was not altogether confined, 1 but constantly overflowed to the 
N. W. forming a rapid. On account of the steepness of the fallen 
debris cone, which lay at an angle of about 40°, and rose 100 — 150 ft. 
above its present base forming the dam (see pi. 15, fig. 2), it is 
probable that the wash of the outflow water will periodically bring 
down more stuff from the cone, and so rejuvenate the dam from time 
to time ; but there is no apprehension of any dangerous flooding from 
the ponded water, which already in the summer of 1906 had ceased 
to exist as a lake. A suspension bridge, which crossed 'the valley 
where the fallen debris now lies, had entirely disappeared from view ; 
and the road following the bed of the valley along the S. W. side was 
entirely submerged under the lake. 

The spur of the hill facing the slip is a steep and narrow ridge 
with another gap between it and the main ridge, 
ing the lake which gap indicates an ancient channel followed 

once by the river when the valley was much less 
excavated than now. This spur and its N.E. slopes are much fissured 
parallel to the length of the ridge and to the lie of the valley. A 
few houses perched on it were completely destroyed, and one still 
standing was in a hopeless condition. The ridge descends abruptly 
to the N. W . in a steep precipice opposite the slip, and later on may 
also, in common with the debris cone, contribute to the maintenance 
of the dam by landslips from it. Generally, also, the lofty and pre- 
cipitous limestone crags which descend to the shores of the lake were 
in a much slipped condition, whilst to the S.W. of the lake the 
shattered slate slopes (along which the temporary road now goes), 
and the few interbanded layers of limestone, are all in a most danger- 

Except for one day when I was informed the people ran down the dam elope an3 
made their escape from the valley. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICEOTRAL AREA. 71 

ously unstable condition ready to give much trouble during the rainy 
months. 

At one point on the lake-side was a new or freshly reopened line 

of faulting with a steep hade to the S. W. 

8ure> cutting through limestone and slates — the only 

fissure I have so far seen that might possibly be 

connected with some deeper fracture, and not due to gravity, 

combined with the earthquake, for its causation. 

Between this place and Manglaur isoseist No. IX is estimated to lie. 

Barwar Lake to Jibhi. 
The hamlets on the way to Manglaur, especially Ratwa, were 
much damaged. All were built kat-k -kuni style, 

Damage between twQ Qr three stories h[ ^ and ia fco ated towec 
Barwar and Mang- 

laur. fashion like Tipri (see pi. 14, fig. 1). A few of them 

(probably old bu ldings) had subsided whilst hers 
were damaged as to rcofs, walls, etc. The travellers' bungalow at 
Manglaur was not much damaged and some of the rooms were 
habitable. 

In the long and steep gorge cut out of slates and schistose slates 
between Manglaur and the bridge below Plach, I 
found a diminishing amount of destruction. Here 
and there the timber bonded houses and towers showed some damage, 
frequently the result of old and decayed timber. Plach lies consider- 
ably above the level of the river-bed above Srai and other hamlets, 
and I could not see how it had suffered. The bridge , a rather lone 
wooden cantilever, had suffered no ill effects ; and the road the whole 
way was in good order. From the bridge to Ban jar everything was 
much the same. Ban jar itself had been somewhat damaged as it was 
built bazar fashion in a row of shops of different heights.. The tabsil 
and hospital buildings had suffered slightly, as also had the distant 
villages seen from Ban jar. On ascending the narrow side valleys to 
Jibhi, house damage became less noticeable ; and the hill-sides were 
intact until within 2 miles of Jibhi, where white, granulai quatrzite 
associated with black slates had caused a few minor ro:k avalanches. 



72 M1DDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The Jibhi travellers' bungalow was built kat-ki-kuni as regards it 
walls, and remained intact except that, the roof where 
the chimney protruded had fallen (in part) and 
the verandah supporting a roof of heavy thick schistose slate had been 
thrust laterally out of the vertical. Many of the servants' quarters 
were damaged and a village near was burnt down during the earth- 
quake. This is the only instance I came across of fire playing a des- 
tructive role. The tall fir trees surrounding the bungalow were said to 
have swayed* so much as to threaten to fall, but they did not. 

Jibhi to Luri. 

The track up to the Jalori pass, 10,630 feet, takes one along the 
.members of the same rock group of quartzites, 
. a on pass. quartz-schists, limestones and slates — sometimes 
carbonaceous — but no further rock falls were noticed, except quite 
close to Jibhi itself. The strike curves round from N.W. — S.E. until 
it becomes N. — S. at the pass. Near here a very prominent, detached 
pinnacle of rock, with vertical sides still stood insecurely perched 
on the slope of the ridge and supported a cluster of growing fir trees 
at top. 

The village of Kot on the S. side of the pass, a picturesque group 
of houses in the timber-and-stone style, straggling 
down the crest of a little ridge, was almost the last 
along this route to show any considerable damage, walls being bulged 
and roofs partly destroyed; whilst the travellers' bungalow, still 
further down the rugged and precipitous spur, had similarly bulged 
as to its walls. The roof also had become insecure, and consequently 
the heavy slates had been removed by hand prior to my arrival. 
Like the Kot houses it also was timber-bonded, but not Jcat-ki-kmi. 
The heavily canopied gateway of the enclosure of the hill temple, which 
somewhat resembled the lich-gate of a country churchyard in England, 
had likewise collapsed. The strike of the rocks had further changed 
at the S. side of the pass, and now was N.E. — S.W., with the dip 
to S.E. at moderate angles of 15° only, down the slope of the hill. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 73 

At Chawai, the next stage, the bungalow was habitable, the 
ch:'mneys only having fallen ; but on the way 
there, in the steep-sided nullah into which the road 
dips, there was still some notable damage to old buildings ; roofs and 
a few walls having succumbed. Beyond that point all serious injury 
to buildings ends, and consequently isoseist No. VIII has been drawn 
between Kot and Chawai. 

The road to Dalash, like that from Jibhi, showed no destruction 
to hill-sides, and, as for buildings, only a few tiles 
Dalash. were <ji S p] acec l € The travellers ' bungalow was in- 

tact, even the chimneys remaining in position. A few roof tiles were 
slightly displaced, and there were fine cracks in the plaster of the 
walls. 

No damage was apparent on the way to Luri, and the bungalow 
had not a single crack of any sort. The sus- 
pension bridge over the Sutlej river exhibited one 
or two insignificant cracks, but there was no real injury of any sort 
beyond the wide and very open valley of the Sutlej,. which with its 
sub-recent gravel terraces, 500 to 600 feet above the water level, forms 
a striking contrast to the contracted river-gorges of Kulu between 
Bajaura and the Jalori pass. 

Luri to Simla. 

The long steady ascent to Narkanda showed no visible effects of 
the earthquake., but I was informed that here and there house walls 
showed tiny cracks. The rest of the way to Simla was similarly bar- 
ren of any visible result, hill -sides and villages with their staging bun* 
galows appearing quite normal. 

At Simla my tour came to an end. In a large hill -station such 

as this, dotted over a big area of steep slopes, there 

were, of course, many accounts of chimneys and 

other minor falls having taken place ; but all such had long since been 

repaired, and the effects of the shock only remained as an unpleasant 

memory. 



74 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Earthquake Forms — Simla. 

Ranjeet Singh, Signaller at Chota Simla. — Several minor shocks were followed 
by the principal, shock. Direction E. — W. Chimney of post office fell. No 
sound. 

Mr. S. D'Cruz.— Time 6-12 by watch. House rocked S.E.— N.W. Walls 
cracked. He experienced a foreshock at 1-30 a. m. on the morning of the earth- 
quake. 

Major R. S. Maclagan, R.E., at the United Service Club.— No prelim, tremors. 
One most severe shock. Distinctly felt, doors and windows rattled, roof creaked 
pictures swung and bookshelves on walls running N.W. — S.E. fell inwards into 
the room. No sound. 

Mr. A. R. Astburn, Assistant Engineer. — Time 6-10 by watch corrected about 
every third day by telegraph office. Direction N — S. He was' living in a double- 
storied house, the lower story being masonry, the upper one "dhajji. " The 
shock awoke him. He left the house. Nothing was upset in the way of orna- 
ments. Water from fire buckets spilled about £ total quantity. No sound. 

Mr. B. N. Mass, Sub-Divisional Officer. — Time 6-10= the mean of times shown 
by some 10 pendulum clocks, which all stopped, and 4 watches. 1st shock the most 
severe. Direction N.— S. apparently. Uppermost 14 feet of an isolated tower 
at the new Civil Secretariat Buildings twisted round contrary to the hands of a 
watch. Chimney stacks lying E. — W. moved N. — S. and were ruptured at the 
intersection of the roof. Pendulum clocks showed the same movement. A flat 
iron masonry tie f inch in diameter in a wall lying approximately N. S. was 
burst asunder and the washer 12 inch by 12 inch by £ inch was projected with 
terrific force against a wall opposite. Of high walls (60 ft.), those lying approxi- 
mately E. — W. showed horizontal as well as vertical cracks at about 1 feet from 
the top. Glazing in windows lying E. — W. approximately was broken and shattered. 
There was a loud rumbling sound continuing some 15 to 20 seconds after the shock. 
Its beginning was almost simultaneous with the shock. 

Mr. W. H. Donald, Ex. Engineer, Kulu, at " Chillingham," Simla.— There was 
a rumble and then the shock came. Direction N.E. — S.W. All doors rattled, 
rafters creaked and pictures were displaced. No cracks in buildings. 

Mr. D. Macfarlane. — Time 6-10 by watch regulated by telegraph office. 1st 
shock the most severe. Distinctly felt, walls cracked, roof creaked and a few 
small ornaments fell. 

Mr. W. E. Buchanan, at the Municipality Water Works. Direction N. W.— 
S. E. taken from 2 filter tanks. The water in the two outer ones which were filled 
to within 17 inches from the top flowed first over to the S. E. sitfe and then over to 
the N. W. side. 

Captain F. W. Hawks, Indian Army, at " Eric's Own, ! ' Simla. — Time just 
after 6 a. m. One continuous vibration. Trees swayed, bed shook, galvanised 
iron roof rattled continuously for about 1 minute. Doors jammed tight, walls 
cracked vertically in some places sufficient to admit the hand. Masonry chimneys 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 75 

fell from surrounding houses. People rushed out of doors. In house above a heavy 
almirah was pushed into the centre of the room owing to the bulging of the wall. 
Church windows were broken. There were a large number of aftershocks following 
in rapid succession. Miss Hall, nurse in the employ of the above, awoke prior to 
the big shock, stating that she had felt tremors for some time before. She had 
partially dressed in consequence. 

A Statesman correspondent writing on the 5th April described the shock as 
resembling the " Tremor and oscillation of a large ocean steamer going at full speed 
in a choppy sea " and adds that the sensation of sea-sickness was experienced. 
Several houses including Fairy Villa (Chota Simla), Thistle Bank (Barra Simla) and 
Kendal Lodge (Elysium) were vacated. 



Other Routes — {a) Chamba to Lahoul. 

Before altogether leaving the description of this epicentral tract of 
the Kangra-Kulu area it will be well to append two descriptions ot 
certain parts of it in the north and south not visited by myself, but 
of which I possess reliable information. Captain Banon 1 relates that 
Colonel Hayes, 1st Lancers, found Chamba but little damaged, but 
Capt. Banon Col. *^e va U ev °* tne Ravi about Barmaur and up to 
Hayes and Col. Kukti much damaged, especially Kukti, which was 
Vaughan's accounts. comp i Pt el y destroyed. Thence he (Colonel Hayes) 
crossed into Chandra Bhaga Valley to Railing in Lahoul. The earth- 
quake was destructive in this valley, but loss of life small. The 
damage to the Lahoulis' houses was probably due (so Captain Banon 
thinks) to the want of wood in their construction. 

•The Thakoor of Lahoul told Captain Banon that such large masses 
of snow were shaken off the hills that there was a 
mist of snow for two or three hours after the earth- 
quake, which plunged the whole valley into darkness and added very 
much to the prevailing terror. A similar occurrence on a small scale 
happened at Manali in Kulu (see p. 59). Captain Banon also reports 
that Colonel Vaughan, 7th Rajputs, was shooting in the Solung valley, 
and he noticed that the earthquake shook off immense masses of snow, 
30 to 40 feet deep, into the valley as well as rocks which destroyed 



1 In * letter to the Director, Geological Survoy of India 



7G 



M1DDLEM1SS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



hundreds of big trees. Captain Banon further says the very hot 
spring of Basisht was turned quite cold, whilst the 
lukewarm water of Kelat, 4 miles further down the 
valley, was rendered hot. After a week or 10 days they reverted to 
their former state. He also mentions the great prevalence of thunder- 
storms in Kulu during the year of the earthquake, many of them being 
very destructive to cattle and human beings. 

(b) Suket to Simla. 

The following notes were kindly made for me by Mr. Burkill, Re- 
Mr. Burkill's ac- porter on Economic Products to the Government of 
count uear Suket. India, who had occasion to take the above route in 
May 1906. Although this was nearly a year after the earthquake, there 
was no difficulty in obtaining trustworthy information in such out-of- 
the-way places where life moves slowly and there is no news to distract. 
The damage reported agrees with what was to be expected, and 
usefully fills a gap left blank by my own traverses of the region :— 




Fig. 23. 



KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAL AREA. 77 

The road below near Jay Devi slipped at the time of the earth- 
quake where it passes over a patch of gray shaly 
stuff. Slates fell off the Geri rest-house and the 
house of the Chokidar and the house of the Lurobardar were badly 
damaged. At Suket a new spring appeared. 

The earthquake did no damage at Jhungi. The houses here are 
made of wood and took no harm. It is true that 
the Chokidar's house at Geri fell ; it was an old 
house with horizontal lines of rotten wood in between the stones. At 
Geri it is the practice to build with stone. There was a vertical crack 
found in the wall of the bungalow at Geri. The bungalow at Jhungi 
though outwardly of stone has a lot of wood in it. People ran out of 
their houses at Jhungi, but nothing more happened. 

At Pangna is a picturesque fort which was in no way damaged by 
the earthquake. 

The earthquake shook slates off the Chindi bungalow and damaged 

sundrv rotten houses in the neighbourhood. It 
Chindi. -■•„', • i , 

stopped all the springs, and water has now to be 

carried some distance (2 miles). 

The earthquake shook down corners of some dilapidated houses, 

but did no damage to good houses. A spring 

opened where none had been before. 

The earthquake shook a few old and rotten houses in this village 

and slightly altered the springs which in some cases 

emerged at different points, but there is plenty of 

water near Charag. The rest-house on the hill top was damaged in 

this way. Over the window on the right hand side the masonry was 

twisted so that there are two obliquely vertical cracks, and the same 

side of both cracks is thrown forward out of the plumb in one case two 

inches, in the other case one inch. 

A third crack runs from the corner of the window through the top 

of the door near it round by the top of the window to the front door 

of the bungalow. Inside a lot of plaster had fallen but the wall is 

not damaged. 



78 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Owing to the dilapidated state* of this bungalow which is of the 
common type in Suket, it is easy to see how the walls are made. They 
are made of stones of all shapes carefully fitted together without 
cement, covered with about an inch of plaster. 

I have been more than a fortnight in these hills and have felt no 
earthquake shocks, but at Chindi I was assured that there had been an 
earthquake five days before my arrival and another twelve days 
before ; and here at Alsundi the Chokidar says that there was an earth- 
quake at 3 30 this afternoon. Not one of them have I felt. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 79 

CHAPTER II. 

MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 

In the final part of Chapter I, it has been shown that the destruc- 
tive energy of the earthquake, as recogn sect at the surface ol the 
ground, showed such a well-marked decline between Larji and the 
neighbourhood of Kot, and was followed as far as Simla by an area 
so much more uniform and of so much less intensity, that we may be 
said to have emerged from the epicentral and meizoseismal tract alto- 
gether. This now-entertd-on area of much more uniform and less 
intense destruction continues to surround the Kangra-Kulu epicentral 
tract, and to be everywhere followed hy still wider zones of still less 
intensity — except in one direction only, namely, that of the immediate 
neighbourhood of Mussoorie and Dehra Dun, where a slight but marked 
increase sets in. This has already been considered m my preliminary 
report to indicate a second minor epicentral tract in the latter area. 
Partly on this account and partly because of the importance of the large 
towns of Dehra Dun -and Mussoorie, a separate description of this minor 
epicentral area was desirable. Two officers of the Geological Survey were 
deputed to this region, namely, Messrs. R. R. Simpson and K. A. K. 
Hallowes, and the account now to follow is largely the result of their 
work. It is supplemented, however, by a considerable number of inde- 
pendent local accounts furnished by direct report and by the filled-in- 
earthquake forms by officials and private residents. These are more 
numerous than in the case of the Kangra-Kulu epicentral tract, where the 
mortality was too great and where rescue and relief work were too 
urgent in their demands to allow leisure for scientific reports. 

In geological structure the Dehra Dun and the surrounding part 

Geological struc- °* the hills resemble the Kangra Valley area on a 

ture. gm all scale. The valley of the Dun itself is occupied 

by sandy alluvium resting on sub-recent gravel deposits and consolidated 

debris fans which in their turn overspread the folded Upper Tertiary 



§0 MTDOLEMISs : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

rocks of the Siwalik and Nahan stages. The main boundary fault 
separates these from the older slates and limestones of the Mussoorie 
ridge, just as occurs north of Dharmsala in the Kangra Valley 
generally, and along the Guma-Drang-Mandi line of country already 
described. 

Dehra Dun Town. 

Dehra Dun, besides being a large native town and the cold weather 
head-quarters of the district civil staff, has also several battalions of 
Gurkhas in cantonments. It is also the head-quarters of the Trigono- 
metrical and Forest Surveys of India, of the Agricultural Chemist and 
Cryptogamic Botanist to the Government, and of the Forest School. 
The Imperial Cadet Corps, and the Viceroy's Body-Guard and private 
stables are also accommodated here. It is consequently a town of 
considerable size, importance and variety as regards buildings. 

The following notes are by Mr. R. R. Simpson : — 

Dehra Dun is buiit on alluvial sand and boulders, the foundations of 
Construction of buildings being usually composed of a layer of from 
buildings, etc. i to 4 ft. of concrete. The buildings are con- 

structed of burnt brick with lime mortar, of boulder masonry with lime 
mortar, of unburnt brick with mud moitar, or of combinations 
of these materials. Of these classes the first three are mentioned in 
order of merit as re sisters of damage due to the recent earthquaking. 
The value of the !a&t group naturally varies with the kind of 
combination. With regard to roofing the following different types * in 
use (pi. 20), are mentioned in order of merit solely with reference to 
the assistance which they render to the w alls on which they rest (1) 
arched roof with iron ties ; (2) jack-arched roofing, i.e., composite 
arches with steel joists, the last arch on either side being tied to the 
walls ; (3) flat terraced roofs, usually with wooden beams ; (4) pent 
roofing of galvanized iron on fight, wooden framing ; (5) thatched 
roofing. 

l Sketches of these types figs. 1, 2 and 3 with explanation were kindly furnished 
by Captain A. Anderson, Executive Engineer, Public Works Department. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. gl 

Well-built erections of brick, usually with tied or jack-arched roofs , 
have suffered little, whilst some few, such as the Public Works Depart- 
ment Executive Engineer's office have escaped unscathed. The damage 
throughout the station and in the bazars, is, however, very serious, and 
a large number of buildings will require to be re-constructed. 

Details of damage done in Dehra Dun. 

This is a double-story bungalow facing west. Its walls are two - 
Binfield, No. 24 * eet thick, and in the lower story are of unburnt 
Rajpur Road. brick, the upper story being a combination of 

boulder and burnt-brick masonry. The building is poorly constructed. 
The corners of most of the rooms have opened out, often as much as 
one inch of separation being measurable. The principal damage is to 
walls running E. — W. The cracks approximate both to the vertical and 
horizontal but usually follow lines of weakness. The roof is of gal- 
vanized iron carried on wooden beams. Neither it nor the floors have 
sustained injury. 

Articles of pottery standing on brackets running E. — W. were 
thrown down, whilst those on shelves at right angles were unaffected. 

Principal direction of motion probably N. — S. 

Double-story building with walls 20 inches thick constructed of 

No. 33 Rajpur Durnt brick. Faces S. 40° E. The upper story is 

Road. wrecked the corners of most of the rooms having 

opened out. The main cracks in the walls run from N.E. to S.W. 

Principal direction of motion was N.W. — S.E. 

A well-built structure of small, burnt bricks, aligned N. 45° W. It 
St. Thomas' has sustained no serious injury. The worst cracks 

Church, are those which follow the junction of the nave and 

transepts. The transepts were additions to the original building, and 
consequently their separation can be understood. An old crack in the 
arch at the N.W. end of the nave has opened out further, but the 
tower above it is undamaged. Several window arches show slight 
cracks at the crown, particularly that at the S. E. end of building. 

Principal direction of motion N.E. —S.W. 

G 



S2 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE, 



Well-constructed building of burnt brick, with steel beams and 
Imperial Forest jack- arched roofs and ceilings. The principal crack 
School. runs N. 25° E. Most of the damage is in the upper 

story, where the corners of the library have opened out slightly. 
Principal direction of motion was N. 65° W— S. 65° E. 
No. 18 Lytton Single-story thatched bungalow of poor, unburnt 
R °ad. brick. Faces N. 30° E. 

Projecting bay on north front was thrown out completely, and the 
whole building was badly shaken. Chief cracks run in N. — S. direction. 
Principal direction of motion was from west to east. 
Single-story, thatched bungalow x>i mud and unburnt brick. 
No. 3 Lytton Faces N. 60° W. Wall facing S. 30° W. fell down 
towards both sides. 
Principal direction of motion was N. 60° W. — S. 60° E. 
A single-story brick bungalow of recent and good construction. Is 
one of the few buildings whicii show only a few 
very slight cracks. 
The worst-damaged building is a long barrack aligned N. 80° W., and 
built of boulder masonry tied with burnt brick. 
JaU Only slight cracks show in the longer walls, but the 

end walls are badly fractured diagonally, as shown in fig. 24. 



Road. 



Club. 



5.10 W- 




Fig. 24 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 33 

The quarters of the jail-warders are situated outside the jail. They 
comprise a long barrack aligned N. — S. Three cross-walls out of six 
have collapsed, whilst the longer walls are cracked at many points. 

Principal direction of motion was W. — E. 

The chimney at the south end fell to S. 12° W., but this direction 

coincides with that of the slope of the thatched roof 
Sessions house. _ , . , . __ . p . 

through which it passes. The corners of mo3t of the 

rooms have opened out slightly. The principal cracks in the walls run 

N.-rS. 

Principal direction of motion W. — E. 

CeAetery. No damage visible. 

Barracks aligned N. 60° W. One building has been cracked longi- 
tudinally from end to end, the fracture being about 
one foot above the ground. The end walls are 
fractured diagonally. 

Principal direction of motion S. 30° W.— N. 30° E. 

Post Office. Verv sli S nt cracks running S. 55° E. 

All the buildings] are of substantial brick masonry, and are 

aligned N. 15° W. The main building is intact, but 

that used by the refreshment contractors has beer 

considerably damaged. The corners of the rooms have opened out 

slightly. Walls running E. — W. have been damaged at the top by the 

motion of the roof-beams, and they also show vertical cracks. 

In the goods shed the northern wall was shattered- by the motion of 
the roof -beams along a line parallel and close to the roof. 

In the engine shed three out of eight arches on the east face 
were cracked at the crown. In the south wall a few slight cracks are 
to be seen, but the large arches are uninjured. 

A pendulum clock on an E. — W. wall did not stop. 

Apparent direction of principal movement N. — S. 

The houses are chiefly aligned N. 55° W.— S. 55° E., and walls in 
this direction are more cracked than those at right 

bafatpXrLld! angleS ' Several cornices > however, ^11 to N. E. 
The octagonal minaret of a mosqwe measuring 

g2 



g4 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

24 ft. by 3 ft., shows a fine but distinct crack round the base, but no 
displacement has occurred. 

In a house belonging to Lichi Ram, banker, walls running N.-rS. 
are cracked diagonally, and those aligned E. — W. vertically. Several 
ceilings are cracked along lines parallel and close to walls running 
N.— S. 

In another badly -damaged house walls running E. — W. show cracks 
from one to four inches wide. 

A three-story house was injured, the chief cracks being vertical 
and occurring in N.W. — S.E. walls. 

In a two-story house in Dhamawala a wall running N.W. — S. E. 
has broken away from its companion cross- walls and leans to N. E. 
The height of the wall is 25 feet, and the horizontal displacement at the 
top was six inches. In the same building walls running N. E. — S. W. 
are badly cracked in a vertical direction. 

The police-station is a two-story building facing S. 50° E. Walls 
running in that direction are seriously cracked. The front portion of 
the building is an addition. It has been separated from the original 
portion along the line of junction (see pi. 17, fig. 2). Shattering of 
ceiling plasiter which has occurred is clearly the result of the " draw " 
of beams'running N. W. — S. E. 

A double-story house, 22 feet high, was completely wrecked. The 
building faces S. 60° E., and the front wall, IS feet in length, fell out, 
canying with it a portion of the side wall facing S. 30° W. The length 
of the latter is 7 feet. These fallen walls formed two sides of the 
front room. An examination of the fractured ends of the wajlls showed 
that in many cases bricks had been actually sheared through. Of the 
remaining waLs the worst cracks occur in those parallel to the front of 
the house. Considering this last fact it is possible that the shorter wall, 
facing S. 30° W., was the first to fall, and the cause of the fall of the 
front of the house. 

A two-story house facing S. 35° E. suffered severe injury. A 
portion of the front wall fell outwards whilst the side walls were badly 
cracked. 






MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPTCENTRAL TRACT. 



85 



Apparent direction of principal motion is from N.W. to S.E. 

This is a massive brick building aligned N. 70° W. It is 75 feet 
Roman Catholic l° n g, an( l 25 feet in width and has a pointed roof. 
Cha P el - The longer walls are each supported by six buttresses 

measuring 3 feet by 2 feet. On the north and south faces more than 
half of the buttresses are cracked horizontally at points from 2- — 3 feet 
from the ground ; whilst two of them are separated by cracks from 
the walls. In the same walls the cracks. hade to the east, at angles of 
0°, 20°, 30°, and 45° from vertical. 

On the east face the porch has slightly separated from the main 
building. Of the arches in the porch that facing east is cracked 
vertically at the crown, whilst in those at right angles the cracks hade 
east at about 30° from vertical. The main east wall shows a crack 
hading N. at 45°, and also slight irregular fracturing. A well pro- 
nounced horizontal crack runs along the wall at the level of the spring 
of the roof. In the interior the four corners are slightly cracked. The 
roof and ceiling are partly carried by a series of five tranverse arches. 
Everyone of these arches is cracked, and as they are somewhat flat and 
are said to have been built without key-stones, would have collapsed, but 
that they are held to the main walls by ircn ties. The nature of the 
damage to two of these arches is shown in fig. 25. 



K 


3 1 13 




/-i 




/ \/ \ 










J 



TIC ROO 



Fig. 25 
Apparent direction of principal motion N. 20° E.— S. 20° W. 



86 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Single-story bungalow facing N. 70° W. The arches of the front and 
Mr. R. G. Melill's back verandah are cracked in a vertical direction at 
house - the crown and spring. Walls running S. 20° W. — 

N. 20° E., show cracks from 0—1 inches wide hading S. at 10°— 20° 
One crack, however, hades N. at 35°. The back wall runs in the same 
direction, and has moved out one inch at the top to the east. In walls 
at right angles the cracks hade W. at 5° — 15°, one wall moving £ inch 
at the top to the south. Bottles on a shelf parallel to a wall running 
N. 20° E. fell outwards to N. 70° W. The front verandah is partially 
separated by cracks from the main building. 

Apparent direction of principal motion N. 70° W. — S. 70° E. 

This building faces N. 70° W. The damage is confined to the 

Messrs. Hobart verandah and the front portion of house. The 

and Hampden's cracks in the former follow structural lines, and 

housG 

are chiefly parallel to the front of the house. In the 
latter the cracks run S. 20° W. and hade W. at 15°— 20°. 

A balustrade fell outwards to the south, whilst articles on E. — W. 
walls fell outwards in the same direction. 

Apparent direction of principal motion N. 70° W.~ S. 70° E. 

Faces N. 30° E; The front of the building fell outwards to N. 30° E. 

Col. Swettenham's The inner main wall parallel to the above moved 

house - out one inch at the top, and is considerably bulged 

in the same direction. An arch running N. 30° E. fell chiefly to N. W., 

whilst a main wall in the same direction is cracked vertically. 

Apparent direction of principal motion N. 30° E. 

Faces N. 50° W. There are numerous structural cracks in the front 

Mr Eccle'e bunca- Anc * ^ack verandahs, and the thrust of the main 

k w » walls has separated them from the building. The 

front wall is cracked horizontally about two feet below the roof . It 

also exhibits strong vertical fractures. 

Ipparent direction of principal motion N. 50° W. — S. 50° E. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EP1CENTRAL TRACT. 



87 



Verona Villa. 



Dehra Dun Cantonment. 

This is a single-story brick and thatch bungalow facing N. 12° W. 
The verandah is supported on octagonal brick 
pillars measuring 15 inches by eight feet. All of 
these are fractured at the base, and one of them has moved three- 
eighths of an inch to N. 60° W., whilst others show slight movement to 
W. and N. W. The pillars are in groups of three, the brickwork being 
continuous at the base and the top. This connection has been broken 
at the top, chiefly along an E. — W. line. The western wall of the house 
has fallen, causing the roof on this side to collapse (see pi. 17, fig. 1). 
Of the numerous cracks within the building, the most pronounced 
run E.— W. 

Apparent direction of principal motion, N. 12° W.— S. 12° E. In the 
Imp. Cadet Corps' adjutant's bungalow, a new building now in course 
new quarters. f erec tion, three chimney s, measuring 3' x 3' x 10', 

were cracked at the base, one of them being displaced to the extent 
of half-an-inch in a direction N. 60° W. In the cadets' quarters the 
verandah arches at the four corners of buildings are damaged. The 
injury is due to the fact that the pillars being unsupported at one end 
were unable to withstand the thrust of the arches. The damage is 
precisely similar at each corner, as shown in fig. 26. 




Fig. 26. 

The steel and corrugated iron roof of the covered tennis-court is 
carried 6 feet above the longer main walls by ten brick pillars, each 
measuring 2' x2'x 6'. These are all cracked at the base. At the 



88 MIDDLEMISS t KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

points where the steel roof girders rest on the end walls the brickwork is 
much jarred, as if the beams had drawn. As, however, the corners of 
the building are intact, it is possibly caused by up and down motion. 
The minarets of a mosque near by are cracked horizontally at the 
base. 

The factory is a strongly constructed brick building, and is little 
Kowlagarh tea injured. Some very flat arches running N. 5° E. 
cstate - have been cracked at the crown. Several walls 

running N. — S. have moved slightly to the west. Filled-in arches 
display cracks round the edge of the filling. The pillar supporting the 
filled-in verandah arches at the S. W. corner was cracked horizontally 
by the thrust of the arches. The manager's bungalow is seriously 
injured. It is a large thatched house facing N. 70° W., and is built of 
sun-dried brick, except for the arches, which are of burnt brick. On 
the front face the outer verandah pillars are cracked through horizen- 
tally 2 feet from the base, whilst the inner verandah arches display 
both vertical and horizontal cracks. Wing walls in line with the front 
oi the house have been separated from the building by cracks i inch 
wide. Wing walls at right angles show even further separation. The 
cracks in the walls are chiefly vertical. The office is a long two -story 
building aligned N. 60° W. The lower story is built of burnt brick, and 
the upper story of sun-dried" brick. The junction of the two materials 
is now shown by a horizontal crack running right round the building. 
A portion of the S. W. face, in the upper story, has fallen outwards* 
On the N. E. face two cracks pass through both stories. One is 
vertical, whilst the other hades 4° to S. E. 

The staff lines are built parallel to the office. The end walls 
display fractures hading N. 30° E. at 5° to 20°. Tiles on a roof sloping 
S. 30° W. fell in that direction. 

The owner's bungalow is a square double-story brick building 
facing S. 38° W. The lower story is intact except at the four corners, 
where the thrust of the verandah arches was unsupported. In the 
upper story a portion of the verandah facing S. 38° W. fell outwards. 
The back wall has moved out a full inch, .whilst walls in the same 






MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 39 

direction show cracks hading from 0° — 20° in opposite directions. 
Wing walls running S. 52° E. have separated from the principal 
structure. The kitchen is a detached circular building. The most 
pronounced crack runs through it on a N. 15° W. course. Walls of 
outbuildings aligned N. 60° W. fell to S. 30° W. In the godowns the 
principal damage is to walls facing S. W., the cracks hading from 
0°— 10° to K W. 

I11 a mud-built shed walls running N. 55° W. display cracks hading 
N. W. at 15° and 17°, another fracture hading S. E. at 5°. The cross- 
wall fractures hade S. 35° W T . at 25°. 

In this collection of buildings the principal direction of motion was 
apparently N. E. — S. W., but there is considerable evidence of motion 
in other directions. 

Estimates of the duration of the chief shock vary irom 2 seconds 
Duration and cha- to as many minutes. The general opinion was 
racier of principal fl^ [ t l as ted from forty-five to sixty seconds. 

shock, and direction 
of impulse, etc. 

The quake appears to have begun with mild vibrations which 
lasted long enough for those who were awake at the time to reach the 
door. The violent oscillations were two or three in number, dying 
away in the same manner as the disturbance began. Colonel Burrard 
considered that the vibrations were horizontal in direction, and had a 
frequency of about three per second. In his opinion the disturbance 
ceased abruptly. Many observers detected a distinct rocking motion 
sufficient to cause trees to sway, and to disturb the balance of those 
standing or attempting to walk. 

Those who were awake at the time record hearing noises which are 
said to resemble the rushing sound of a gale or a railway train in 
motion. 

From an analysis of my own notes of injury to buildings, etc.. and 
the observations of eye-witnesses the oscillation appears to have come 
from practically every direction. To a number of comp> tent observers, 
however, the motion in the case of the chief shock appeared to be 



90 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

from north to south. The question is complicated by the fact 
that many of the houses are built on the banks of wide and deep 
nalas, which must have considerably influenced the direction of princi- 
pal oscillation of the buildings. 

The general consensus of opinion fixes the occurrence of the 
principal shock at times varying from 6-9 to 6-12 

Time, of quake. .-, , . 

a.m. (Madras time). 

Enquiry at the local post offices, the railway station, and else- 
where shows that in many cases clocks were stopped by the disturb- 
ance, but that in few cases was the actual time of stoppage noted 
before setting the clocks going. 

The most reliable time observations were made at the offices of 
the Survey of India. Through the courtesy of Lieutenant-Colonel 
S. B. Burrard, R.E., F.R.S., Superintendent, Trigonometrical Survey, 
to whom I am much indebted for kindly assistance, I have been 
supplied with full information in regard to the Survey clocks. The 
chief of these are the sidereal clock, the turret clock, and the clocks 
attached to the magnetograph, barograph, and thermograph. The 
sidereal clock, which gives the time to the other clocks, was stopped 
by the shock, but, unfortunately, the subordinate in charge set it 
going again without noting the time of stoppage. The pendulum of 
the turret clock swings- from N. 73° W. to S. 73° E. or approximately at 
right angles to the meridional swing of the pendulum of the sidereal 
clock. It stopped at 6h. 10m. 30s. (Madras time) and the correction 
for the clock at 6 a.m. on the 4th was -r 34 seconds. Therefore 
assuming that the clock stopped within 4 or 5 seconds of the 
commencement of the shock, we have 6h. 11m. 4s. le3S 4 or 5 seconds, 
or 6h. 11m. 0s. (Madras time) as the nearest possible approximation. 
It corresponds to 6h. 2m. 15s. local mean time. In this estimate, 
however, we cannot be absolutely certain that the clock stopped 
within the assigned 4 or 5 seconds. 

The time evidence from the magnetograph and barograph traces 
is generally corroborative of this, but as the trace of the former can 
only be read to within 1 minute and that of the latter to within 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. gi 

15 minutes, they will not be considered further here. A report by- 
Captain R. H, R. Thomas, R.E., of the times as registered on the 
magnetograph curves at Dehra Dun, Kodaikanal, Barrackpore, and 
Toungoo will be found at p. 292. 

Although the connection between the two events is not obvious, 
Magnetic disturb- ^ * s ^cresting to note that a strong magnetic dis- 
ance previous to turbance commenced at 6 a.m. on April 1st, and 
quake * lasted until 4 a.m. on the 2nd. These disturbances 

usually coincide with the appearance of sun-spots, but in this case none 
was visible. 1 Previous to the quake sun-spots had been last recorded 
on the 2nd of March. The magnetic disturbance of April 1st and 2nd 
was fully equal to the average disturbance recorded during the passage 

of sun-spots. 

Earthquake Forms — Dehra Dun. 

[Note. — As Mr. R. R. Simpson's special report on damage to 
buildings in this town has just been given, the summary of the earth- 
quake forms which follows only reproduces remarks referring to such 
when they are of special interest. As the question of the time 
of the main shock has also been gone into exhaustively by the Trigono- 
metrical Survey officers for Dehra Dun' itself, it is also useless repro- 
ducing a large number of mere guesses. Personal impressions of the 
shock are given in some detail as their place could not be supplied by 
later investigation. Aftershocks are all grouped together in a separate 
chapter of this volume. As already explained in the Introduction, 
it has been found impossible to quote every one owing to evidence 
repeating itself and to lack of space. All sleepers were awakened.] 

Ram Ratan, Overseer, P. W. D. — The motion was like a machine sieve worked 
by an engine. Bottles, clocks, etc., on shelves facing W. or E. fell. Buildings of 
Indian Cadet Corps under construction (without roofs) suffered more than those 
with roof complete. Hanging lamps swung roughly E.— W. 

Col. G. Strahan, R.E. — The first shock was violent and lasted about 50 sees, 
in violent phase. (N.B. — The writer has had great experience in time measure- 
ments in astronomical observations and thinks 50 sees, correct.) Chimneys were 
thrown clear one to the N. 8° E. and one to S. S° W. The water of many tanks 
washed over the N. side. Hanging lamp swung through 15° of arc in all direc- 

1 Solar photographs are taken twice daily at the Survey of India Offices.- 



(,2 MTDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 






tionfl as stun one minute afterwards. Pictures thrown as much as 30° (measured) 
from the vertical. Those on E. — W. walls more disturbed than those on N. — S. 
walls. Pendulum clock with plane of vibration nearly duo E. — W. did not stop. 
Trees swayed and leaves rustled. There was a sensation of considerable horizon- 
tal motion rather than of a passing wave. House (a " kutcha " thatched bunga- 
low) cracked everywhere. People rushed out. He was detained 20 to 30 seconds 
by a jammed door. 

V.. R. Stevens, Offg. Deputy Conservator of Forests. — A whisky bottle, soda 
water bottle and glass fell N. — S. on table. The sound like string of bullock carts 
punning on a road. It was a continuous sound. 

Mukundananda Aeharya, Meteorol. Observer. — Describes general panic, and 
that many passed the night outside. Bottles and light articles fell generally E. 
and W. Most house cracks were vertical. 

Mr. C. 13. Lall, Signaller. — Chimneys rocked from W. — E. There was a rum- 
bling sound off and on, heard the strongest at the first shock. Doors and windows 
banged, roofs creaked and ornaments fell off their stands. 

Babu Abdul Jabil, Head Clerk in Dist. Engineer's Office.— Time 6-10 a.m. by 
2 clocks and a watch keeping G. T. Survey time. The clocks stopped. Four dis- 
tinct shocks, 2 vertical and 2 horizontal. Slight ones from W. — E. and 2 most 
terrible ones. Total duration of shocks 35 sees, (guessed). Bottles and phial on 
shelf fell E. Noise like railway train in distance. He fell down with the shock, 
and was much alarmed thinking the roof would fall. 

Mr. O. C. Ollcnbach, Survey of India. — Time 6 hrs. 10 mins. 30 sees. (Madras 
time) by clock in G. T. Survey Office (uncorrected), which stopped. There was a 
noise before like the approach of a great storm. 2nd, slight shocks for about 2 
sees. 3rd, 3 very distinct and severe shocks in very rapid succession. 4th, several 
others decreasing in force till all was quiet. A lamp fell from S. — N. Vase from E. 
to W. Pot on chimney fell E. — W. Lamp swung from S. — N. The sounds con 
tinued till the shocks had nearly ceased. House cracks vertical from above and 
one horizontal one near the floor. 

Birbal, Asst. Instructor and Curator, Imperial Forest School. — There were 1st 
tremu! . vibrations, which he thought were palpitations of the heart. 2nd, dis- 
tinct* .. .ular and sharp oscillations for 2 mins. 3rd, the movements died away 
regularly. Direction S. — X. by trees and fall of library wall. No sound. 

Lieut. -Col. S. G. Burrard, R.E., F.G.S. — The vibrations were horizontal and 
about 3 per second. After long habits of timing stars and pendulums he can state 
confidently that the complete period of the vibration was distinctly longer than 
£ sec. and less than h sec. He thinks that they were the direct vibration of the 
ground and not those of the building where he was sleeping. Time 6-11 (Madras 
time) from two pendulum clocks in the house whose error was known to within 2 
mins. No prelim, tremors. One big shock which stopped suddenly. Direction 
N. — S. No sound. Vases fell to the ground from brackets on N. — S. walla, 
Xho.se on walls running E. — W. did not fall. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 93 

Mr. H. G. Shaw, Survey of India. — Time (3-10 by watch correct with Survey 
Office turret clock. Direction N. E. — S. W. Sensation like when steamer anchors 
( ? dropping anchor). 

Mr. P. Owen, Station Master. — Direction N.— S. Large shells (ornaments) and 
bottles fell X. W. Sound like wind through a hollow tube was first heard followed 
by the main shock immediately. 

Capt. D. Cameron, Imperial Cadet Corps. — He first thought it was a dog under 
the bed, and then the end of the world. Slight vibration at first, increasing to a 
violent rocking motion. Duration 40 sees. A roaring and rumbling noise. Wine 
bottle fell in cupboard of N. wall. Fern basket in verandah swung E. — W. 45° 
from the vertical. 

S. Aulad Hosein, Extra Assistant Superintendent, G. T. Survey Office — Time 
6 hrs. 10 mins. 30 sees, by standard turret clock of G. T. Survey, which stopped at 
this hour. Direction N. W. — S. E. Sound like a distant train at full speed. The 
following clocks were stopped : — 

Turret clock — whose pendulum swings 290° 15' 

Standard sidereal clock do. 1° 0' 

Mean time clock do. 354° 30' 

The rates of these clocks were also changed by the earthquake. Tank water moved 
N.W.— S. E. 

Mr. R. Willough by-Foster, Solar Photographer to Government, G. T. Survey of 
India.— Time 6-12 by an excellent watch in time with the turret clock. Duration 
of shock 50 to 55 sees. Direction S. W. — N. E. by position of photohelio telescope. 
Sound as of a very strong wind. (Note by Mr. R. R. Simpson) : '* The telescope 
is supported centrally, and can move in any direction. Before the earthquake the 
object end was N. 80° W. of the central pillar. Afterwards it was found N. 25° 
E. of the pillar, and it had moved upwards vertically until arrested by touching 
the wall of the dome." Mr. Foster was in his bathroom standing. He felt the 
wash-hand table sway and water jump about. Tooth water tumbler overturned. 
Water from tub (full) overflowed and wet his feet. He felt " groggy" in the legs 
and suffered nausea. Photo, chemicals in observatory on N. shelves were thrown 
down and broken. Those on E. not affected. Photos of the sun taken on that 
day give a good idea as to how unsteady the earth was. 

Earthquake Forms from Nalapani Crimp, 2 miles E. of De/irq 
Dun 1 — 

Mr. F. H. Grant, Survey Training School. He was under canvas. There were 
2 distinct shocks with one minute interval. The first was the more severe. There 
were vibrations for several minutes afterwards. Sound like rushing wind through 
trees, which accompanied the earthquake. Water in bath tub thrown out in all 
directions but particularly E. — W. There were no preliminary tremors noted. • 

Mr. B. R. Hughes, Survey of India. — One main shock. Direction about N. — 
S. lasting nearly a minute. A rumbling sound like thunder accompanied by as it 



94 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



seemed a high wind during the main shock. He first thought it was a dog under the 
bed. When he got up he could not stand without taking hold of the centre pole 
of t lie tent, which was shaking as if in an awful dust storm. Bottle of kerosine 
oil on ground fell to the E. Bottle of Eno's Fruit Salt half full fell W. on the 
table. Pint bottle of whisky on table did not fall. Banks of streams displayed 
small landslips. 

Abul Aziz, Probationary Sub- Asst., Survey Training School. — One main shock 
N. E.— S.W. Sound like train half a mile away, half a minute before the main 
shock. Bottles fell: Eno's Fruit Salt, Propert's A. and N. Polish, both from the 
W. corner of the table. A fissure at foot of the ridge about 1 ft. wide and running 
X.— S., its length being about 2 chains. One bucket about £ full overturned, 
another was half emptied but not overturned. 

A. G. Harrington, Survey Training School. — One principal shock E. W. A 

pair of Indian clubs in standing position with bases 6 in. diameter and weighing 6 
lbs. each fell down in E. direction. Earth fissure along flat-topped ridge and run- 
ning N. E. with the ridge. Fissure 4 in. wide. 

Raj pur. 
This town lies at the foot of the Mussoorie ridge close to the 
main -boundary fault which is, however, generally hidden by sub-recent 
debris fans and alluvium. Mr. Simpson's account is as follows : — The 
European quarter is to the south, and is built on a gentle slope. It 
has suffered very slightly. The native quarter is chiefly a long 
stragglling street running up a steeply inclined ridge between two deep 
ravines. Much damage has been done in this portion of the town. 
Some few buildings are said to be founded on rock, a soft shale, but 
in most cases the alluvial deposits have not been pierced. 

This is the only building seriously damaged in the European quar- 
ter. It is aligned E. — W., and is built of dry stone 
Mr. Chapman's walling< Tbe easte rn wall contained a large brick 

go down. 

arch, which fell outwards to the east. The ridge 
pole is supported on four pairs of stone pillars, all of which are irregu- 
larly fractured. 

E. — W. wall of small house fell to south. In the next house a 

wall in the same direction displays a strong crack 

hading W. at 25°. A parallel wall fell to the south. 

Gobind Bania's house was considerably wrecked. In it walls running 

X. — 8. show horizontal cracks and cracks hading S. from 10° to 45°. 






MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 95 

The verandahs of many houses have been separated from the main 
structures. The line of separation approximating to N. — S. 

In Hussein Bux's house the principal cracks are in walls running 
N. 30° W., the hade of cracks being to S. at 0° and 25°. Large por- 
tions of a wall enclosing the roof fell outwards from the north and 
west fronts. 

Ajab Pershad's house is fissured in all directions, the principal 
cracks occurring in N. — S. walls. One of the gate-pillars, measuring 
22"x22"x8 / fell to due west. 

Mitan Lai's house, like most of the buildings in Raj pur, is a double- 
story brick erection. In the upper story the south and east fronts 
have fallen out. The chief cracks are in walls running N. 20° E., and 
hade S. at 30°. 

The minaret of a mosque fell to S. 85° E. The broken portion is 
11' 6" long, and is an octagonal prism with faces 13" wide. It fell 
from a height of 12 feet, and the fractured end lies 8' 6" from the base. 
As the base of the mosque is stepped, the minaret probably slipped 
down some distance after falling. 

From the evidence of fallen and cracked walls the chief direc- 
tion of motion was from north to south, or in the same direction as 
the slope of the ground. Of objects falling freely, however, a minaret 
fell to S. 85° E., and a gate-post to due west. 

There is no reliable evidence from Raj pur as to time of the 
shock, and no earthquake forms have been received. 

Mussoorie. 

Between Rajpur and Mussoorie the hillsides are composed of much 
crushed slates and limestone. They rise steeply and culminate in the 
E. — W. Mussoorie -Landour ridge at an elevation of about 7,000 — 
8,000 ft. Mr. Simpson's report continues as follows : — 

Most of the buildings in the station are founded on limestone. 

This rock is usually found lying at high angles. It 

'ouii a ions, s rue- . g f re q Uen ^j y mucn shattered and contains numerous 

tural materials, etc. J 

veins of white calcite. It is often soft, and argil- 



95 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

laceous, and contains shaly bands. In many places it is covered by a 
considerable thickness of calcareous tufa. 

Practically all the houses are constructed of roughly -dressed blocks 
of the limestone set in a mortar composed of one part of burnt lime 
to two or three parts of limestone, gravel, locally known as " budgery." 
Carefully prepared this is an excellent binding material, but in many 
cases no care is taken to clean the "budgery" from intermixed dirt, 
and in such cases the product has little coherence. A peculiar charac- 
teristic of this cement is that should snow lie on it for a few hours it 
subsequently crumbles to pieces, probably owing to the freezing of 
water within its pores. During the winter it is customary to cover 
all exposed cement with straw as a precaution against destruction. 
There are four large two-story rectangular buildings with round 
towers at the corners. The effect of the earth- 
quake has been to wreck the buildings almost 
completely. The towers were overthrown and many portions of 
the walls collapsed. The reasons for this are four-fold : — 1st, the 
foundations are probably not secure, the rock is very soft and 
much shattered, whilst the steep slope at the top of which the 
buildings are erected is largely supported by retaining walls. 2nd, the 
building material is very poor, much of it being of a calcareous tufa- 
ceous nature. 3rd, the construction is bad, the interior of the walls being 
of rubbly material, whilst there is little or no appearance of bonding. 
4th, the corner towers are a source of weakness, for their walls were not 
properly tied to the main structure. The principal damage is in walls 
running approximately E. — W., whilst bay windows facing east or west 
have been separated from the walls by cracks running N. — S. 

In addition to Mr. Simpson's account quoted above, Mr. K. A. K. 
Hallowes also made a minute examination of the Savoy Hotel in 
which he confirmed the above conclusions. His sketch of one of the 
hotel buildings is reproduced (pi. 21), but, considering the style of the 
building, no object will be gained by recording the long lists made 
of positions and directions of cracks in the walls. For the assurance 
of visitors it may be added that the upper stories have since 



MTJSSOORIEDEHKA DUN EP1CESTRAL TRACT. 97 

been pulled down and rebuilt, and the lower stories extensively 
repaired. 

Mr. Simpson continues : — 

This is a large single-story, building constructed of rough limestone 
blocks with brick bonding. It faces S. 10° E. It 

The Convent. ^ gignificant ^ ^ portion f the building built 

on rock is practically uninjured ; whilst the major portion, said to be 
founded on clay, but apparently chiefly on " made ground," is little 
betteT than a ruin, and will require to be entirely rebuilt (see pi. 16, 
fig. 1). In several walls running E.-W. the principal cracks hade 
east at angles of from 0° to 30°, but in the most pronounced case- 
the children's dormitory— the hade is to west at angles of 28° and 34 . 
In two cases strong, horizontal cracks traverse E.— W. walls. In walls 
at right angles the hade is usually N. at 45°. Floor cracks approxi- 
mate to N.— S. in direction, a well pronounced floor crack runmng B. 
15° E. and standing open about i inch. All the verandah pillars are 
injured, those on the north and east fronts being cracked right through 
at the base. The entrance pillars fell east, whilst the pillars of a 
balustrade fell to west. A two-story belfry fell in all directions. The 
principal direction of motion was from west to east. 

With reference to this building Mr. Hallowes remarks that it may 
be that the great damage done to the front with its line of pillars is 
more due to subsidence of the made ground than to the actual shock : 
inasmuch as a little further down the hill the school of the convent, 
which is built in the same style but almost entirely on a ledge of rock, 
has suffered very slightly indeed. His view of the building from the 
north is reproduced (pi. 22). 

Mr. Simpson's account proceeds : — 

This is a two-story building facing N. 7° S. W. It was severely 
injured, the upper-story having been removed prior 
d M ; nicipal bullock to my examination. The lower story shows numer- 
ous structural cracks. The end walls fell outwards. 
A horizontal crack has developed in an E,-W. wall, the cracks in 
walls in that direction usually hade E. at 40°. The most important 



98 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



fissure is, in places, one inch wide, and runs through floors and walls 
alike, coursing N. 50° E. 

Direction of principal motion N.W. — S.E. 

This groap of buildings is constructed partly of limestone blocks, 
and partly of brick. Only one of the buildings has 

Charleville Hotel. « , , „,../,,, . p & . 

sunered severely. This is a brick erection of three 
stories, and is aligned N. 55° W.—S. 55° E. At the S. E. end there are 
square flanking towers, the walls of which make an angle of 135° with 
the walls of the main structure. Every face of these towers is badly 
fractured in all stories except the highest, which is a brick-filled frame 
of wood, and probably yielded to the shock. The cracks are almost 
entirely structural as shown in sketch (fig. 27). 




Fig. 27. 
The most important cracks in the main building run N.W. — S.E., 
but chiefly follow lines of weakness such as bay windows. In a wing 
running N. 35° E. rounded portions of the walls are fractured vertically 
on lines joining window openings, and a few corners of rooms are slight- 
ly cracked. In a wall running N. 55° W. a crack hades S. E. at 30 T 



MTJSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 99 

whilst in walls at right angles the hade of cracks is 0° and 20° to 
S.W. In the roof ot a verandah cracks are displayed running N. 35° 
E., and also at right angles to this direction. 

Faces S. 5° W. Central room displays horizontal crack running 
through all the walls along the line of a cornice 

^listv Cott826 

about 12 inches below the ceiling. The corners of 
all rooms have opened out. Cracks are chiefly vertical, and are most 
pronounced in N. — S. walls. 

Faces due west. The worst cracks are to be seen in N. — S. walls. 
Two chimneys are cracked round the base, and that 
on the east front fell due east towards the slope of 
the roof. 

Faces N. E. A portion of the north-west face fell outwards. 

Walls running N.E. display numerous fractures, 

St. Alban. chiefly on structural lines. (See pi. 16, fig. 2.) 

Several houses in this neighbourhood were wrecked and are now being 

demolished. In every case the material and construction are 

poor. 

This is largely a wooden erection, and such parts are uninjured. 

The eastern portion is of brick, and of this, arches 

in walls running N, — S. are badly cracked. 

This is a strongly built erection of stone and lime oriented S. 60° 

E. The only damage is to the tower, on the N. E 

Christ's Church. ,,-,./ . , 

face of which a waving, vertical crack runs iroin top 
to bottom. On the opposite face a slight crack is to be seen at the 
crown of a window arch, whilst an interior crack occurs over a doorway. 
In the Parsonage a slight floor crack courses N. W., a few slight 
corner cracks have developed, and the roof has been severely jarred. 

This building is aligned N. 20° W. It is under construction. At 
^ „ the time of the quake the skeleton of the building 

^ew R. C. Chapel. 4 , , , f 

was complete. The greatest damage is on the north 

gable, a portion of which fell to the south and the foundations of which 

are said to have sunk from 4 to 9 inches. The face wall of the eastern 

transept fell chiefly to the east. The steel girders forming the roof 

h2 



100 M1DDLEMISS I KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

skeleton were wrenched to the west, the movement finding play at a 
joint. The longer walls, coursing N. — S., are slightly bulged to the east. 
Principal direction of movement W. — E. 

This is a large single story building aligned N. E. The south-west 
verandah is wrecked; and the building shows a num- 
ospj l her of structural cracks, the most pronounced run- 
ning N.E. 
The houses on the south side are built on made ground held by 
T , , retaining walls. Prior to the earthquake these 

Landour bazar. # ° x 

buildings leaned towards the cliff, and this is said 
to have been greatly accentuated at the time of the quake. The dis- 
placement from the vertical is now 9°. Yawning cracks have deve- 
loped, and the buildings are in a highly dangerous condition. 

Pleasure View and These buildings display a number of structural 

the Club House, cracks, the most pronounced traversing a godown 

Happy Valley. ^ ^^ K 7() o, W 

Both these houses have been seriously damaged. Every wall is 

fractured. The evidences of motion are so contra- 

Kildare and Lynd- dictorv that details of the damage are omitted. Tn 

hurst. 

godowns close by walls running N.W. — S.E. show 
cracks hading N. W. at 0° to 30°. 

Niyadmal Bania's In this house walls running N. — S. show strong 

hmise - vertical cracks, chiefly structural. 

A two-story bungalow facing N. 50° W. On the S. E. face a crack 
hades N.E. at 25°. On the S.W. face the cracks 

Krindale. 

are either vertical or hade N.W. at angles up to 45°. 
In the interior there is much damage chiefly on structural lines. 

This house is a large single-story building facing S. 10° W,, and 
built on ^n E. — W. spur. The most conspicuous 
damage is to the north face, which has moved out 
to the north, the displacement near the ceiling being -J- inch. A slight 
ground crack outside courses E. — W. and is parallel to the edge of the 
slope. The water in a tank was thrown out on a line S. 75° W. — N. 
75° E. The edges of this tank show a crack coursing S. 80° E. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 101 

It is a remarkable fact that these buildings, including a brick 
chimney 105 feet in height, are quite uninjured 
The material and workmanship are good. Mr. 
Pbilip Mackinnon, a careful observer, informed me 
that at the time of the earthquake the springs near the brewery sus- 
tained an increase of water of from 25 to 30 per cent., and that this 
increase has been maintained. The same observer states that a 
similar increase took place in the quantity of water in the Dehra Dun 
canals. (See also p. 348. J 

This is a single story bungalow standing on a N. — S. spur and 

facing due south. The east face has moved a full 
Kandi Lodge. . . 

inch at the top outwards.. Other walls running m 

this direction display cracks chiefly vertical. In a wall coursing E. — 

W. a portion, 3 feet wide by 16 feet high, fell towards the north. In 

several parallel walls the cracks hade west at 20°. A ground crack 

running N.W. is parallel to the top of the slope, and probably follows 

the inner edge of a retaining wall. 

Faces X. 20° W. The chief damage is to the north front which has 

moved outwards from one to three inches. A strong 

crack, coursing X. — S.j separates the verandah from 

the house, and on tbe south front a bay window is detached along an 

E. — W. line. N. — S. walls are strongly fractured vertically. 

A few ornaments on shelves coursing E. — W. fell to N. and S. 
Pictures on N.— S. walls were knocked askew, the movement being to 
the north through an angle of 20°. Pictures on walls at right angles 
were undisturbed. Beds on castors moved X. — S. 

A pendulum clock hanging on an E. — W. wall was stopped. Direc- 
tion of principal motion N. — S. 

In the garden stands an octagonal-shaped summer-house built of 
brick. Width of face is 12 feet. Cracks on the X. E. and S.W. faces 
hade S. E. at 10°. On the S. E. face the two cracks are vertical, and 
on the X. W. th bade is 10° to S. W. Inside tbe building the con- 
tents of a boc mining N. 10° W. were thrown outwards to S. W. 
Ornaments on a mantelpiece at right angles were unmoved. 



102 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



In godowns near by an end wall coursing N. W. — S- E. and two 
parallel partition walls were thrown down to N. E. Walls at right 
angles were fractured vertically. 

Direction of principal motion S. W. — N. E. 

This is a poorly-built single-story bungalow facing N. E. It has 

been completely wrecked. Parts of the N. E. and 

S. W. faces fell outwards causing the roof to fall. The 

S. E. face is undamaged, but the N. W. face displays a vertical fracture. 

Direction of principal motion S. W.— N. E. 

Near by, a retaining wall, 20' X 80' x 15", facing S. 20° W. fell 
outwards. 

Retaining walls fell outwards in several places, 

chiefly to N. but occasionally to E. 

An ornament on the top of Major Wheatley's tomb fell to N. 65° E. 

A sandstone cross, erected to the memory of Henry Earl Read, was 

displaced and now leans against the enclosing railing at a point S. 20° 

E. of its original position (fig. 28). 



Cemetery. 




Fig. 28. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 103 

This is a large, rectangular building with three stories along th e 
front and two at the back or towards the rise. It 
faces S. 22° W. The greatest damage is to the south 
verandah which has moved out at the top about § inch. The south 
main wall has moved in the same direction about i inch, and also 
shows faint horizontal cracks. On the east and west faces there are 
many faint cracks hading north at angles of 0°, 1°, 3°, 5°, 10°, 20°, and 
30°. In the interior the walls coursing N. — S. display cracks either 
vertical or hading N. at a low angle. 

No damage was done to the treasury and the European lock-up, 
but the native lock-up and the police office display very slight cracks 
running chiefly E. — W. 

General direction of motion N. — S. 

Coolie barracks near this house have been damaged. They face 
the hill slope and to N. 25° E. The north face has 

Grey Castle. . . . 

partially fallen outwards. An interior partition 
wall running E. — W. fell to the south. An end wall displays cracks 
hading N. at 20°. 

General direction of motion N. — S. 

Faces S. 75 E. The front verandah is separate d from the main 
building. In a detached building a wall coursing 

Evelyn Hall. N 2QO £ fi^^ g crack hading g at 1Q o 

An annexe faces N. and walls running N.—S. are cracked, the chief 
fracture hading N. at 2°. 

A wall coursing N. 5° E. is fractured vertically, another crack, 
however, hades N. at 10°. A crack in a wall at 

Hazlemere. . . „ 

right angles hades E. at 20°. 

The kitchen is a separate building facing N. 18° E. A wall in that 
direction shows irregular branching cracks approximating to the verti- 
cal. The walls at right angles display a strong crack hading N. at 
10°, and a lesser fracture hading N. at 70°. 



104 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

It is worthy of mention that this, probably the largest and most 
substantial building in Mussoorie, has escaped with- 

Hiateau Kaparlhala. . 

out a trace ot damage, it is a two -story, oblong 
ereetion aligned N. 15° W. — S. 15° E. Towers at the corners are about 
50 ft. high, and carry conical roofs rising about 20' further. The 
building is constructed of hard, roughly-dressed limestone with layers , 
2 feet apart, of brickwork 10" thick. 

This is a large single-story bungalow aligned N. 55° W. Walls in 
that direction are fractured vertically in a few 
places. The chief cracks run through the building 
on a line N. 35° W.-S. 35° E. 

This is a two-story, stone built house facing north and south. 
It is very badly damaged, the chief injury being 

Gowrie House. . _ 

cracks in E, — W. walls hading E. at angles of from 
0°to35°. 

Gurernnient Tele- A few slight cracks are to be seen in N. — S. walls 

giaph Office. on j y 



General Post Office. 



Considerable damage was done. A portion of a 
wall fell to S. 10° E. The worst cracks are in walls 
coursing N. E.— S. W. 

During- t' great shock a large number of bottles fell towards 
Mr. F. Bristoe's the north. By the shock occurring near midnight of 
■ h0 P- the same day the same bottles fell towards the 

west. 

Mr. Hallo wes has described the interesting case of the clock on 
Turret clock. the Methodist Church, Mussoorie. This clock which 

Methodist Church. was fally wound up, had stopped on April 3rd (the 
day before the earthquake) owing to the striking gear getting out of 
order, but on the morning of the 4th it was found to be going, having 
been restarted by the earthquake. As the pendulum was only free to 
swing in a slit running N. 50° W. which was very nearly at right 
angles to the long axis of the building as a whole it seems likely that 



MUSS00R1E-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 



105 



the building rocked as a whole about that axis and imparted the neces' 
sary swing to the pendulum. (See fig. 29.) 




Fig. 29. — A = slit in which pendulum swung. 

Mr. Simpson's account continues : — 

On or near the road from Dehra Dun to Mussoorie via Rajpur 

Fissures and land- there appear to be no ground fissures or recent 

landslips. On the southern slope of the Mussoorie 

ridge, and some distance west of the road, two small landslips are said 

to have occurred at points where slips arc wont to occur annually 

during or after the rainy season. 

The only landslip of importance of which information has been 
received took place near the Kampti falls, about 9 miles west of 
Mussoorie, and on the northern slope of the ridge. This locality was 
visited by Mr. Hallowes, who has described it as having occurred along 
the line of a steeply inclined fissure partly infilled with stalagmite. A 
few other minor slips on the Mussoorie- Chakrata road were reported 
by Captain A. Anderson, Public Works Department, Executive Engi* 
neer, Dehra Dun District. 

In Mussoorie itself several fissures were made in the roads by the 
shock. They were filled up immediately afterwards, and nothing was 
to be seen al the time of my visit. Their position and extent was, 



106 MIDDLEM1SS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

howevei, pointed out to me by Mr. Keatinge, the Secretary to the 
Municipality. In no case was vertical displacement involved. 

(1) Crack on the Mall in front of Messrs. Bevan's music shop. 
Said to have followed the centre of the road for 100 feet 
on a course S. 60° E. The rock hereabouts is far from 
homogeneous. In the excavation for the foundations of 
the houses numerous clay-filled fissures are said to have 
been met with. 
2) On the Camel's Back road, the small terraced pro- 
montory known as Scandal Point displays a number of 
cracks. This terrace is largely of "made ground.' * The 
fissures are only to be found in the " filling, " and do not 
traverse the rock. 

(3) On the north of Camel's Hump a crack is said to have opened 

out about 4 feet from the outer edge of the road, and to 
have run parallel with the edge for 125 feet on a course 
N. 85° W. The width of this crack was about ■ 2 inches, 
and the depth exceeded three feet six inches. 

(4) On the Mall, just above " The Dingo," a crack, 50 feet in 

length, 3 inches wide, and exceeding 3 i feet in depth, opened 
up on a line approximately parallel to the edge of the road. 
Owing to there being a curve at this point the distance 
of the crack from the edge of the road varies from 4 to 
12 feet. The road is flanked by a retaining wall perhaps 
12 feet wide. 

(5) On the Mall below the Kacheri. This crack is said to have 

been 150 feet long and half-an-inch wide. It ran along 
the road about 20 feet from the edge, and 6 feet from the 
wall of the cutting. 

(6) The cracks in Landour bazar have already 'been referred to. 

They are several in number and from 0" to 3" wide. They 
do not pass through the road, and are probably confined 
to " made ground " held by retaining walls. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. j()7 

In nearly every case these fissures run parallel to the edge of the road 

cuttings in a direction approximately east and west. They, however, 

afford little evidence as to the general direction of the earthwaves. 

These vary from 6-6 to 6-15 a.m. The most 

Time records. 

reliable are : — 

(1) Clock in Postmaster's house which stopped at 6-10 a.m. 

(2) Clock in the Government Telegraph office which stopped at 

6-10 a.m. Both clocks are said to have been correct at the time. 

All accounts agree that the shock was a violent one. Several 

observers noticed three distinct shocks with intervals 

Character and _ 

direction of shock : °* between two or three seconds, the whole lasting 
sound phenomena, from one to two minutes. One eye-witness records 
preliminary tremors lasting 15-20 seconds. Mr. P. 
W. Mackinnon says : — " The first shock continued for two minutes. 
After an interval of 10 minutes another shock less severe occurred, 
followed by several slight shocks up to 8 a.m. ; seven shocks in all . . 
There were a great number of tremulous vibrations in the intervals 
between shocks up to 8 a.m." 

Nearly all observers consider that the earthquake motion was from 
south to north or vice versa. The evidence of buildings is very con- 
tradictory, but the worst-damaged structures apparently moved in a 
W. — E. direction. The water in tanH was observed to move both E.— W. 
and N. — S. The direction of swing was undoubtedly largely influ- 
enced by topographical features, ridges vibrating along a line at 
rignt angles to their axes. The general direction of the Mussoorie 
ridge is N. 75° W.— S. 75° E. Many people noticed moaning, rumbling 
or rattling noises just before and accompanying the chief shock. 

Mr. Fisher, a local watchmaker, hung up a pendulum at 2 p.m. on 
the 4th April. During the after-shocks, this pendulum swung freely. 
Its direction of swing is N. 38° W.—S. 38° E. 

Landour. 
The lower portion of the Landour ridge on the west is composed 
Foundations and of a continuation of the limestone upon which 

Btmctural materials. Mu&soorie ^ built The upper part consists f 



] 08 MIDDLKMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 






thinly-bedded buff to brown or dull purple shale. This rock is often 
friable. It is frequently siliceous, and contains thick bands of white 
quartzite, and occasionally steel-grey sandstone. 

Most of the buildings are constructed of stone, usually the same 
rock as the building is founded upon. Lime and stone mortar is 
almost universal. 

Many retaining walls have been thrown outwards, whilst others are 
bulged irregularly. 

All walls show severe fracturing in both horizontal and vertical 
directions. A wall coursing N. 60° E. fell partially 
to N. A wall at right angles moved out i inch at 
the top to west. 

The longer walls coursing N. 35° W. are cracked horizontally from 
end to end, and are bulged to E. Walls at right 

No. 11 barrack. _ ^ - 

angles are fractured vertically. 
In a native dwelling near by, a wall facing N. E. has fallen in that 
direction. 

Is aligned N. W. Two chimneys 20 inches square and 7 feet high 

are fractured at the base. That at the western corner 

leans to N.E. The building is fractured structurally. 
Oriented N. 70° E. The main walls facing N. and S. have fallen 

outwards. Walls at right angles display many irre- 

No. 8 barrack. 8 6 r J J 

gular and some vertical cracks. 
Guard-room No. A N. — S. wall fell out to W. Another wall in 

the same direction moved out J" to W. 
District staff ^ wa ^ c °ursing N. 30° W. has moved slightly to 

office. west> 

r A wing wall coursing N. 50° E. has separated 

i inch from wall at right angles. 

All these buildings are poorly constructed. The better built military 
structures such as the gymnasium, a lofty building with walls 3 feet 
thick, are uninjured. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. jQ9 

This is a small, substantial building with a low belfry. A buttress 
~ -, „ _ on the north face is irregularly cracked, and a few 

St. Paul's Church. , e J ' 

slight vertical cracks are to be seen on the west 
front. The interior is undamaged. The arches on the west face are 
slightly cracked. 

Mr. T. A. Rust's A. wall facing S. 50° E. displays cracks hading 

S. W. at angles of from 2° to 12°. 

Aligned N. 55° E. The limited amount of damage indicates motion 
K r p. along the axis of the building. 

A boundary pillar, near by, fell partially to S. 40° W. and in the 
direction of the slope of the ground. 

This is a two-story, rectangular building aligned S. 60° W. All 

Mullingar, The corners have opened out slightly, particularly those 

Philander Smith Ins- n the S. W. All walls show fractures. Those 

coursing N. W. — S. E. show most indication of 

injury, the fractures hading 0° or slightly to N. W. In walls at right 

angles the hade is often to S. W. at from 5° to 25° 

This house stands on an E. — W. ridge of quartzite, 50 feet wide. 
It is uninjured, although massive retaining walls on 

Prospect Point. » „ - , - „ -, at i a 

both sides fell outwards to JN. and ». 

A looking-glass standing on a bracket fixed to an E.— W. wall was 
thrown down to N. 15° W. Having a height of 4' 6" it was projected 
3* 6" in a N. 15° W. direction. 

The compound wall built on a retaining wall on edge of slope to 

S. W. leans at an angle of 7° in the same direction. 

In the Assistant Surgeon's bungalow the chief 

fractures run S. 75 E.— N. 75° W. In the kitchen walls running N.—S. 

are strongly fractured, one crack being 2 inches wide. 

Is built on an E.— W. ridge. A verandah facing N. 30° E. has 
Mrs. Bachmann's partially subsided down the slope. Walls coursing 
house ' N.—S. are fractured. 



no 



MIDDLEMI3S : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



This building was badly cracked prior to the earthquake. The 
principal fractures course N. 80° E. or paralled to the 

Elcott Lodge. , , . , ' _ . 

axis of tne ridge. The only effect of the quake, as 
shown by tell-tales fastened across the cracks, has been to close some 
of the cracks and open others. 

A plant- pot standing on a wall fell over, at 
right angles to wall, to S. 35° W. 

A cross erected to 

V 



Cemetery. 




— 12 •> 




the memory of Curtis 
Martin fell to N. 18° W. 
(See fig. 30.) 



Fig. 30.— -Scale ^. 
In a stone-shed, walls facing N. W. and S. W. have partially fallen 
outwards. 

The four corners of the entrance hall have opened out. All the 
„ .„ T . walls are fractured, particularly those coursing 

Childers Lodge. A ° 

N. W.— S. E. 

In an outhouse the walls facing N. W. and S. E. have fallen out- 
wards. The N. E. face bulges outwards. 

In the kitchen, walls facing N. 60° E. bulge in that direction. 

In a godown the walls running N. 15° E. display strong fractures 
the hade of which is to N. at 5° to 20°. Two partition walls in this 
direction have fallen chiefly to E. The north face has fallen outwards. 

This is a single-story building aligned N. E. — S. W. It is built on 
hard quart zite, and is badly constructed of irregular 
blocks of shale and quartzite with mud mortar. 
It is now a complete ruin. On the N. W. face the verandah has col- 
lapsed and a portion of the main wall has fallen outwards. Wing 
walls coursing N. W.— S. E. have separated \\ inches from walls at 
right angles. Strong cracks run through the building on a N. E. — S. W. 
course, the hade being usually to N. E. at 20°. 



Rockville Cottage. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. m 

In the coolie lines partition walls running N. 60° E. fell, chiefly to 
S. 30° E. 

_ , .„ Most of the damage has been repaired. The in- 

Rockville. m ° r 

cidence of the fractures points to motion in a N. — S , 
line. 
This consists of a number of large two or three-story buildings 
enclosing a quadrangle. A good deal of general 
damage has been done to walls and arches in the 
south and west wings. 

Apparent direction of principal motion N. — S. 

In both of these buildings the corners of rooms are cracked, E. — W. 
Abergeldie and walls have moved out to south, and N. — S. walls 
ge display vertical fractures. 

The most reliable estimate is 6-10 a.m. recorded by Lieutenant 
Time occurrence H. W. Kettle well, the Cantonment Magistrate. 

of shock. 

The intensity of the shock was probably about equal to that at 
Character of shock, Mussoorie and Dehra Dun, or between 8 and 9 of 
etc - the Rossi-Forel scale. Here, as at the above-men- 

tioned places, well-ouilt structures on good foundations, such as the 
newer barracks, Rokeby, the .Kellog Institute, etc., escaped either 
entirely or sustained merely trifling injury. 

Several persons noticed tremors lasting from 15 to 20 seconds both 
before and after the chief shock. Estimates of the duration of the 
latter vary from 15 to 60 seconds. One observer records the occurrence 
of three distinct minor shocks within 5 minutes of the main shock. 

Lieutenant H. W. Kettlewell considers that the disturbance con- 
sisted of violent lateral vibrations estimated at four to the second. 
This view is supported by Major E. W. Allum. 

The chief direction of motion was apparently in a N. E.— S. W. 
direction or at right angles to the general trend of the Landour ridge. 
There is, however, a large amount of evidence of motion in other direc- 
tions, and this can easily be understood if the impressions of the Reverend 
J. S. Woodside are true ones. That observer states : — " The shock 



112 MJDDLEMTSS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

seemed to be met by a counter-shock, for I first was sent towards the 
east side of the room, then south, and west, and all round, for quite a 
minute." 

As at Mussoorie, many people heard sounds either before or during 
the quake. They are likened to that produced by a storm or a high 
wind,whilst some heard a roaring or rattling noise. 

Earthqxiake Forms — Mussoorie and Landour. 

(The same remarks apply here as in the case of the Dehra Dun 
Earthquake Forms, see page 93. All sleepers were awakened.) 

Mr. W. J. Goodman, Sub-Engineer, Military Works, Landour. — There were 
first tremulous vibrations for 15 seconds. Second, two severe shocks with 15 
minutes interval (sic). Third, end vibrations for 15 to 20 seconds. Direction 
]jj # e. — S. W. by displacement of roof timbers. Sound like reverberations of a 
blast coming up from the valleys N. W. of Mussoorie and dying away in that 
direction. He opened door with difficulty. Saw natives escaping down the 
" khud " (hill slopes). Bell of St. Paul's began to ring in an undecided sort of 
way. Iron tank, 4' by 4' by 4' for rain water, threw out water at every two 
seconds. Water afterwards 1 foot below the rim. N.B. — There was a lid. 
There was a dusty haze in the direction of Mussoorie. Earth fissures behind 
depot parade ground. The earthquake emphasised the difference between good 
and bad buildings. 

Mr. W. Beaford, late of the Forest Department. — Direction N. E. — S. W. about. 
Standing and walking was difficult (indoors). A dinner waggon was thrown S. 
A large mirror was thrown off wall 4 feet to the N. Bottles and vases over- 
thrown. Earth fissures near Prospect Point, varying in direction between E. — W. 
and N. E.— S. W. 

Rev. J. S. Woodside, American Presbyterian Mission. — There was 1st a slight 
quivering, 2nd a shock, from N. W. (he thinks) met by a counter-shock, because 
he was first sent to the E. side of the room and then S. and W. and finally all 
around for 1 minute. Vase on N. side of room fell inwards a little W. of S. 
Water jug did not fall. The rush of sound lost in the creaking of timbers 
and jarring of doors. During 56 years in India, though he had felt many earth- 
quakes, none were so severe as this. 

Lieutenant H. W. Kettlewell, Station Staff Officer and Cantonment Magistrate, 
Landour. — Time 6-10 a.m. by new watch exact with telegraph time. First trem. 
vibrations for 3 or 4 seconds, then 2 seconds interval ; 2nd a violent shock, duration 
15 seconds. Direction S. E. — N. W. in the form of lateral vibrations 4 to a second. 
The sound a distinct rumbling accompanying the main shock. The house rocked 
violently and it was difficult to stand. Bottle of spirits fell N. E. Two silver 
cups fell E. S. E. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. u% 

Mr. E. A. Wainright, Survey of India at " Silverton," Mussoorie. — First 2 slight 
shocks N. — S., second the principal shock duration 20 seconds, 3rd vibration for 5 
minutes, 4th a great shock of 15 to 20 seconds duration. Direction N. W. — S. E. 
Music stand fell S. E. Water and milk thrown from pgs. The sound a con- 
tinuous rumble during the main shock. The motion seemed both vertical and 
horizontal. Lamps swung N, — S, A few slight earth fissures and surface wall 
cracks. 

Mr. M. J. Blong, Telegraph Master, Mussoorie. — Time 6-11 a.m. (Madras time)" 
by reliable telegraph clock. Sound like- sudden gust of wind. There was first a 
severe shaking, then a slight pause which lasted 1 minute, then the upheaval. 
There was a feeling of sea-sickness. Table lamp overturned on table, bottle on 
almirah knocked down, cracks in house straight up and down and over doors 
and windows, and only in N. — S. walls. 

Revd. L. Kiugh, Chaplain, H. M. I. G. at the " Parsonage," Mussoorie. — There 
were 2 main shocks, the heaviest first, N. by W. — S. by E., then an interval 
of about 15 seconds then slighter shocks W. — E. There was a deep rumbling 
during the main shock and before the second big one. The following were 
thrown down : small bookcase parallel to and touching N. — S. wall, a wall lamp on 
nail in the same, some china on ■ stand near by, pictures out of level, vase 12 
inches high thrown forward to the E., water from iron buckets spilled in a circle 
except for a slight brea.k of continuity on the N. or N. W. side. 

Mr. Y. A. Keatinge, Secy, and Supdt. , Municipal Board of Mussoorie. — Time 
6-10 by watch constantly compared with telegraph time. 1st a rumbling sound, 
then 3 shocks with intervals of a few seconds. Direction S. — N. The Municipal 
hall shook up and down. He was hardly able to stand. Building swayed N S. 

Mr. N. A. R. Chambers, C.E., Mussoorie, and Engineer in charge of the R. C. 
Cathedral. — He was pushed N.N.W. — S.S.E. and unable to keep his balance on 
the ground of the compound, and so had to he down for 20 seconds. A cup full 
of sugar upset S. A heavy flat inkstand shot off the table to. N. He inspected 
24 houses and noticed that walls running N. — S. were cracked from top to bottom. 
In the R. C. Church he noticed a parting between one of the pillars and the 
capital with a horizontal movement of § to 1 inch away from the centre of the 
pillar. A twisting motion was also recorded in the case of an iron safe which 
had rotated contrary to the hands of a watch about 2 or 3 inches ; whilst the 
same was noticed in the case of a chimney stack. 

Mr. P. W. Mackinnon, " Lyndale," Mussoorie.— Time 6-14 a.m. by Watch com- 
pared at 10 same day with telegraph time. Duration of main shock 2 minutes. 
Direction N.E — S.W. A moaning sound before and passing into the main shock. 
House and trees swayed to and fro. Distinct undulation of the ground under 
foot. Water of tank thrown out N.E. — S.W. Increase of over 25 per cent, in 
water in springs above house (see p. 348). 



1 14 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Mr. U. A. Mackinnon, " Kandi Lodge," Mussoorie. — There were 9 or 10 shocks. 
A loose wail fell to N. Rock slides W of Kandi Lodge on Benog. The ravine 
was full of fine dust. He stumbled repeatedly running out of the house. 

Mr. L.J. Evans, Civil Engineer, " Dumbarnie," Mussoorie. — Shock believed to 

be continuous but varying in intensity. Direction N S. but N. 20° E. by swaying 

lamp. He first thought it was a dog under the bed. When standing up the 
rapidity of the shocks reminded him of the strokes of a piston of steam engine. 
Each stroke would have 'made him fall but for the next which righted him. There 
were about 150 or 180 to the minute as tested by a watch afterwards. Enormous 

trees swayed. Room with boarded floor running E W. humped up in the middle 

giving a slope N. — S. As a general rule long walls running N. — S. have suffered 
least. Cross walls have been very much battered. Long walls running E. — W. 

have been cracked at intervals of 5 or 6 feet. Short walls N S. have been drawn 

apart at points of least resistance, i.e.* springings of door, arches, etc. Alligator 
skin pattern cracks in plaster of rubble masonry walls. 

Miss Hope, " Clairville," Mussoorie. — At some time during the night or early 
morning she was awakened by barking of dogs in her room. She heard creakings 
(see foreshocks, p. 355). Of the earthquake itself there were 1st tremulous vibra- 
tions of door, 2nd as she was standing she felt as if she had been taken by the 
shoulders and shaken violently 3 or 4 times. Flower vases on dining room table 
overturned. Bottle thrown off chest-of-drawers. Camp folding looking-glass 
thrown off the mantelpiece, frame broken, but not the glass. 

Mr. W. C. Horst, Head Master, u The Abbey,' ' Junior Mussoorie School. 
— Two distinct severe shocks with an interval of 2 or 3 seconds, the second being 
the more intense. Direction N. — S. He had to hold on to things to steady him- 
self walking. Whole room rocked violently N. — S. Two heavy iron bedsteads 
on castors moved back and forth leaving an impression about 2 inches long 
on the carpet. Two brass vases fell S. Two book cases at walls running 
N. W.— S. E., one thrown down. Books thrown out. Picture frames displaced 
20 inches with horizontal. Pendulum clock stopped. 

Hardwar. 

Hardwar, and the towns which follow in this description, really 
lie outside of the Dehra-Mussoorie epicentral tract, but, coming as 
they do within Mr. Simpson's sphere of description, they are included 
here for the sake of uniformity. Hardwar lies on the right bank 
of the Ganges just where it cuts across the range of the Siwaliks. 
Near this point also the main boundary fault curves sharply to the south 
just as happens between Guma and Mandi in the Kangra Valley 
area. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. H5 

Observations of the time of the chief shock vary from 6-10 to 

6-15 a.m. The pendulum clock in the railway tele- 
Time records. \ J 
graph office is said to have stopped at 6-13 a.m. 

A portion of the town is founded on soft Siwalik sandstone rock. 
Construction of ^ ne rest °* tne buildings and also the civil station 
buildings, etc. are on alluvium. 

The principal structural materials employed are well-burnt brick 
with a lime-sand mortar. As a rule the workmanship is very good. 
Hardwar City. Very little damage was done here. 

In BaramaPs house, arches running N. E. are slightly cracked 
at the crown. 

In Rawaiji's house, a wall running N. 16° E. has moved slightly 
in a lengthwise direction to S. 16° W., and also displays cracks hading 
25° — 30° in the same direction. 

An archway in the house of the Teri Rajah, running N. 55° E„ shows 
a slight vertical crack about midway between the crown and the 
spring of the arch. 

In the station building a wing wall has moved slightly, in a length- 
Railway buildings. wise direction, to S. 35° E. Slight waving cracks 
are to be seen in walls and arches coursing N. 55° E. 

In the first-class waiting room one of the jack-arches forming the 
roof is cracked lengthwise on a course N. 35° W. This fracture is 
connected with cracks in the north and south corners of the room, 
indicating that the cross-walls have moved in a W. — E. direction. 

The assistant stationmaster states that rolling-stock in the station- 
yard moved about 3 feet along the lines to S. 50° W. 5 and after 
about three oscillations returned to its first position. 

The locomotive shed is aligned N. 50 c E.—S. 50° W. Two of the 
arches coursing in this direction are cracked. The arches alj right 
angles are uninjured. 

This building shows a number of fractures, chiefly on structural 

Municipal bunga- ^ ReS ' Tlie P rinci P al crack runs ri g nt through the 

low. building on a N. E. — S. W. course, and before repairs 

was said to have been about one inch wide. 

12 



116 



MIDDLEMTSS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Assistant Engineer, 
Canals, bungalow. 

Public Works 

Department inspec- 
tion bungalows. 



Walls coursing N. 70° W. appear to have moved 
lengthwise. Water splashed out of a basin to E. 

The corners of the rooms are cracked, and walls 

coursing N. E. — S. W. have moved in a direction at 

right angles to their plane. 

This is a boom across the Ganges about two miles above Hardwar. 

It courses N. 75° E., and is composed of wooden 

crates filled with stone, abutting one against the 

other. Three of these crates were broken on the down-stream sido 

during the quake. The position of the break can be seen from the 

sketch (fig. 31), which represents the upper portion of the "band." 




Fig. 31. 

Probably the force causing the break is the resultant of the force 
of the current and the force due to the earthquake impulse. 

Mr. Hallowes has described some fissured railway cuttings in 
Siwalik conglomerate a short distance from Hardwar and three miles 
from Diowala up the valley. 

The intensity of the shock must have been much less than at 
Intensity, direction Dehra Dun. In the city, where temples and lofty 
of shock, etc. buildings -are numerous, hardly a trace of damage 

is to be seen. The intensity was probably between 7 and 8 of the 
Rossi- Forel scale. Most of the evidence points to movement on a 
N. E.— S. W. line. The two Europeans in the station at the time 
consider that the shock came from west to east. Mr. Kavanagh, the 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. Uf 

Deputy Superintendent of Police. Saharanpore, who was in Hardwar 
at the time, writes : — " The shock was continuous for about 35 seconds., 
i.e., the to and fro movement, commencing with an up and down 
movement, then from east to west, and ending gradually." £ weral 
persons record hearing a rumbling noise, like rolling thunder, coring 
the quake. 

Earthquake Forms — Hardwar. 

Mothura Prasad Bhalu, Forest Ranger .First tremulous vibrations, then 

half minute interval, second the main shock, consisting of two to and fro 
movements W. — E. The Ganges here runs N. — S. He noticed three big waves 
12 feet high whose crests were parallel to the length of the river. Anyone 
trying to move quickly was thrown to the ground. 

Mr. H. Kavanagh, Deputy Superintendent of Police First, windows and 

doors rattled, ground shook as if a nil way train was rushing past the house; 
second, a continuous shock for about 35 seconds. It began with an up and down 
movement E. — W., and ended gradually. Third, four other shocks, lasting each 
about 20 seconds. There was a sound as of rolling thunder during the first shock 
which continued till the end. He was nearly upset by the shock. Felt sick. He 
saw the chimney of his house shaking violently. Office walls damaged. Canal 
water lowered one foot. 

Mr. B. Darley, Assistant Engineer, Public Works Department.— Time 6-10 by 
watch checked at railway station the night before. Direction W. — E. by water 
in basin. Sound was a deep rumble like a falling house (there were no fallen 
houses within two miles). Very distinctly felt. It was impossible to stand. 
N. — S. wall rocked to and fro. Cracks in arches in E. — W. walls in two bunga- 
lows, which necessitated the arches being rebuilt. 

Kankhal ^is town is situated on the Ganges canal 

about one mile south of Hardwar. 
In Bharamal's garden a three-story gateway facing S. 70° W. dis- 
Damageto build- pl avs vertical cracks in arches and windows on 
in £ s - both front and back faces. 

In Bhirin Narayan's garden a four-story gateway facing N. 70 c E. 
is fractured on both front and back faces. A minaret fell to the 
south. 

Several buildings are cracked structurally. In a wall coursing 
N. 55° W. an old crack has opened out to one inch wide. 

In Malraj's houee a wall running N, W, — S. B. has moved out at 
the top one inch to S. W. 



118 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

In Mangla Khwa's house a wall, 35 feet in height, coursing 
N. 55° W. displays an instructive fracture hading N. W. at 8°. The 
width of the fissure increased from one-fourth inch at the ground level 
to three inches at the top. The wall is a perfectly plane surface 
without windows or doors. 

In a house owned by the Raja of Chakrauli a wall running 
N. 30° E. shows a crack hading 25° to N. 30° E. 

The direction of principal movement was probably N. W. — S. E. 
Pathri. Ten miles south of Hardwar. At the time of 

the quake Mr. W. H. Rushton, Public Works Department, was looking 
at the Ganges canal, and noticed that the waves caused by the 
disturbance crossed the canal on a line approximating to N. 15° 
E. — S. 15° W. Corroborating evidence of this direction of motion 
was furnished by an embankment wall which by its motion created 
a gap of eight inches between itself and earth embankment. The 
walls remain vertical, the earth haying been pushed away from it 
by the motion. 

This is a large town lying some 3 J miles south of Hardwar. A 
Jowalapur. number of buildings have been injured, but few 

of them severely. 
Sertu and Mulla's house. — A wall is cracked vertically. It has 

moved lengthwise to N. 20° E., the resulting fracture being 2 J inches 

wide. 

Dal Chand's house. — A wall coursing N. 20° E. has moved length- 
wise causing a fracture one inch wide. Several walls and arches 
running parallel are cracked both vertically and with a hade to the 
south of 45°. 

Police outpost, — A wall facing N. 30° W. has fallen outwards. 

School. — This is a fair-sized building built of bricks and mud, 
and aligned N. 20° E. The porch at the south end has separated from 
the building. The north face of the building has moved outwards 
fully one inch at the top. There are many other fractures, chiefly 
structural. The chief motion was in a N.— S. direction. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. \\Q 

In Bansi Lai's house a wall running N. 30° E. displays a crack 
one inch wide, hading N. 30° E. at 48°. 

Dispensary. — This building is aligned N. 25° E. The worst 
cracks run longitudinally through the arched roofs of the main 
structure and the verandah. The cross partition walls have moved 
to N 25° E. — S. 25° W., showing that movement also took place at 
right angles to the main axis of the structure. 

In a wall coursing N. 70° W., in Sujaat's house, an old crack 
hading 15° to W. has widened to 2 to 3 inches. 

Pundit Ram Chand's house gives evidence of movement along a 
line N. 30° E.— S. 30° W. 

Most of the evidence points to movement along a line running 
N.20°— 30° E.— S. 20°— 30° W. In two cases, however, the movement 
was N. 30° W.— S. 30° E. and N. 65° W.— S. 65° E. 

Rurki. 

Rurki not only lies outside the Dehra-Mussoorie epicentral area, 
but also away from the hills altogether, being situated on the right 
bank of the Ganges canal and on the alluvial tract of the great 
Gangetic basin. Its College of Engineering and Canal Workshops make 
it a centre of some importance. Although on alluvium it is not far 
from the foot of the Sub-Himalaya, and the not-insignificant damage 
to buildings and the earth fissures point to this condition having 
somewhat magnified the local effects of the shock. 

Mr. Simpson's narrative continues : — 

The. railway telegraph clock stopped at 6-15 a.m. According to 

Time records tne tuBe sneet tne clock was correct on the previous 
day. The pendulum swings S 70° E. 

The telegraph master noted the time of quake to be 6-8 or 6-9 a.m., 
using an accurate time-keeping watch corrected daily by the office clock 
Railway build" ^ n ^ ne s ^ a ^ 10n building the crowns of two arches 

running S. 70° E. are slightly cracked. 

In the officials' quarters a long arched roof coursing N. 70° W. — 
S. 70° E. is cracked from end to end. Cross-walls have moved at 
right angles to the main axis of the structure. 



120 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE.^ 

In the store a wall facing S. 70° E. has moved outwards from to 2 
inches. 

In the Assistant Engineer's bungalow bottles were thrown to 
N. 70° E. Those on shelves at right angles Were unmoved. The 
verandahs are separated from the main buildings by cracks coursing 
N. 20° E.— S. 20° W. 
, In the office, walls running N. 60 c W. display cracks over windows 
Ganges canal and doors. A wing wall coursing N. 60° W. — S. 60° 
workshops. , e has moved lengthwise. 

The water in an overhead tank splashed out to east and west. 

In the wood-working shop a wall 30 inches thick and about 35 
feet high, facing N. 60° W., has moved out from to J inch. The 
joining of the roof girders has damaged the layers of brick enclosing 
their ends, causing these layers to project about two inches. 

A main wall in the foundry, facing N. 60° W. is cracked horizon- 
tally from end to end along a line through the base of the clerestory 
windows. 

A main wall in the machine-shop which courses N. 30° E.-— S, 30° W. 
shows evidence of motion at right angles. In a roof truss a tie-rod 
coursing S. 60° E. broke away from its connecting bracket. 

Mr. Kachener's A portion of a wall and a gate-pillar were 

(?) bungalow. thrown down to S. 75° E. 

Reformed Presby- The damage is slight, but gives evidence of an 

terian Church. E.— W. swing, the direction of orientation of the 

building. 
The clock pendulum swings N.— S. It did not stop during the 
Telegraph Office. quake. One of the clerks, who was sitting on a 
chair, was distinctly jerked to the north. 
This is a large, well-built structure of brick, oriented due E.—W. 
St. .Andrew's Mis- ^he wa ^ facing west is slightly bulged to the east 
sion Church near t ke roof. The western wall, which partly sup- 

ports the tower, has moved out fully one inch at the roof. The chief 
injury is to the tower, a tall slender erection at the west end of the 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 



121 



nave. It is about 27 feet high and consists, of a spire-capped square 
lantern carried on four pillars. (Figs. 32 and 33.) 



XAMINEO CLOSELY 



IRON" TIE-ROD I'DIA. 




It 



+>H 



%-+ 



•s 



Fig. 32.— Scale I incti = 20 feet. Fig. 33.— Plan of fractured pillars 

with amount of displacement. Scale 

1 inch = 5 feet. 

These pillara have been snapped horizontally on a line passing 

through the spring of the lantern arches, and coinciding with the 

positioD of the four one-inch tie-rods. The horizontal displacement of 

the pillars is as follows : — 

S. E. pillar moved \ inch to N. 
N. E. „ „ J „ „ S. 

n. w. „ „ i t ; „ E. 

S. W. „ „ slightly „ S. 
The conical spire is also fractured. 

Oriented E. — W. The west face has moved slightly outwards. 
St J h ' Ch h ^ e arc k m *^ s wall is cracked vertically, as also 
is the chancel arch running parallel. Pointed arches 
in walls at right angles are slightly cracked, and the north face of the 
belfry is fractured. 
Joint Magistrate's A wall coursing N. 75° W. displays a crack had- 

ing W. at 10°. 

Several cracks on an E. — W. course run through 
the building. 



bungalowr 



Kacheri. 



122 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Police barracks. Fractures run E.— W. through arched roofs, and 

the cross -walls are separated from the main walls. 

The ea«t face has moved outwards about J inch at the top. 

Major Philson's Arches running E. — W. are fractured. Partition 

bungalow. walls running N — S. have moved at right angles. 

The upper story of this building was badly injured and had been 

demolished soon after the quake. 

A minaret, 1J ft. x 5£ ft., was cracked at the base, and now 
Mosque near rail- leans to the north. The horizontal displacement 

way station. of the game fa j ^ tQ E The ^ ^ . g 

cracked vertically. 

Walls coursing S. 30° W. are cracked vertically, whilst those at 
Public Works De- "£ nt an ^ es snow evidence of movement in a S. W. — 
partment, Canals, N.E. line. Cracks run through arched roofing in 
bungalow. aR £.— W. line. The tower is square and contains 

four stories surmounted by a dome. All faces are cracked, particu- 
larly that to S. W. The fractures follow the lines of windows, etc. 
A faint horizontal crack shows all round the base of the dome. 

A plant pot fell over to N. 55° E. Bricks stacked against the 
Cem north face of a wall coursing N. 75° W. fell out- 

wards to the north, and to a lesser degree to east. 

A large number of earth fissures were found in low alluvial ground 
through which flows the Solani stream, at a point 

Ground fissures. 

from half to one mile east of Rurki. 

The general direction of the fissures is N. 80° E. but they almost 
invariably run parallel to the direction of the nearest ditch or stream 
even though such may be hundreds of feet distant. The average 
length of a single fissure is about 100 feet. As a rule several are 
found running parallel to, and a few feet from, one another, so that 
a series of cracks is continued for hundreds of yards. The largest 
fissure seen is 10 feet from the low bank of the Solani stream, and 
runs parallel to the bank on a N.W.— S.E. line. It is 62 feet Jong 



MUSSOORIE DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 



123 



20 inches wide at the top, 15 inches wide at the bottom and 14 inches 
deep. The width of a large number varies from 1 to 10 inches, with a 
measurable depth of one to five feet. Sinking of the ground as a 
rule accompanies the fissures, the vertical displacement varying 
from to 7 inches, and the depression usually being on the south 
side of the crack. Villagers declare that sand and water issued forth 
during the quake, and that this was so is borne out by the fringes of 
sand which follow many of the fissures. Some of the cracks were 
found to be filled with water to within 12-inches of the surface. 

On a sandy beach in the bed of the stream several small crateri- 
form hollows occur. These are said to have been formed at the time 
of the quake, but similar depressions, near by, were admitted to have 
been made either as watering places or by the removal of sand for 

industrial purposes. 

About 2J miles further east fissures of a similar character to those 
.described above occur. Mr. Hallowes described them as lying between 
N.—S. and N. 60° W. and from 5 to 50 yards long, the greatest breadth 
being 1$ feet. Most were filled with sand and water, and some had 
scattered sand in little mounds along their edges. (See fig. 34.) 









Fig. 34. 



124 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

This aqueduct carries the Ganges canal over the Solani stream at 
„ , . , a point about | mile west of the locality of the 

bolani aqueduct. r * 

ground fissures just described. . Eye-witnesses state 
that a large quantity of water splashed over the edges during the 
quake. The duct is aligned S. 33° W.— N. 33° E. and is about 1.000 feet 
in length. It consists of two parallel channels each 85 feet wide. The 
current flows S. W. at about three miles per hour. About one hour 
after the quake Mr. W. H. Rushton, Executive Engineer, Public 
Works Department, Canals, visited the aqueduct. He states that the 
level of the water was then about five feet below the edges of the 
channel, and that he could see that the water had splashed over only 
for about three-quarters of the length of the channel, the north-east 
end being quite dry. (Fig. 35.) 






Fig. 35.— The shaded portion was wet at 7-30 on the 4th. Scale 
1 inch =400 ft. 

The phenomenon is interesting, but unfortunately capable of more 
than one explanation. 

One observer describes the shock as a continuous vibration for 
Character and aD0U * nve seconds. Another states that there were 
direction of shock, no preliminary tremors, that there were two shocks 
etc ' separated by an interval of 10-20 seconds, the last 

being much the most severe, and that there were many tremors subse- 
quently. He also noticed a strong wind which sprang up during the 
first shock and lasted about a minute, the direction of the wind being 
from west to east. 

The general impression of eye-witnesses is that the shock was 
from west to east. This is borne out by an analysis of the damage 
to buildings, the principal direction varying from due W. to 
W. 25<? N. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 



125 



Mr. Hallowes found the Engineering College nowhere severely 
Thomason Engi- damaged, but the buildings lying N.--S. were much 
neering College. m0re crac k e d than those lying E.— W. A clock on 

a N.— S. wall stopped at 6-13 a.m. A small dome which surmounts 
the central dome was fissured horizontally at its base and entirely 
separated from the rest of the structure. (See fig. 36.) 




Fig. 36. 

Earthquake Forms — Rurki. 

Major S. H. Shepperd, R.E., D.S.O., 1st Sappers and Miners.— There were 2 
shocks, 2nd much more severe than the 1st. Many tremors afterwards, none before. 
Interval between 1st and 2nd shocks 10 — 20 seconds. Direction W. — E. No 
sound but a very strong wind sprung up and lasted for perhaps 1 minute or more. 
Direction W. — E. He left his bungalow very quickly. Trees rocked as it were 
in a high wind. Alarm of birds and beasts. Pony reared straight up at 2nd shock 
and did not recover his equanimity all day. 

Miss M. E. Pope, S. P. G. Mission. — She was indoors sitting in St. Andrew's 
Church on a bench. There was 1st a distinct vibration of the bench after crack- 
ing sound from the roof which was constructed of tiles on girder frame. 2nd, one 
long shock. The sound between 1 and 2 a continuous increasing sound like heavy 
goods train coming towards one from W. Direction W. — E. by loose objects and 
water in basin. Very distinctly felt. Doors rattled and then burst open. 
Purdahs swung violently. Buildings and trees, including large shishama, swayed 
and seemed to dance, crossing their branches. Some boys noticed movement of 
the belfry. Heaving of the ground very perceptible. Standing very difficult for 
a short interval. One person stooping to pick flowers and one squatting over 



!26 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

a fire were thrown down. Alarm bells in telegraph office (next compound) set 
ringing. Pendulum clock stopped at 6-10.* Wall lamp glasses broken. Canal 
banks wetted about 3 feet up. Water very muddy 3 hours later. Small chimney 
ornaments thrown E. Pictures slightly displaced on N. — S. walls. Church 
lamps oscillated violently. All went out of church. Difficult to stand. On 
re-entering when the shock was over (to finish the service) the hanging lamps 
were gyrating so much that there was no direction. Amount of motion 3 feet from 
vertical in swing of not less than 20 feet. 

Major H. J. Sherwood, R.E. — One severe shock N. — S. On plaster falling he 
went outside. Motion in the verandah so distinct that he felt himself rolling about 
as if on deck of a ship in a moderate sea. Bead " chick " swung violently N. — S. 
Arches facing N. — S. cracked. Arches facing E. — W. hardly affected. Two jars 
on shelf on N. side of room in R. E. mess fell to the floor. Tank water lapped 
over N. — S. 

Mr. P. P. Phillips, Ph.D., Prof, of Chemistry, Thomason Engineering College, 
and Officiating Superintendent, Meteorogical Observatory. — Time, began at 6-15, 
most violent at 6-17 — 8-18. Direction N. — S. Five natives were killed. Earth 
fissures on the banks of the Solani river from which water in large quantities exuded. 
Sounds resembled thunder. A wave 5 feet high passed down the canal. Much 
water washed over the banks of the Solani aqueduct and entered the river below. 
Several pictures thrown from walls facing S. Walls most damaged were internal 
walls running E. — W. Cracks generally vertical. Water in college store tanks 
swayed N. — S. Tanks stood on iron frames 18 to 20 feet high. They were emptied 
by the shock. A suspended lamp swung 3 feet from the vertical N. — S. 

Saharanpur. 

Sharanpur is similarly placed to Rurki with respect to the Dehra- 
Mussoorie epicentral tract. Besides being the chief town of the district 
it is celebrated for its fine Botanical Gardens. Mr. Simpson's account 
continues : — 

The most reliable time observation is 6-11 a.m. recorded by Major J. 

M. Burn, R.E., an officer of the Survey of India, who 

Time records. J 

happened to be on the railway station platform 
at the time. Neither the railway nor the post office clocks were 
affected. 

The tower of the church is cracked on all faces in the two upper 
Damage in the stories, the fractures running between corners and 

Civil Station. windows. 



* Known to be siow. 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. 127 

Mr. C. Powell's bungalow. — This is a kutcha brick and mud building 
facing N. 55° E. Three arches of the front verandah fell outwards. 
An arch coursing N, E. was badly fractured. There are a number 
of cracks in the corners of rooms. A hanging lamp swung N. E.— 
S. W. 

American Mission Church. — A brick and mortar building oriented 
due E. — W. The four corners of the building have opened out and 
cracks have developed in E. — W. walls. Two feet of the brickwork 
forming the top of the conical spire were displaced a distance of 2 
inches towards the west. In the mission bungalows a chimney pro- 
jecting through a roof sloping south fell to the south. Arches running 
E.—W. suffered slightly. 

Judicial Kacheri. — The damage is trifling. Walls coursing N. — S. 
show slight cracks heading S. at 10°. Walls at right angles display 
evidence of N. — S. motion. 

Collector's Kacheri. — Walls running N. — S. show slight damage. 
Verandahs at front and back are separated from building by slight 
cracks running N. — S. Three ceiling beams running N. — S. are broken 
at the middle, apparently by end thrust. In the criminal records 
room are a number of lofty book cases oriented due E. — W. One of 
them now leans 4° to W., and another 3° to E. A number of books 
fell off to N. 

Mosque near the Kacheri. — Minarets on the east face are cracked at 
the base and lean to the east slightly. 

Police Station.— A barrack aligned N. 20° W..— S. 20° E. shows 
diagonal fracturing on the north and south facts. The walls at right 
angles are held by a tied-arch roof, and are uninjured. 

The largest building is the museum. It is an oblong structure, 
aligned N. 35° W., consisting of a central nave with 
two enclosed verandahs. (See fig. 37.) The roof 
is carried on two interior arches, both of which were so badly fractured 
that they have been taken down. Wa^s parallel to the main axis are 
fractured horizontally, and those at right angles vertically. The 
verandah pillars on the east and west fronts are cracked through at the 



128 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



base. The damage provides strong evidence of motion across the 

building. 

VKWT. OJUCKv ~^ /**& 0*ack 

fWIDE \ ^^^ ( (.WIDE 



vsrt. crack 

fwiDEN^ 



kr^C 




Fig. 37. 
In the Superintendent's bungalow a plant pot on a stand fell 
to N. 4° E. 

In the seed godown, a number of ghurrahs piled one above the 
other fell to N. 60° W. The direction of fall was influenced by the 
fact of the pots being stacked in rows. 

Water from an overhead tank was thrown out to N. 20° E. — S. 20° 
N. W. Railwa W. A boiler-house near by shows strong evidence 
workshops. f m otion in the same direction. 

Haji Nasrala's theatre.— A heavy cornice facing N. 75° E, fell 
outwards in that direction. Walls coursing E.— W. 

Th© b?izn.r 

are fractured in a few cases. 
Hasmat's house. — Walls running N. 60° E. display strong fractures ; 
those at right angles being uninjured. 

Kandan Lai's house. — A wall coursing S. 75° E. is strongly frac- 
tured. A large number of houses facing S. 75° E. show large cracks 
in wall running S. 75° E. Many walls at right angles to this direction 
lean to S. 75° E. 

Jumma musjid. — This temple faces S. 73° E. and is a copy of the 
mosque of the same name at Delhi. A portion of the outer wall fell 
outwards to S. 73° E. The two chief minarets are octagons of face 
4 feet 9 inches, and about 90 feet high. They carry 8- pillared cupolas. 
In the northern minaret a pillar on the east was broken and fell inside. 
The pillars on the S. W. side are severely fractured. In the southern 



MUSSOORIE-DEHRA DUN EPICENTRAL TRACT. J29 

minaret the pillar on the S. E. side fell outwards and those on the 
N. W. are cracked. The line of damage to this minaret is approxi- 
mately N. W. — S. E. * Two smaller minarets over the graat entrance- 
gate fell towards the west, about 2 feet being broken off in each case. 

A tall plaster ornament on a wall near the mosque is carried on a 
vertical iron rod. This leans over to S. 20° W. at an angle of 10°. 

Radha Lai's house. — A wall coursing N. 20° E. fell outwards to 

S. 70° E. Walls at right angles display vertical fracturing. 

There are rumours of ground Assuring in the 
Ground fissures. 

neighbourhood, but no information of their locality 

could be obtained. 

One observer describes the shock as a series of rapid tremors 

lasting from 15 to 30 seconds. Another estimates 

Character of shock, the duration at 50 seconds. Noises like the pass- 
etc. r 

ing of a heavy goods train were heard. 

From an analysis\of the damage to buildings, etc., the direction 

of motion appears to have rbeenJietween E. — W. and N. E. — S. W; 

Earthquake Forms — Saharanpur. 

Mr. H. M. Leake, Botanic Gardens. — The main shock is described as a rapid 
series of tremors lasting for 15 to .30 seconds hut without any marked difference 
in intensity. Every building in the gardens has suffered damage, which is limited 
to cracks in walls and corners. Palm in pot 3 ft. high overturned. Piles of 
4< ghurras ' ' overturned. 

Major J. M. Burn, R.E., Survey of India.— Time 611a.m. by chronometer 
watch checked with railway time (he was standing on the station platform at the 
time of the shock). One shock lasting about 50 seconds. Direction N. W. — S. E. 
There was much noise exactly like a heavy goods train going at full speed through 
the station. Lamps were swinging about at right angles to the railway station. 



130 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



CHAPTER III. 

LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS IN THE VICINITY OF THE 

Vllth ISOSEIST. 

The area described in this chapter was examined by Mr. E. H. Pascoe. 
Its title to recognition as a special unit deoends on 

Area defined. . - . , . . 

the consideration that it includes most of the larger 
cities lying away from the hills on the alluvial plains, and within a 
radial distance from the epicentral regions of about 125 miles. Being 
connected up by the chief railway systems of Northern India, the 
various centres were easily accessible without loss of time. In describ- 
ing the damage to buildings in this zone, it is necessary to guard against 
a misconception. It will be remembered that in Part I, Chapter I, 
I have already shown that places such as Pathankot and Dera Gopipnr, 
being onlv at 40 and 20 miles respectively from the main epicentre, showed 
no appreciable damage (see pp. 8, 39). Contrasting this with Lahore, 
Ludhiana, Sialkote, etc., at distances of over 100 miles away, it might at 
first appear that there was more damage done at the distant places than 
at the nearer. Against this impression should be set the smallness of 
the towns of Pathankot and Dera Gopipur, and the absence in them of 
complicated architectural structures. Within the larger cities of the 
plains it would be quite possible to isolate many groups of buildings 
of the size of Pathankot and Dera Gopipur and showing as little 
damage. The aggregate effects of an earthquake in a large city must 
always be great ; but this should not be confused with the average effect 
per building unit which is the only fair way to estimate destructive 
intensity. 

Mr. Pascoe's tour embraced the following cities and towns : — 
Lahore (with Shahdara and Mian Mir), Jullundiir, Amritsar, Tarn 
Taran, Ferozepur, Wazirabad, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, Jamu, 
Ludhiana, Multan and Phagwara. After his description of each there 
follow extracts from the earthquake forms in the usual way. 






LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 131 

Lahore (including Mian Mir and Shahdara). 

Mr. Pascoe's description somewhat abridged is as follows : — 

In spite of the size and importance of such a city as Lahore, the 

m. . A . evidence as to the exact minute the main shock was 

lime observations. 

felt is somewhat conflicting. 
At the telegraph office no clocks stopped, and no satisfactory 
observations of the time seem to have been recorded. 

At the railway station, the clock in the telegraph office stopped at 
6-10 a.m. This clock is corrected every day at 4 p.m. by wire from 
Madras, and had been so corrected on Monday, April 3rd. According 
to the stationmaster and the train inspector the drum-clock on platform 
5 was the only one in the station which did not stop. Two other 
platform drum-clocks, whose pendulums swing in the same direction 
stopped at 6-10 a.m. exactly. All platform clocks are put right every 
Monday by the clock in the telegraph office, and had been so corrected 
on Monday, April 3rd. 

Other time estimates of 6-12, 6-13 and 8-15| from less reliable 
sources have been given. 

The general testimony is that there were two slight preliminary 
Number of shocks snoc ^ s separated by an interval of two or three 
seconds during which there was perceptible vibration. 
By many these two preliminary tremors have been, apparently, in- 
distinguishable, and are described as one shock lasting for three or four 
seconds. The interval between the last preliminary tremor and the 
main shock was estimated to be 5 or 6 seconds. One observer moni- 
tions a slight shock of short duration about 10 minutes after the severe 
shock. Continuous tremors occurred for about: half an hour after the 
main shock, and there were distinct vibrations at various intervals up to 
8 a.m. causing doors to rattle. 

No unusual sound, save that caused by buildings falling and doors 
Sound. rattling, is reported. 

k 2 



132 MIDDLEMTSS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The Town Hall has suffered more severely than any other building 

in Lahore, and will require a great deal of recoil- 

Effect on bu.id- struction. It is a large substantial rectangular two- 

The Town Hall. storied building of red brick, 114 ft. by 72 ft. and 48 

feet in height, with its longer axis running N. 15° E. 

(see pi. 18). At the north corners were two large but not lofty square 

towers, bearing a very heavy roof structure, including a large central 

dome and four corner turrets, each turret being crowned with a solid 

brick globe. It is to the presence of these two towers that the mischief 

is due, for, while they themselves are badly wrecked and have wrecked 

adjacent staircases and verandahs, the southern portion beyond the 

lateral turrets is quite intact with scarcely a crack over its arch* s. 

The intermediate portion has sustained injury only where it projects 

above the main structure ; a turret and two globes having been lost on 

one side, and two globes on the other. (See pi. 18 and plan pi. 23.) 

An eye-witness describes the fall of the towers as seen from a bun- 
galow from which the front or northern end of the Town Hall is 
visible. They appeared first to lurch forward towards the north, 
recover, and again lurch forward, the upper portion falling. 

At first sight it appears difficult to explain why this building 
should Have suffered so conspicuously, since there are several large 
buildings close at. hand, which are either untouched or show slight 
cracks only. (Cf. New Law Courts, pi. 19, lower fig.) 

It appears reasonable to attribute the destruction to the weighty 
roofs of the towers and the quite uiadequate support beneath. From 
calculations based on the dimensions, and specific gravity of the brick, 
the weight of the central dome, which was practically of solid brick- 
work, was approximately 38. ton?, that of each turret about 2 tons, and 
that of each globe about 12. cwt. So that, besides the weight of the 
actual roof itself and its wide cornice, the brick pillars below had to 
support at least 48 tons. 

The effect of the earthquake upon the Town Hall can perhaps be 
explained by assuming that it was struck by two impulses from different 
directions, one from the N. or N. E. and a less severe one from the 
E, S. E. or S. E. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 133 

The Post Office was built on the site of a filled-up marsh, and is a 

m large, well-built, two-storied building of Ted brick 

The Post Office. ... , 

consisting of two rectangular arms about 260 

feet long, 67J feet wide, and about 40 feet high, one arm running due 
N. W., the other W. 15° S. with an angle of 60° between their direc- 
tions, thus forming two sides of an equilateral triangle. The angle is 
truncated by a short connecting portion through the centre of which 
rises a massive clock tower, F, extending some 53 feet above the flat 
roof. At the corners A, B, C, D, are four smaller towers, rising 28 
feet above the roof, and a slightly larger tower, E, close to the clock 
tower, occurs at the angle of the building. (See pi. 24.) 

There has been very little damage done to the walls and rooms, the 
chief features of interest being visible on the roof. The portions of the 
four corner towers A, B, C, D, projecting above the roof, have been 
badly cracked and shaken : whilst the two towers E and F are both 
quite sound owing doubtless to less oscillation there than at the free 
end of the wings. 

All round the margin of the roof rims a low brick parapet in 
which are embedded a pair of brick gable-ends, (G, H, and K, L,) half- 
way between the free and fixed ends of each arm of the building. The 
two gable-ends in the N. W. arm (G, H,) are practically unharmed 
while the pair in the other arm *(K, L,) are seriously affected. A bad 
crack runs along the base of each and is flanked by a pair of irregular 
vertical cracks passing from the basal corners of the gable-end through 
the parapet wall : the one on the soutn (L) is in a more or less 
dangerous condition, and was seen to oscillate and lean over by a man 
standing on the ground below. (See fig. 38.) 




Fig. 38. 
From this it is evident that the shock struck the building in a direc- 
tion more nearly at right angles to the western arm than to the north- 
western arm. 



134 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



The Central Mu 
beam. 



la the post- master's private quarters on the first floor at the end 
of the western arm, a considerable quantity of plaster fell from trans- 
verse walls but none from longitudinal walls. A crack also ran down 
from tower C, followed the direction of the longitudinal wall through 
two rooms and then passed transversely across the building, making it 
appear as if there had been a tendency to shake off the end portion of 
the building. 

In the north-western arm, plaster fell from one wall only, a longi- 
tudinal one, in a room near the tow T er A. 

On the ground floor there are a few slight vertical cracks, and the 
ceilings appear to have been lifted up in a few cases. 

In Lahore Central Museum the roof of the long and lofty central 
room contains twelve separate barrel-arched ceilings 
of brick and plaster, each being perforated by a 
circular aperture in the centre for lighting pur- 
The 1st, 2nd, and 12th ceilings are cracked, the 1st and 2nd 

diagonally, and the 
12th more irregu- 
larly, but with a 
diagonal tendency. 
(See fig. 39.) This 
room lies due N. 
and S. In another 
Fig. 39. room with the same 

bearings, one of a similar set of ceilings is cracked diagonally in the 
same way. 

On the corners of the roof solid dome-like turrets of brickwork 
pierced by small arched doorways on the four sides, were severely 
shaken and cracked. 

The School of Art is a square building connected with the Museum, 

but built at a different time : the walls face N., 

School of Art and g E ftnd w Each comer bears a turret, and 

Public Library. 

although all these are exactly similar and pre- 
sumably equally well built, the two on the N. are practically intact 




■^-N. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. ^5 

while the southern pair were so badly cracked, as to necessitate their 
removal Curiously enough this is also the case with the Public 
Library which lies close to the School of Art. The two cupolas on 
the S. are seriously injured, while those on the N. aie said to be 
unaffected. 

The New Law Courts (see pi. 19) which are less than three quarters 
of a mile from the Town Hall comprise a large, 
well constructed, irregular pile of buildings, with 
considerable variation in the heights of several portions. However, no 
independent oscillation has taken place, the two corner brick towers 
have not separated in the least from the adjacent verandah, there is no 
trace of a crack between the porch and main building, and the whole 
assemblage of buildings has escaped with a few insignificant vertical 
cracks in one of the rooms. The walls of the court room are decorated 
with ornamental plaster, but only in three or four places have 
pieces fallen, and these are very small. This immunity may be due 
to the fact that the court is a new building. According to enquiries 
made, it takes at least 12 months for a properly mixed lime containing 
cement to become rigid ; consequently the walls of a new building 
are elastic, and yield more readily to distortional forces than do those 
of an older building. I heard of no building in course of construc- 
tion being damaged. The escape of the two " chattris " overlooking 
the porch is less easily understood, considering the massiveness of each 
dome and the slenderness of the supporting pillars. The latter, however 
are of stone, and to this fact and to the elasticity of the under- 
lying brickwork must be attributed the successful resistance to the 
jerk. The arches of the several verandahs contain delicate ornamental 
stone-work, and this is also quite uninjured. 

On the western end of the gable-roof of the English Protestant 

church was a rectangular-sectioned brick pedestal 

bearing a cross. The latter has fallen eastwards 

and split into two parts upon the gable, the parts having slid down 

on either side and broken upon the ground. The pedestal is 



136 M1DDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

loosened and shaken, and appears to have swayed E. and W. about 
its longer axis, no doubt directing the fall of the cross. 

The Accountant-General's office is not a new building and has 

Accountant-G^ne- several cracks. In the first room the walls run 

raPs Office. almost due N.* and S., and E. and W. In those 

running N. and S. are several vertical cracks, some over 1 inch wide, 

and extending through the whole height of the walls ; the walls running 

E. and W. are free from cracks. In the second room the same thing is 

found : one crack follows the curve of an arched doorway. In the third 

room there is a vertical crack passing through the key of an arched 

doorway. Outside, a shattered brick chimney stack has partly fallen. 

The Deputy Commissioner's office, in the upper of the two stories, 

Deputy Commit has several vertical cracks, especially in corners and 

sioner s Office. over ^q arches. On the roof there is a more or 

less continuous crack parallel to the edges and. about 1 foot distant 

from them all round, the four walls having apparently tended to 

separate at the angles and fall outwards. The chimneys also are 

cracked. The walls of this building run N. to S. and E. to W. 

The market is an old brick building, like a church in plan, with a 
central " nave " and two lower side " aisles." Its 
Maiket ' long axis runs W. 20° N. to E. 20° S. Each side- 

wall of the " nave " bears seven gable windows surmounted by 
seven gable-ends which are parallel to the main axis (pi. 19, fig. 1) 
and the gable roof carries two towers of wood and slate. The west- 
ern end-wall of the " nave " has separated from the side walls, and 
fallen bodily outwards. The eastern end-wall has separated from the 
side walls, a crack from 1 to 2 inches wide extending up each of the 
latter. The towers are untouched and none of the gable windows 
have fallen or received any damage : some of the latter are a little 
out of plumb, but may have been so before the quake. 

A low brick parapet skirts the rocf of the, " aisles," and has fallen 
at the western ends of both the latter, breaking the tiles of a verandah 
beneath, but it is intact alone the sides. 






15° W. according to plan furnished by Mr. Worman, Executive Engineer. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 137 



Clearly the shock has struck this building in a more or less E. to 
W. or W. to E. direction. 

The Montgomery Hall is a large heavy building of which the main hall 
has suffered. This is a lofty room around which 
extends a gallery or internal verandah about 15 feet 
from the groimd. On the south side of the building is a tall 
porch which has separated a little from the hall. Part of the roof over 
the gallery adjoining the porch has fallen upon and broken through 
the gallery floor beneath: this catastrophe was no doubt connected with 

the movement of the porch, 
which to some extent appears 
to have carried with it the 
wall of the building, in the 
oscillations, and to have thus 
drawn the beams of the gallery 
roof out of their sockets. 

The capitals of the porch 
pillars are cracked, as are also 
all the keys of the arches over 
the gallery, as indicated in 
the diagram (fig. 40). 






HALL 



u 



GALLERY FLOOR 
& ROOF FALLEN 



Li 



PORCH 



Fig. 40. 
The Education Department is a long one-storied building, its long 
Education Depart- *™ lying N. 15° E. to 8. 15° W. There are 
*ient. many cracks, mostly vertical, and the transverse 

walls are those chiefly affected. 

In the Kailway Station the injury has been extensive, but uniform 

in nature. The direction of the line and platforms 

Railway Station. . g w 3()0 n> ^ 3. ■ 30° S. On one platform 

the wide-angled gable-roof of the 1st class gentlemen's wait- 
ing room has fallen, and there are cracks in the corners : in the 1st 
class and 2nd class ladies' waiting rooms on the same platform the 
roofs are dangerously cracked and will have to be taken down. On 



1 38 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA 'EARTHQUAKE. 

platform No. 2, seven rooms in a line have been seriously damaged : 
the roofs of the Intermediate waiting room and four adjoining offices 
have fallen, and the roofs of the next two offices are so dangerous aa 
to necessitate their demolition. Cracks in the Intermediate waiting 
room were confined to the corners where separation of the walls has 
taken place. 

In all the above cases the beams supporting the roofs ran trans- 
versely to the direction of the platforms, i.e., in a direction N. 30° 
E. to S. 30° W. Owing to the oscillation of the buildings 
about their long axis, the whole length of the longitudinal wall appears 
to have separated as a whole from the transverse walls and to have 
forced the beams out of their sockets. The actual walls are in 
two or three rooms entirely without cracks. 

Above the roof of one platform was a longitudinal parapet wall 
supporting in one place a brick stack, into the top of which was fixed 
a large iron flag. This flag fell from the stack, tearing away with it 
about a foot of the brickwork, and was projected in a direction at 
right angles to the parapet wall, viz., towards N. 30° E., and 
fell about 10 feet away from its own vertical, on to the platform roof 
through which it tore a large hole and finally dropped on to the 
platform. 

Weight of flag =8 seers. 

Height of flag— 4 feet. 

Height of top of the stack above the platform =46 feet. 

Height of platform roof above the platform — abt. 10 feet. 

From these data, the horizontal component of the velocity of 
the flag is about 6*5 feet per second. 

In two opposite walls (direction W. 20° N. to E. 20° S.) in 
Bible Society's tne first room °* tne Bible Society's premises are 
premises. two bricked up arches which have moved, causing 

the plaster to fall along the juncture. The second room contains 
two bricked- up arches in exactly similar positions and similarly 
affected. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 139 

In the store-room many books and large tins were projected of! 
shelves running along walls in the direction N. 20° E. to S. 20° 
W. ; nothing with the exception of a few insecurely placed books, 
fell from the shelves at right angles to these. 

On the roof is a kind of open shed consisting of six substantial 
rectangular brick pillars supporting a heavy wooden roof. The 
structure shows signs of having rocked to and fro from W- 20° 
N. to E. 20° S. The pillars are cracked at the tops and have 
either separated from the roof supporting them or cracked hori- 
zontally close to the base. 

In the offices of the Inspector-General of Police there are many 
Office of the Ins- vertical cracks but no serious damage, and no 

pector -General of 

Police, indication of the direction of shock. 

The Police Court was unharmed save for a few vertical cracks. 

In Lahore City, situated to the north of the town, the Eajah 

Lahore City: Khirti Singh's Palace has suffered severely. It 

Rajah Khirti Singh's . _ 

p a l aC e. consists of an irregular group 01 red-brick build- 

ings, many of them lofty and most of them old and poorly built : 
some were in need of repair before the earthquake. A great number 
of rooms exhibit cracks large and small, nearly all vertical, and, 
owing to the irregularity of the structure, of little scientific interest. 
The most grievous damage was done where the floor of an upper 
story gave way. The wooden beams had rotted just outside their 
sockets and snapped at both ends when disturbed by the vibration. 
The features of interest in the mosque of Wazir Khan are the 
Wazir Khan's f our lofty minars at the corners of the spacious 

mosque. court. These are some 90 feet in height, built of 

brick, octagonal in section, slightly tapering and connected with 
each other on the north and south sides of the court by low walls 
on the east connected by the entrance gateway to which the minars 
are also joined by low walls, and on the west by the entrance to 
the sanctuary. All four minars are now leaning outwards away 
from the centre of the court, but bending rather more towards 
the north and south than towards the east and west. 



uo 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Gulden Mosque. 



On the summit of each, minar are eight pillars supporting a 
cupola : several of these pillars are cracked, and there is danger of 
the cupolas falling. The eight spaces between the pillars are alter- 
nately open and bricked-up, in pursuance of some religious idea, 
and in the N. W. minar, the four masses of brickwork between 
the pillars have all fallen. 

The Golden Mosque is a much smaller mosque. At the N. W. 
and S. \V. corners of the court, and joined through- 
out half their height to the sanctuary, are 
two minarets originally crowned with cupolas of gilt brass. These 
cupolas have fallen, first on to the walls enclosing the sacred area 
fracturing the brickwork, and ultimately into the streets. The minarets, 
though somewhat slender, were undamaged. 

The height of the minarets was 40 \ feet and the diameter of the 
more or less spherical cupolas was about 4 feet . The cupola on 
the S. was projected 8 h feet away from the centre of the minaret base, 
and in a direction S. 30° W. The cupola on the N. was projected 
11 feet away from the centre of its minaret base, falling W. 30° N. It 
will be noticed that these directions are at right angles. (Fig. 41.) 




LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 14j 

The horizontal velocity of the N. cupola was thus 6*91 feet per 
second, that of the S. cupola, 5"55 feet per second. The resultant of 
these is 8*74 feet per second from E. 7£° N. to W. lh° S. 

Either there were two shocks from different directions, or else the 
sanctuary building must have influenced the direction in which the 
minarets vibrated. 

Most houses in the city are cracked, and many to such an extent 
as to require considerable repair. Not very much has fallen, however, 
and this may be put down to the fact that the houses are crowded 
together, mutually supporting one another. In two or three cases 
roofs have fallen. 

The Shish Mahal has been cracked, and also some of the bungalows. 
One of the latter, a long one -storied building lying 
E. and W. has lost a large portion of a brick para- 
pet on the walls whose direction is E. to W. ; the parapet on the N. 
to S. walls is intact. 

The Shahi Mosque opposite the Fort is a good illustration of the 
fact that in the Plains, i.e., at some distance from 
the centre of disturbance, stone edifices have suffer- 
ed less than brick. No indications of disturbance could be discovered 
on the mosque, in spite of the slenderness of the small pinnacles and 
pillars. 

Jehangir's Tomb is on the other side of the Ravi, and lies to the 
N. W. of Lahore City. It is alow square building 

ir^ Tom'b : J6han built lar S e ty of marble ; and covering a large area ; 
around it extends a yerandah many of the arches 
of which are cracked, but it was almost impossible to distinguish 
between the numerous old cracks and those caused by the earth- 
quake. 

At the corners of the building are four tall handsome minars, 93 feet 
in height and built of stone and marble, and connected with the tomb 
below, from which there appears to be no sign of separation. Never- 
theless three at least of the minars are leaning away from centre, that 
on the N. W. distinctly, that on the S. W. slightly, and that on the 



142 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



S. E. very slightly : the N. E. one is practically vertical. Each minar 
is octagonal in section and bears at its summit a massive marble 
cupola upon eight octagonal marble pillars. 

On examining the N. W. cupola, the pillars were found to be 
chipped around their bases and to a less extent around their tops 
giving the impression that there had been either successive movements 
in more than one direction or a gyratory movement. It was interest- 
ing, though confusing, to find older impressions of chipping in the 
same position, showing that movement had occurred here before. A 
carved perforated marble fencing extends from pillar to pillar, and this 
also has been chipped at its ends by the movement of the pillars. In 
the S. W. minar a piece of this fencing was thrown down. 

There are several tall brick Factory chimneys close to the Railway 

Factory chimneys. ij ne ne ar Lahore, but I heard of none having fallen. 

Several of the military bungalows at Mian Mir have been cracked, 

the most conspicuous being that of E. Company. 

This, like the others, is a very long one-storied 

building lying due N. and S. with about a dozen transverse partition 

walls, each containing a large arched doorway : all these arches are 

cracked up the centre. The longitudinal walls with their arches are 

unaffected, except that they have separated from the partition wall. 

This is also the case with the arches of the verandah running N. and 

S. : there are twenty-four of these on each side and none have been 

cracked. 

Two observers remarked independently on the jerky nature of the 

T . shock : one of them had experienced nine earth- 

Nature, Intensity r 

and Direction of quakes and the other three, and both stated that 
shock, the jerk was the most abrupt they had ever felt. 

With regard to the intensity, the disturbance was universally felt 
causing considerable alarm, most of the inhabitants either left their 
houses or took refuge under arches and doorways. There was no 
difficulty in standing provided the feet were kept apart. Trees rustled 
as in a strong wind, books were projected from shelves, articles fell from 
mantelpieces, and a bookcase standing against a wall was overthrown. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 143 

The intensity, however, can best be judged by the effect upon build- 
ings. (See above.) There are very few houses which do not show some 
trace of the earthquake in the form of cracks, especially above arches 
of doorways and windows. Another very common thing here and else- 
where is the formation of cracks in the corners of rooms, due to the 
separation of the walls which, instead of being properly bonded to- 
gether at the corners, have simply been built one up against another. 
Twenty-five lives were lost iu Lahore through the earthquake, 
A swinging lamp hanging from the ceiling by a wire 14 feet long 
described an arc of 3i — 4 feet, l another lamp hanging by a wire of 
about the same length is said to have swung through an arc of I J feet. 2 
The difference of swing is probably due to the difference of direction 
of oscillation, the latter being largely governed by the orientation of 
the house. The first lamp swung due N. and S. parallel to two walls of 
a room : the second swung N. 20° E. to S. 20° W., also parallel to the 
sides of a room. 

Water in a hand-basin was seen to splash over the sides towards 
the N. E. and S. W. 

In a house whose walls run N. N. E. to S. S. W. and perpendicu- 
lar to this a bookcase leaning against a W. N. W. to E. S. E. wall fell 
into the room. Water from an elliptical bath lying W. N. W. and 
E. S. E. was seen to splash out towards the N. N. E. and S. S. W. An 
iron ladder leaning against the wall was seen to vibrate violently up 
and down. 3 

The pole of a tent was seen to sway approximately E. to W. 4 
In the central museum some vases standing on a dusty glass 
surface are said to have moved towards the S. E., tracing paths from 
% to lJ inches long in the dust 5 ; a model railway carriage on lines 
pointing E. and W. dashed into and shattered the glass on the W. end 
of the case. 

1 Mr. Percy Brown, Curator of Museum. 

2 Mr. Deverell, Nedou's Hotel. 

3 Personal Assistant to the Inspector- General of Police. 
* Col. McConaghey. 

6 P. Brown, Curator. 



!44 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

In an officer's quarters at Mian Mir 1 photos and other articles fell 
into the fender off a mantelpiece lying W. 30.° N. to E. 30° S. : the 
mantelpiece truncated the corner of a room. 

Summarising the evidence as to direction of the shock, we have : — 

Town Hall. — Approximately from N. and possibly also from 

E. S. E. 
Post Office. — Approximately from N. or N. N. W. (Any shock 

from E. S. E. would probably have little effect. See plan.) 
Museum. — Approximately from N. E. and also approximately 

from S. E. (movement of vases, etc.). 
Accountant-GeneraVs Office. — More from N. than from E. 
Market. — Approximately from E. S. E. 
Railway station. — Approximately from E. N. E. 
Education Office. — Approximately from E. S. E. 
Bible Society. — Approximately from E. S. E. 
Golden temple. — Either one shock from N. or else two shocks, 

one from E. 30° S., the other from N. 30° E. 
Mian Mir. — More from E. than from N. 

It thus appears that either the waves were of a somewhat complex 
type affecting some buildings differently from others, or else there 
were at least two shocks proceeding from different points of the 
compass. 

Earthquake Forms — Lahore. 

Mr. U. S. Worman, Executive Engineer, 2nd Lahore Division. — Sent plans of 
three public buildings in Lahore showing generally vertical cracks. 

Mr. A. T. Gibson, Imperial Forest School (Dehra Dun). — Time 6-7 a.m. by 
watch compared with North Western Railway station time. There were first no 
preliminary tremors, second a sharp oscillation for 1 minute of equal intensity 
throughout. Third the movement died away. Direction S. W. to N. E. Very 
distinctly felt. Pictures on N. — S. walls moved. Photos, facing N. fell to S. 
Walls split in corners. The first shock was accompanied by a strong wind. No 
other sounds heard. 

1 Captain Spry. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIPth ISOSEIST. 145 

Mr. A. Greene, Sub-Assistant Superintendent, Telegraph Office. —Time 6-10 a.m. 
Chest-of -drawers upset accompanied by a breeze and fall in temperature. A very 
severe shock. He partly lost his balance during the second shock. 

Mr. F. C. Dixon, C.E. (of Adams & Co., Agra). — There was a continuous 
shaking growing in intensity but no separate shocks. He first thought it was a 
dog under the bed. Doors and windows rattled, bed shook more violently. He 
then went outside. No sound. 

Babu Jaspat Rai, Chief Observer, Magnetic Observatory.— Time 6-12 by a 
Government watch keeping accurate time and often compared with Observatory 
clocks. Direction S. or S. S. W. Furniture trembled, houses shook, cracks in 
most houses, lamps, punkhas and other hanging things swung from S. — N. Many 
people buried under wreck of houses. Bottles and glasses overturned on shelves. 
Pendulum clocks in the Observatory were stopped. Charts of self-recording 
instruments all show the. exact time of the occurrence, namely, 5-48 a.m. local time 
which = 6-12 a.m. Madras time. 

Mr. U. T. Janson, Assistant Engineer, North Western Railway. — Time 6-13 by 
clocks stopped. There were two shocks, the first being the more intense, and woke 
him up in Nedou's Hotel. At first the direction was N. 20° E. which increased 
in intensity for about 30 seconds. Then the direction changed suddenly to one 
at right angles, the intensity remaining the same. Outside he had to keep his feet 
wide apart to keep his balance. The waves now appeared to come from all 
directions, almost in a gyratory manner. Trees lashed as in a strong wind. 
Finally the shocks subsided to a tremor. 

Mr. P. Brown, Curator, Central Museum — Time 6-15|, believed correct with 
railway time. Three strong sets of vibrations, the 3rd the strongest. As he got 
out of bed he was thrown down by the 2nd shock. Hanging lamp, 14 ft. long 
wire, had a N. — S. swing of 3| to 4 ft. arc. Water from basin splashed N.E. — S.W. 
No sound heard. Several articles in the museum were overturned and many 
moved. From examination of hundreds of small articles he noted the general 
direction of travel to be S. E., especially in the case of glass and earthenware 
articles on plate glass shelves whose path was traced in the dust. Amount of 
movement | inch to J£ inch. 

Earthquake Forms — Mian Mir. 

Major T. Y. Seddon, 34th Pioneers.— Time 6-7 (clock stopped). There was 
first a severe rumbling, culminating secondly in one sudden shock. Thirdly, tremu- 
lous vibration for 30 seconds after the big shock. It was most distinctly felt. 

Imani Din, Sub-Postmaster.— Time 6-10 by watch in accordance with telegraph 
time. First 3 or 4 tremulous vibrations, 2nd 2 principal shocks, 3 or 4 seconds 
each. Direction E. — W. by parcel scale. Everything seemed vibrating. A 
rattling sound was "felt" before the main shock. 

L 



146 M1DDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Jullundur. 
Mr, Pascoe's description continues : — 

The time is wired daily from Lahore to the telegraph office of the 
Cantonment Railway Station. The Station-master 

Time observations. . . . 

recorded 6-10 by the clock in his room, and this 
was correct according to the telegraph office clock. 

The Sub-Divisional Officer of Military Works, Sergeant Stuart, re- 
corded 6-12 by his watch, timed by the daily gun which is said to be 
generally correct within a minute. I found it over two minutes late, 
however t on the one occasion I had of testing it. 

The officer in charge of the telegraph office reports that the main 
shock occurred at 6-10 a.m., the office clock stopping exactly at this 
hour. At the Post and Telegraph Office, Jullundur City, no clocks 
stopped, and no time was observed. 

According to the report of the telegraph office, the main shock, 
Duration and which lasted for about If minutes, was followed by 

number of shocks. slight shocks as follows : — 

One at 6-30, duration 2 or 3 seconds ; others at 9-30 a.m., 1-55 p.m. 
and 10 p.m. ; but these are evidently aftershocks, and not parts of 
the original seismic movement. 

Sound. No unusual sound appears to have been noticed. 

In the Railway Station a few bricks fell, and a waiting room has 
Effects upon two oblique cracks in two opposite walls lying N. W. 

buildings : Canton- ^ ^ £ ^ ^^ headi towards the S. E. The 
ment Railway Sta- ° 

tion. station-master's private quarters are old, and low, 

with several bad cracks, some of which are irregularly oblique. 

In the Police station there was a tendency for the S. wall to be thrown 
off, since there are two large upright cracks opposite 

Police Station. ° F 8 ^ i_ « ■« 

one another in the southern ends of the E. and 
W. walls. 

In the Isolation Hospital, a small square one-storied 

Isolation Hospital. _ , . ,, , , -. -, 

house, arches in the verandah were cracked. 

A stone cross on the church fell towards the 
S: W. and was fractured upon the roof. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 147 

A considerable area was covered by a regularly arranged series of 
bungalows, most of which were very similar in 
general plan and architecture, in height, and in the 
quality of their building material. All the bungalows were inspected 
with a view to discovering any lines of- interference, but nothing of 
this nature could be identified. The following brief summary will 
aid in giving an idea of the seismic intensity. 

The, bungalows are all one- storied, have a solid appearance due 
to the thick burnt brick walls, but the latter have uneven surfaces, 
and are built with a poor cement. A typical bungalow consists of a 
lofty central portion and two lower wings of the same height as the 
verandah : the latter, as well as the end of the house contiguous to it, 
is semi-circular. 

No. 3. A portion of the western wall above the side wing has 
fallen inwards towards the E. ; there are cracks all over the house, and 
plaster is missing in several places. This building did not appear strong. 

No. 9. The arches of the verandah which is on the S. are badly 
cracked ; bricks fell from one arch. 

No. 11. There are two curved verandahs, one on the N. and one 
on the S. The curved south main wall above the verandah had to be 
rebuilt, while the X. main wall, also curved, had begun to separate 
from the rest of the building. 

No. 12. The S. W. upper coiner of a chimney stack on the S. 
margin of the house has broken off and fallen towards the S. W. 
The verandah is situated on the N. side of the house, the upper 
wall of which is here badly cracked. A ohimney just above fell on 
to the verandah roof ; and a second one, also on the N., was badly 
shaken, and partly fell. 

No. 15. The upper walls above the wings and verandah are crack- 
ed all round. In this case the longer axis points E. and W., the 
verandah and entrance occurring, on the E. 

No. 36. Here the verandah is on the N. side of the house. The 

upper part of the N. wall has fallen on to the verandah and the latter 

has collapsed in consequence. 

l2 



l4 g MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

No. 40. The verandah is on the S. Part of the S. wall above the 
-verandah fell through the roof of the latter. 

No. 43. The verandah is on the N. The curved N. wall of the 
upper storey separated from the remainder. 

No. 50. Here the verandah is on the S., but contrary to the usual 
state of affairs, the cracks predominate on the N. side which tended 
to separate from the rest of the house. The N. wall had to be largely 
rebuilt. 

No. 62. The verandah is on the N. Two portions of the upper 
part of the wall, one on the N. E., the other on the E., fell outwards. 

No. 7S. The verandah is on the W. The curved S. W. portion 
of the house wall fell towards the S. W. overthrowing half of the 
verandah beneath. The rest of the building is intact. The parts 
which have suffered most are : — 

The verandah and the higher parts of the house walls projecting 
above the wings and verandah, especially when these walls are curved. 

The general direction of shock indicated by the bungalows is 
N. E., N. N. E. orN. 

The Cantonment bazar consists almost entirely of a series of low 

one-storied booths, poorly built, and in many cases 

Cantonment bazar. ■, , mi . « ,, 

sharing a common roof. This roof was generally 

skirted by a low parapet parallel to the streets, and composed either of 
open brickwork or brickwork and vertical hollow earthen pipes. Seve- 
ral portions of this parapet have either fallen or are cracked at the 
base and leaning : this has happened more especially at corners. Of 
parapets running N. and S. about twice as much fell as of those run- 
ning W. and E. Moreover in one corner, the portion running N. and 
S. has fallen towards the E. while the E. to W. portion is still in situ 
but leaning considerably towards the N. the base being cracked through. 
This lends colour to the view that the waves came more from the E. 
than from the N., but the parapets were old and in bad repair, and 
the evidence from their fall is of limited value. 

Other cases of injury are as follows : — 

In a native hut whose walls on the N., S. and E. sides are of burnt 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 149 

brick, the W. wall, which was of unburnt brick, has fallen outwards. 
There is a wide crack in the E. wall near the N. corner. 

In a second burnt brick hut, the wall on the S. has fallen outwards 
and the E. wall was pulled down on account of its dangerous cracks. 

In two cases arches running N. and S. over native booths have 
collapsed ; in one case the arch was near a corner of which the wall 
running E. to W. is leaning considerably towards the N. 

In another house, the S. wall had to be pulled down by reason of 
wide cracks in the walls on the E. and W. near the S. corner. 

The Military lines have suffered less than might have been expected 
after witnessing the condition of the Cantonment 

Military lines. , , 4 , , , . -, , 

bungalows. A number of chimneys have been so 
shaken as to require rebuilding, but none have actually fallen. 

Bungalow No. 18, the married quarters of the 1st Northampshire Re- 
giment, has received the greatest injury. This is a long one-storied 
building which is more or less sound in the central portion, but there 
are serious cracks at each extremity. 

In a double-storied barracks pointing N. E. by E. and S. W. by 
W. many of the arches irrespective of their direction are cracked. 

Jullundur City, about 5 miles N. W. of the Cantonment, comprises 
two or three Government offices, the church, the 

Jullundur City. 

Deputy Commissioner s house, and the bazar. 
The post office is a small building with its longer axis E. N. E. — 
W. S. W. The r-acks, which ore vertical, predomi- 
nate in the walls parallel to this axis, but are not 
serious. 

The Magistrate's Court has a few slight cracks. 
In the dining room of the Deputy Commissioner's bungalow a 
quantity of plaster fell from the upper region of the walls on the N. 
and S., while one small piece only fell from the wail on the E. and 
none from the W. wall. As in the post office at Lahore, so here, there 
appears to be a tendency for plaster to fall from walls more nearly 
parallel to the line of shock than from those more oblique. 
The church is uninjured. 



150 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The houses in the bazar are rudely built, and the walls in many 
cases have obviously been out of the perpendicular 
for some time. There are several two-storied 
houses, and nearly all these have been seriously cracked. 

A small minaret of a mosque has fallen towards the S. 

In five cases roofs have fallen, and in one case the whole upper 
story is missing. 

The shock was felt universally and many of the inhabitants re- 
moved to tents owing either to the dangerous con- 
Intensity. . . 

dition oi their bungalows, or to the inconvenience 

associated with repairs. Practically all houses are cracked, and in many 
cases portions of the walls have fallen. It is difficult to compare the 
effect on this town with that upon Lahore, but it seems reasonable to 
ascribe the greater damage inflicted upon the latter city to the presence 
of large buildings, especially to buildings of two stories, rather than 
to any difference in the intensity of shock. If anything, the shock was 
slightly greater at Jullundur, due allowance being made for imperfect 
construction in many of the buildings. The cantonment has been more 
affected than the city. 



Earthquake Forms — Jullundur. 

Mr. G. H. Hilton, Sub-Divisional Officer.— Two main shocks, the 2nd the 
more severe. Direction N. — S. or vice versd. It was most severely felt. Cracks 
in buildings generally through arches and between junction of walls. Greatest 
damage to walls running E. — W., the cracks being from top to bottom. A rum- 
bling sound as if mail train were passing over bridge. 

Mr. M. W. Fenton, Deputy Conimissioner.— One continuous vibration increas- 
ing to a maximum and decreasing again, with minor subsidiary vibrations through- 
out the day. He woke up and ran precipitately out of the house. Cracks in 
N. N. W. walls of house. Falls of masonry from arch. No sound noticed. 

Lieutenant G. C. Hynes, 4th Gurkha Rifles.— One distinct shock followed by 

steady vibrations. Trees swung. Distinct rumbling sound after the first shock 

like suri on a distant beach, and continuing almost as long as the vibrations. 

Lock brought down much plaster, pictures, etc. Ponies very restive before 

1 he shock. All the birds were flying very high after the shock. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIItb ISOSEIST, 151 

Amritsar. 
One Railway station platform clock stopped at 6-8 a.m., but must 
evidently have been slow. All the other clocks also 

Time observations. . . , . . , .„ , . 

stopped, but opinions drnered as to die exact minute 
at which they did so, although one observer seemed certain it was 
6-15. A gentleman in the town recorded 6-15, but could not vouch 
for the accuracy of his watch. It seems likely that the railway clocks 
were about 5 minutes fast, and that the true time was 6-10 as at 
Lahore and Jullundur. It will be noticed that the aftershock recorded 
at Jullundur at ,6-30 is recorded at Amritsar station at 6-35. prob- 
ably by a watch which had coincided with the railway clocks before 
they stopped. 

Two principal shocks close together were noticed by one observer, 
Number of the nrs "t no doubt corresponding to the preliminary 
shocks - disturbance. According to the Railway authorities, 

there was a third at 6-35 a.m. and other slight tremors at 8-20 a.m., 
8-57 a.m., 9-30 a.m., 10-40 a.m., and several during the night. At 
about 1 a.m. a very slight shock was noticed by several officers on 
night duty at the station, causing movement of a punkah. 

By most people an accompanying sound was heard, and is variously 
described as being like thunder, the firing of mus 

Sound. 

ketry, the rumbling of a tram, etc. 
The direction of the line and the station buildings is E. 15° N. to W. 
Effect upon build- l ^° ^: At "the entrance, on the N. side, is a large and 
fogs : Railway sta- rather high porch with a flat roof, supported by beams 
at right angles to the main wall. These beams were 
apparently loosened in their sockets, and part of a parapet wall over- 
looking the porch fell upon the W. half of the roof, which consequently 
collapsed. The remaining half threatened also to fall, and was taken 
down. 

A second-class waiting-room built out on the N. N. W. side of the 
platform buildings has separated from the latter by means of two 
opposite cracks in its side wails which run N. N. W., the cracks occur 
ring close to the platform buildings. All arches and walls parallel to 
the line are unaffected. 



152 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Cnurch. 



On the N. side of the western porch of the Church is a moderately 
tall belfry steeple bearing at its summit a stone cross, 
which is fixed to the steeple by an iron core through 
its centre. The cross and upper 4 feet of the steeple have been wrenched 
away from the lower part of the latter, but have been prevented from 
falling by the iron core. This, however, has been bent from the 
vertical so that the cross and steeple top are now leaning exactly 
towards S. W. (fig. 42). 




Fig. 42. 

In the W. wall of the adjacent western porch, near the N. W. 
corner is a long wide crack running vertically downwards. The edge 
of the gabled porch roof at this corner has been shattered, and a little 
brickwork has fallen. 

Inside is a conspicuous crack over the high chancel arch, and there 
are insignificant cracks over the aisle- windows. 



LARGE CITIES OP THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. I53 

The Post Office is a rectangular red -brick building with its longer 
axis N. W. to S. E. Very slight cracks are distri- 

Post Office. ■ . ' • , 

buted fairly equally over all the walls, especially 
over arches and in corners as usual. From the walls on the N. W. 
and S. E. project two porches, each carrying two small brick balls on 
the outer roof corners. In the case of the S. E. porch the two balls 
have been projected towards the N. E. and S. W., and have fallen 
one on each side of the porch ; while the pair on the N. W. porch have 
not fallen but have been severely shaken and cracked. 

The Ram Bagh garden gateway is an old square building stand- 
Ram Bagh gate- ing N. — S. and E. — W., pierced by a large arched 
way * gateway entrance from the N. to the S. side. Each 

corner bears a large cupola supported by six slender pillars, each being 
strengthened with an iron core. The pillars of the S. E. cupola have 
been thrust over towards the S. W., the cupola and pillar-casing hav- 
ing fallen in this direction, leaving the deformed iron frame-work consi- 
derably bent towards the S. W. The S. W. cupola leans slightly 
towards the S. W., the N. W. cupola towards the N., and the N. E. 
cupola towards the E., but it is uncertain whether this has resulted 
from the earthquake : the cupolas on the N. W and N. E. have four 
pillars each only. (See pi. 25.) 

On the roof is a stone baradari which has been severely shaken and 
cracked and is now in an unsafe condition. The gateway is badly 
cracked all over. 

Clerk's Memorial is a small, red-brick house, in the shape of an 
octagon, two opposite sides of which are longer 

Clerk'*s Memorial. ., . ,. ,, . . . . , T „ 

than the others: the longer axis points JN. E. to 
S. W. A verandah extends for three-quarters of the distance round, 
the other quarter being occupied by a low "wing." A cornice on 
each of the two longer sides of the octagon has, in each case, fallen on 
to the roof of the verandah beneath, and broken the roof beams. At 
the S. W. end a similar cornice above the " wing' ' has fallen on to 
the underlying roof, and the cornice on the margin of this roof, toge- 
ther with a portion of the wall beneath, have fallen outwards towards 



lr> 4 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

the S. W. The brickwork immediately beneath and just above a blocked 

up arch is shattered and has sagged at the centre, as if some force had 

been pulling the arch apart. 

Over the entrance gateway of the serai near the railway station 

are two cupolas, each on four pillars, the wall which 

they overlook pointing roughly N. E. to S. W. An 

iron core passes up each pillar and is bound to an iron frame- work 

investing the cupola. One of these cupolas has been thrust, from 

6 inches to a foot, over the pillars, and is now leaning towards the S., 

but has been saved from falling by the grip of the iron bands. 

The old Amritsar Hotel is a somewhat extensive building whose 

longer axis lies W. 10° N. At its W. end is a semi- 
Old Hotel. . . , _ . 

circular verandah from which projects a porch 
consisting of 3 pillars connected with the verandah by 3 beams support- 
ing the roof. The beams therefore run W. 10° N. and the southern- 
most one has been jerked out of its socket in the verandah wall and 
fallen, involving the S. half of the porch roof in its fall. The other 
two beams with their joists remain, and the solidly constructed veran- 
dah has escaped with a few insignificant cracks over the arches. The 
rooms inside are not seriously injured, although many show small cracks. 
A small brick pillar-head fell off the top of the southernmost porch 
pillar in a direction S. 30° W. 

There are several long cracks in the new Amritsar Hotel especially 

in room corners, and the arches of the verandah on 

the W. are cracked in the usual way. The porch on 

the E. side of the house has separated by one or two inches from the 

wall, and is unsafe. 

The Divisional Court has received several cracks, but no serious 

Divisional Court, damage The porch, as usual, is the chief part affected. 

A wooden belfry on the W. end of the Mission Church has fallen 

towards the N. W. on to the W. half of a gabled - 

Mission Chuich. porchroof beneath, through which it broke. The 

S. half of this roof is unbroken, its tiles being intact. There is nothing 

in the plan or symmetry of the building, or of the belfry, to have 



Large cities of the plains near the vtith tsoseist. ^5 



Bungalows. 



caused the latter to fall towards the N. W., rather than towards the 

S. W. 

Several bungalows have been very seriously damaged : four or five, 
including one three stories high, will have to be 
largely rebuilt. As at Jullundur, the tendency has 

been for the upper parts of walls to fall upon the roofs of verandahs 

or lower wings of the house. Repairs had masked most details of 

interest before they could be examined. 

The N. parapet of the round massive bastion-like tower fell towards 
the N. In other places brick- work fell from high 

Aniritsar City. 

Ram Bagh City situations, the general direction being towards the 
Gate - S. or S.W. One room in an upper story contained 

two oblique cracks, one in each of two opposite walls running N. 30° E. 
The cracks were fairly straight and haded towards the S. W., making 
an angle of 40° with the vertical. There were no windows nor door- 
ways in these walls to affect the direction of the cracks. 

The Clock Tower (see fig. 43) is a modern 
structure of red-brick, covering a 
small area, but 175 feet high. 
A central iron core runs through the upper part of 
the lofty steeple, and carries a weather-vane. Three 
uneven horizontal cracks have split the upper 8 
eet or so into three portions. The uppermost 
portion still encircles the iron core, the middle 
portion has, as far as could be judged from below, 
taken the place of the lowest portion, which has 
been thrown down towards the S. E. The middle 
portion has been much shaken about and now rests 
a little to the N. of the core. The indicator of the 
weather-vane has been twisted round through 45°, 
so that the N. pointer points towards the N.E. The 
central steeple is the only part which has suffered. 



Fig. 43. 




Clock Tower. 



156 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The Golden Temple, close to the clock, and surrounded by a large 
■ , ^ , water tank, has sustained no injury, in spite of 

Golden Temple. * J ' r 

the numerous and delicate pinnacles present. 
At the four corners of the sanctuary of the mosque of Sheikh Din 
Mosque of Sheikh whose longer axis points N. and S., were four minarets 

rising about 6 feet above the roof, each having an 
iron core running down its centre, and being crowned with the cus- 
tomary cupola and pillars. Of these minarets, that on the S. E. is 
leaning away from the centre of the sanctuary towards the S. S. E.; 
the cupola and pillars of the S. W. one have been thrown off, as far as 
could be made out, towards the S. W. The remaining two have been 
snapped across about half way between the roof and the summit, and 
the upper parts have fallen ; the debris had been cleared away before 
the mosque was examined, but the direction of fall is indicated by 
small projecting portions of the iron core which had broken in each 
case ; each of these portions is now bent, in the case of the N. W. 
minaiet, towards W. S. W., and in the case of the N. E. minaret 
towards N. W. 

The walls of the court extend N. W. to S. E. and N. E. to S. W., 
Ram Garhien and at the S. and E. corners are two high minars 
Bun g a - crowned with the usual pillars and cupola, much 

resembling those of Wazir Khan's mosque at Lahore. In both cases 
the eupolas and pillars have been severely shaken, and small pieces have 
fallen. The E. minar is now leaning towards the N., the S. minar 
remaining vertical. 

In the bazar the general direction of shock indicated by the majority 

of fractures and falls is N. E. to S. W. In at least 

two cases the disturbance appears to have travelled 
from S. E. to N. W. or vice versa. The testimony of bazar buildings, 
however, is usually too much complicated by irregularity of design and 
inferiority of material to be of much value. In four cases walk of 
houses have either wholly or partially fallen; in two cases walls 
pointing N. W. to S. E. have separated widely from the rest of the 
building, and in one case a parapet wall has fallen. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 157 

Water in an elliptical bath lying with its major axis N. and S. was 

Intensity and di- seen splashing out at the N. and S. ends, 
reetion. 

Near the Railway platform, raised some 15 or 20 feet above the 
ground, is a large rectangular iron tank whose longer axis lies E. 15° N. 
to W. 15° S. Directly after the shock two observers noticed that water 
was being thrown out over the longer sides, and that more came over 
the western than over the eastern corner of the S. side. The intensity 
appears to have been equal to that at Jullundur. 

Summarising the evidence as to Direction of Shock we have as 
follows : — 

Church.— From N. E. 

Ram Bagh gateway. — From N. E. 

Clerks' Memorial —From S. E. and N. E. 

Serai.— From N. 

Old Amritsar Hotel. — From N. E. 

Mission Church. — From S. E. 

Ram Bagh City Gate.—Fio,m N. E. 

Clock Tower.— From S. E. (?). 

Railway tank. -Approximately from N. 

Earthquake Forms — Amritsar. 

Mr. E. L. Crawford., Assistant Engineer. — The first shock increased in strength 
until the end. There was then an interval of about 2 mins. and then followed a 
second shock. Direction E.— W. by the swaying of a tree. No sound. The 
ground actually moved. Nausea was produced. House damage irregular. All 
arches cracked. 

"Mr. A. H. Johnston, Asst. Engineer. — Time 6-10 a.m. by watch timed at 
railway station. There was one prolonged shock, severe. Direction N. — S. by 
cracks in wall and hanging lamp. 

Mr. J. F. Pereira, Telegraph Master. — (1st) there were slight tremors increas- 
ing for 30 sees., (2nd) the great shock lasting for 1| mins.; (3rd) several tremors. The 
cot moved violently. He rushed outside immediately. Nausea and giddy feeling 
felt by wife and daughter. The shock was very severe. Houses rocked violently 
S. E. — N. W. Walls parallel to S. E. — N. W. were damaged owing to differential 
movement, whereas opposite walls simply rocked on their bases and either toppled 
over or sustained no damage. A low rumbling sound preceded the first shock, 



|gg MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

coming from S. E.— N. W. The whole ground heaved like waves of the sea. [The 
writer, who has evidently studied the subject, makes some further remarks as to 
the origin of the shock, which, however, have been disproved by actual traverses 
over the ground.] 

The Postmaster, Townhall.— Tune 6-10. Duration 1 min. 58 sees. Very 
severe. Nine people killed and much damage. 

Mr. J. Ashford, Supdt., Central Workshop, Irrigation Department.— Tremulous 
vibrat ions, 200 per minute. Direction E. by N.— W. by S. direction obtained from 
oscillating chimuey. The shock was violently felt, all doors and windows rattled 
violently and some came, unbolted in consequence of the upper bolts dropping 
down, and doors opened. Ornaments fell. Two pendulum office clocks stopped 
at 6-11 on wall facing E. They were regularly checked by railway time. Many 
buildings damaged on E. and W. sides. Violent shaking of the bed in which 
he was. He ran outside. The sound was a distinct rumbling. 

Mr. G. W. E. Atkinson, Assistant Secretary to the Municipality.— One con- 
tinuous shock, 40 to 50 seconds. Hotel buildings swayed from side to side, also 
up and down in a confused way. Direction uncertain. Doors rattled. He was 
aroused from sleep, and immediately went outside. The most severe shock he 
has felt in his life. If it had lasted twice as long he thinks all buildings would 
have collapsed. Isolated houses have suffered more than groups which buttressed 
each other. Tall factory chimneys did not suffer, nor railways, nor bridges. 

Mr. F. W. Schonemann, Executive Engineer, Bari Doab Canal. — There was 
first a banging and rattling of doors followed immediately by a rumbling noise 
like a carriage or cart driven round the house on hard ground. Second a prolonged 
steady reciprocating motion of horizontal jerks for about 10 sees. Third a regular 
oscillation for more than 3 minutes. Direction N. — S. by hanging fern baskets. 
At 4 a.m. his wife heard a door rattle. Also Mr. Roberts in the same house 
heard it and thought it was thieves. (See Foreshocks, p. 355.) 

Tarn Tar an. 

This large village is situated 14 miles south of Amritsar, 

A wall in the high two -stoned entrance gateway of the Tehsil 

building was dangerously cracked and had to be 
Tehsil. 

taken down. Several arches inside the Tehsil are 
cracked, and the E. porch of the Treasury was so severely shattered as 
to necessitate its removal. 

The injury to the temple is practically confined to the roof on 

which is built a baradari, consisting of four corner 

pillars of L-shaped section and eight intermediate pil- 

lars of rectangular section, the whole forming twelve arched doorways 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VITth ISOSETST. 159 

supporting a square domed roof. Upon the centre of tne latter was a 
large cupola of gilt brass : smaller similar cupolas were borne by low turrets 
at the corners and along the E. border. Most of the roof with the 
large cupola collapsed, but failed to break through the temple roof, 
which was fortunate, as the sanctuary below was densely crowded 
with Sikhs. 

Out of 1,400 houses in the town, the majority are cracked, 150 
seriously enough to require repairing, while in the 

The Town. 

case of 5 or 6, portions have fallen. The greatest 
damage was done to the rather high bungas on the N. side of the enor- 
mous tank of the temple. The wall facing the tank, ie., standing 
due E. and W., fell outwards from four of the bungas, killing 9 and 
injuring 7 men. 

Ferozepur. 

The time recorded by the Telegraph Master by the office clock 
Time Observa- which had been corrected by wire from Madras the 
previous day, was 6-12 a.m. No time observation 
was taken at the post office. 

A few observers (see Earthquake Forms) record 6-10 by ordinary 
watches which were said to be fairly correct. 

The Post Office itself is uninjured. Two rooms in the Postmaster's 

Effect upon build- private quarters show cracks over the window 

in g s - arches and a few slight ones in corners or between 

The Post Office. ,, „ , , 

the walls and roots. 

There is an irregular crack in one wall of the Mission Church and 

The Mission the steeple has rocked, causing a slight loosening of 

the brickwork all round. 

The school is a large one-storied building, divided by three prin- 

The Government ci P al P aitition walls > a11 running E. 30° N. to W. 

School. 30° S. Each partition wall contains four bricked- 

up arches, the bricks of which have fallen or project on one side or 
the other. 

There are serious cracks in the corners of the rooms especially near 
the roof. 



160 MIDDLEMTSS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The Garrison Gunners' barrack is a two-storied red-brick build- 
ing whose longer axis lies N. 35° E. On the upper 
floor arches running in this direction on each side 
are severely cracked, those at right angles are also cracked but to a 
smaller extent. The outer verandah wall and part of the roof on the 
S. W. was so badly cracked and shaken that reconstruction was neces- 
sary. Arches in the ground floor are affected in an exactly similar way 
but in a smaller degree. 

Other barracks were slightly cracked, but showed nothing of in- 
terest ; and flights of stone steps scaling a long artificial bank in 
several places were cracked transversely. 

The following summary of the damage done to bungalows may 
facilitate a comparison between the intensity at Fe- 

Bungalows. 

rozepur and that at Jullundur : the bungalows in the 
former town are not so uniform in size and plan as they are in the latter. 

In the Deputy Commissioner's bungalow there are a few slight 
cracks in the corners of rooms and over windows. The porch has 
separated a little from the house, and pillars in the verandah are 
cracked horizontally all round the base. 

The travellers' bungalow shows a few cracks in corners and above 
windows, but no appreciable injury. 

In bungalow No. — , in one room, the walls which as usual were not 
bonded together have separated, producing a crack from floor to 
ceiling in each corner. Cracks seemed to predominate in E. to W. walls, 
A few bricks dropped from a pillar of the porch, and the arches in the 
latter were cracked. 

In No. 50, the brickwork of three chimneys was shaken loose, and 
had to be rebuilt : the walls contain several cracks. 

In No. 48, there are several conspicuous cracks, especially in walls 
running N. and S., and two or three chimneys have been shattered. 

In No. — , walls running E. and W. are badly cracked, in some 
places from floor to roof. The N. to S. walls were either entirely 
devoid of cracks or contained a few slight ones. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. \Q\ 

No. 40 hard a thatched gable roof, inclined towards the E. and W., 
on which were four rectangular biick chimneys. In all thatched roofs 
observed it was noticeable that, owing partly to the insecure means of 
attachment to the roof, and partly to the steepness of the slope of {he 
latter, chimneys were very liable to fall bodily. One of the stacks of 
this bungalow has all but fallen, and is now balanced on one of its 
lower outer corners, leaning in the direction W. 30° S. A second has 
been completely overthrown, and the remaining two have been badly 
shaken. 

In No. 26, there is a large crack in the front verandah, and two 
chimneys badly cracked at the base have been rebuilt. 

In No. 17, two chimneys on the thatched roof have fallen and in 
No. 10, one chimney on the thatched roof has fallen. 

In the Chemist's bungalow, a small section of the roof -margin of 
a. somewhat insecure-looking porch has fallen. 

In No. — , a wall on the W. side of the house has fallen upon the 
verandah roof. 

Two of the barracks of the Royal Artillery Lines which consist of 
Royal Artillery the usual long two-storied red brick structures, and 
whose longer axes point N. E. to S. W., have been 
affected in an exactly similar manner. On the upper floor, all arches 
and doorways running transversely, i.e., N. W. to S. E., are cracked, in 
a few cases seriously, especially those traversing the verandah. Some 
longitudinal arches and doorways show cracks, but these are smaller and 
less numerous ; many of th e longitudinal arches of the outer verandah 
wall even have escaped, although these are generally points of weakness. 
The condition of the ground floor is an exact repetition on a smaller scale 
of that of the upper floor. 

In a third barrack whose bearings are the same as the first two, a 
somewhat similar thing has happened, but the injury is greater. There 
are wide cracks in transverse arches and doorways but the longitu- 
dinal arches are much less gravely affected. The outside transverse 



l6 9 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

walls at each end of the building have been fractured sio badly as to 
b9come dangerous ; the upper story portion is being dismantled and 
rebuilt. 

This is a smaller building, rectangular in plan, pointing N. E. to 
rt , S. W. It carries a gable roof with three square 

1 ho Quarter © •*• 

Guard. chimney-stacks along the N. W. margin, and around 

it runs a verandah with a flat roof. A small corner of the chimney at 
the N. angle has fallen towards the N. on to the verandah roof below. At 
the S. and E. corners, small portions of the wall and roof fell on the 
verandah roof. 

In barracks No. 2, the tops of two chimneys have fallen, as far as 
N. .Staffordshire could be seen, towards the N. E. or N. The coni- 
Linos. cal cover of a small iron chimney is said to have 

been bent by the shock, and is now directed towards the E. N. E. 

In the station hospital a few small cracks occur over 

Hospital Church. -, . -,. . . , , 

r arches indiscriminately. 

The ornamental parapet of a gable of the church has been taken 
down, because of serious fracture. 

Little damage has been done in the city, and nothing of any inter - 

Ferozepur City. est ha%S happened. 

The arch of the city gate runs east to west; a vertical crack passes 
right through the building from back to front, at the side of the 
archway. 

In the mosque of Munshi Eaiz Bakhsh, and also in another mosque, 
a small minaret has fallen towards the west. 

A portion of the east wall of a tall three-storied house has fallen 
from the highest story outwards towards the east and has broken 
through the roof of an outhouse below. In the remaining portion of 
this wall is a wide crack extending from the roof to the ground. 

Three observers at the Fort felt the shock come from N. to S., 
Direction and in- an d according to one it was not easy to keep one's 
tensif y- balance. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. \Q$ 

The Assistant Telegraph Master noticed a square chimney-stack 
rocking apparently in a N. to S. "direction, and also, while the shock 
was in progress, observed water, in round fire buckets, standing in 
the compound, being splashed over the sides on the N. E. and .S. W. 

The majority of buildings possess some cracks, but these are usually 
slight, and no great injury has been sustained. There are several 
buildings which show no trace whatever of the disturbance, and some 
two-storied houses in the city appear to be free from any but slight 
cracks. It is evident that the shock was less intense here than at 
either Amritsar, Jullundur or Lahore. 

Summarising the evidence as to direction of shock we have : — 

Government School. — Approximately from N. E. 

Fort. — Approximately from N. E. 

Bungalow No. 40 — From E. 30° N. 

R. A. Barracks. — Approximately from S. E. 

North Staffordshire Barracks. — From E. N. E. 

Uart/iqualce Forms— Ferozepur. 

Major J. R. Adie, Civil Surgeon. — Time 6-10 a.m. hy watch generally correct. 

Bakhshi Ram Singh, Executive Engineer, Provincial Division. — Time 6-15 a m. 
by clock compared with gun at 12 o'clock. One principal shock of 2 minutes dura- 
tion. No tremulous vibrations af^rwards noticed. Direction N. — S. by hanging 
lamp. Ornamental pie ce of china ware fell from fireplace towards W. Cracks in 
arches S. W. — N. E. generally. 

Fateh Shah Khan, Head Clerk, Executive Engineer. — Time 6-10 by timepiece 
regulated by gun fire. There were 1st no preliminary tremors, 2nd incessant 
shocks for 1 minute, 3rd tremors for 3 minutes. Trees shook, and houses sepa- 
rated at corners, Direction N. — S. by trees. It disturbed the balance of people. 
A lamp fell. Sound like underground thunder. 

Mr. A. G. Savedra. Telegraph Master. — Time 6-12 a.m. by telegraph clock and 
private pendulum clock, both of which stopped at this hour. First a continuous 
trembling vibration for 30 seconds. One prominent shock lasting 60 seconds which 
increased and diminished regularly. Third no tremulous vibrations afterwards. 
Direction N. W.—S. E- It was a horizontal shock only, not as at Shillong in 
June 1897 which was also undulating. No sound. 

M 2 



IQ4 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Wazirabad. 
Mr. Pascoe's observations continue : — 

In the Post and Telegraph Office no clocks stopped. The time 
Time was tnou gkt to b e 6- 10, but this is unreliable, even 

supposing the clocks were correct. At the Railway 
Station also no clocks stopped, and no time was recorded in the Tele- 
graph Office. The Stationmaster recorded by his watch 6-10 a.m., 
but the clock in his bungalow stopped at 6-15. Both watch and clock 
are stated to have been correct. 

After the severe wave, slighter shocks are said to have occurred 
Number f sh cks approximately at 6-50 and 7-10 a.m. The latter 
shock was more noticeable than the former. 

There was nothing of much interest to be seen in the buildings ; 
Effect upon build- the following is a brief summary of the damage 
ings - inflicted:,- 

The Tehsildar's house, a two-storied one, has cracks, especially 
in the walls running N. and S.; one crack stretching from roof to base. 
The S. wall of the top story has separated a little from the re- 
mainder. 

In four rooms in the Police station cracks were more frequent in 
walls running N. to S. than in those running E. to W. Two small 
rooms of different height built side by side on the roof, and lying 
E. and W. of each other, have separated a little from each other near 
their common wall. 

House (1) is three-storied and very irregular. A wide crack 
extends from the roof to the areh of a window in the N. wall. House 
(2) is an infirm-looking structure and badly cracked. In house (3) a 
very badly built wall has fallen. 

House (4) is two-storied, and moderately well built. It has suffered 
more heavily. The S. wall of the upper and part of that of the lower 
story have fallen, together with the E. wall of the upper story and the 
roof. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. K35 

In house (5) the N. wall of the upper story has fallen outwards 
towards the N. In house (6), a one-storied house, the west wall fell 
outwards towards the W. 

In house (7), a wall fell from the third story and smashed a roof 
below. In house (8), the whole upper story has fallen. 

House (9) is an old, badly built, three-storied building, with a 
lower outstanding portion which has separated widely owing to the 
difference in the period of vibration, A wall fell from the third 
story, struck a house opposite and brought part of its wall down also. 
A second wall is severely cracked, and what remains of the house 13 
in a very dangerous condition. 

The direction of a tall blocked-up gateway of red brick, carrying a 
parapet wall, is E. and W.\ At the ends of the parapet, on the front 
corners of the gateway, are two brick towers. The E. tower and 
nearly all the parapet has fallen outwards towards the S. Part of the 
E. wall near the S. corner has fallen, and also a portion of a wall from 
25 to 30 feet high, extending E. and W. from the gateway. 

In the Stationmaster's drawing-room, an ornament on a shelf 

Direction and In- in the E. wall fell on to the floor towards 

the W. A glass vase on the mantelpiece (direc* 

tion N. W. to S. E.) in the S. W. corner of the room was thrown over 

to the N. W. : the vase was unbroken. 

There are many lofty buildings in the bazar ; houses of two 
or three stories are quite common, and many of these have been un- 
affected by the earthquake. In spite of the number of native houses 
which have suffered seriously, the intensity appears to have been 
hardly any greater than it was at Feiozepur, due allowance being made 
for the previously almost ruinous state of many of the Wazirabad 
dwellings. 

Gujranwala. 

No clocks stopped at the telegraph office, but the time noted is 

Time observa- said to have been 6-10 a.m. The time is wired 

tlons - daily from Lahore. The time noted by the 

1 t,e., the direction of the arch. 



166 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Postmaster, according to the office clock, was 6-10 a.m. At the 
American Mission, a clock, believed to be correct with Railway time, 
stopped at 6-12. 
XT , Two severe shocks are spoken of, the second 

Number of shocks. 

being the longer of the two. Others were felt 
subsequently. 
A noise like that of a carriage passing along the 

Sound. 

road was heard. 

At the Deputy Commissioner's .bungalow in the office — a room 

Effect upon built out separately from the house — there are two 

opposite wide cracks in the W. and E. walls near the 

corners made with the N. wall, and there is a corresponding crack 

in the roof. It is clear that the N. end of the room tended to separate 

from the rest. An old decorated room upstairs has several ornamental 

arches cracked. 

The tomb of Mahan Singh is a tall octagonal structure with a series 

of eight solid cupolas at one stage of its height, one 

Guiranwalu City. , » ,, rn , . ., 

at each corner ot the octagon. Ihe two on the b. 
side of the octagon are bent over, and now lean towards E. 15° N., 
their iron cores having prevented them from falling. 

In the temple over the sanctuary entrance were two small mina- 
rets rising about 12 feet above the roof. A small knob on the sum- 
mits of the cupola of the S. minaret fell westwards on to the roof of 
the sanctuary, about 6 feet away from the minar ;, the cupola-knob of 
the N. minaret fell eastwards into the court below (no mark on the 
ground could be found), and the cupola itself, fell westwards on to the 
sanctuary roof. 

The roof of a tall two-roomed barn, 20 feet high, has fallen, to- 
gether with the inside partition- wall and the whole of one of the walls 
at right angle to this. The material was of burnt brick with poor 
cement. There has been relative movement between two contiguous 
houses lying W. N. W. and E. S. E. of each other. One of them has 
shitted outwards towards the street in a N. N. E. direction, and now 
projects considerably from the other house. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIJth ISOSEIST. \q>j 

In another two-storied house, a kucha wall has fallen outwards. 
At the American Mission, a lamp hanging by a rod 16 feet long from 
Direction and in. a ceiling 23 feet above the ground was observed to 
swing through an arc whose chord was equal to 
2 feet. The direction of swing was N. E. to S. W. 
The intensity was equal to that at Wazirabad. 

Earthquake Forms — Gvjraitwala. 

Mr. A. Murphy, Assistant Engineer, Upper Chenab Canal. — Time 6-13 at the 
end of the main shock by watch set the previous day by the railway station. 
One main shock, 3 vibrations felt afterwards in 20 minutes lasting each only a 
few seconds. Direction N. N. W. — S. S. E. by water in a tank. Distinctly felt. 
Difficult to stand outside without support. Motion like a row boat in the wash 
of a steamer. A few badly built old houses fell. Cracks in a large proportion. 
Sound sharp and rattling which seemed to come from the N. and die away to 
theS. 

Mr. G. C. Laurie, Executive Engineer, Chenab Canal. — Time 6-10 about. He 
was in bed in a tent. There were 1st several short preliminary shocks, 2nd one 
main shock which lasted for some time, 3rd several tremulous vibrations. It 
was very intensely felt. He held on to the side bamboo of tent which was 
moving very considerably. Slight cracks in Sessions House Many houses in 
city cracked and some fell. 

Fazl Elahi, Head Signaller. — Time 6-10 a.m. by office clock keeping standard 
time {i.e., at that time Madras time). Distinctly felt and damaged nearly all 
the publ-ic buildings by cracks. Nothing overturned in the telegraph office. 

Gujrat. 
Mr. Pascoe's observations continued : — 

The time observed by the Stationmaster, who was in his office 
at the moment, was 6-13 a.m. The time is wired 

Time observa- , ., „ _, .. . . 

tiong daily from Lalla Musa which receives its times from 

Lahore. The duration is said to have been -1 

minutes. 

The Stationmaster observed water moving in circular Src-buck-ats 

in a direction E. N. E. to W. S. W : none splashed 
Direction and in- . , . 

tensity, over the sides, however, although the water was 

within two inches of the brim. 



]6$ MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The town is about the same size as Wazirabad, the populations 
being equal. About 20 houses need serious repair. No house fell 
immediately after the shock, but on the day following, a house which 
had been severely shaken collapsed, and killed a boy. 



Ea Hhqua Ice Fo rm — Gujrat . 

Mahomed Haniedulla Khan, Postmaster. — Three shocks, the 2nd the most 
intense with a few sec ; n ds interval. First doors and windows trembled, 2nd the 
3 shocks as above, 3rd tremulous vibrations afterwards for not more than 3 
minutes. The sound "felt" like **shau" "shau" 2 or 3 seconds after the 
1st shock. Cracks in the postmaster's quarters. 



Sialkot. 

One observer records (5-10 by his watch which was correct. (Prob- 
ably according to the daily gun.) The clock at 
ti the post office stopped at 6-10; this is corrected by 

the gun. The clock at the telegraph office stopped 
at some time between 6-13 and 6-16, but the exact time was 
unobserved. 

After the great shock, three slighter ones are repoited to have 
been felt during the 20 minutes following. One 
was also noticed at 11-30 a.m. and another about 
12 P.M. 
A stone cross fell from the top of a tall steeple of the English 
Church at the N. W. corner and struck the ground, 
Effect upon build- making tlu . 00 dents in the latter t he line joining 

iug-3 English Church. ° 

the dents pointing towards the centre of the steeple, 
and the middle dent probably corresponding to the centre of gravity 
of the cross. The latter had been fixed to the steeple by an iron 
core which snapped at the base of the cross. 

Direction in which cross fell = W. 15° 6. 

Height ot steeple from base of cross to ground (as measured by 
an Almey's Level) ~167d ft. 

Height of cross ~ 4 it. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSETST. ^9 

Distance of middle dent from the centre of the square base of the 
steeple = 41 ft. 

From these figures, the horizontal velocity of the cross works out 
to be 12*7 ft. per second. 

The steeple like the rest of the church is of brick, and about 16 
feet below the apex, a horizontal crack extends all round. [Query — 
Is this where the iron core ends?] Inside the church there are 
several cracks above the arches, but these are not serious ; a rather 
more conspicuous crack occurs over the circular window in the W. wall, 
another over the doorway. 

At the W. end of the R. C. Church is a square embattled tower, 
whose bearings are N. 10° W. to S. 10° E. by B. 10° 

Roman Catholic . . 

Church. N. to W. 10° S. Within the corners of the roof of 

this tower were four small turrets ; the two on the 
E. have fallen and fractured the corner battlements especially that on 
the N. E. The N. W. turret was leaning out of the perpendicular 
and part of the corner battlement had fallen. The S. W. turret was 
intact, but a small part of the brickwork under this battlement was 
missing. In short the corners of the tower have been affected, whilst 
the intermediate battlements with one exception on the N. are as 
they were previously. 

Inside are a few small cracks over arches. 

A chimney has partly fallen from the Military prison, and verandah 

arches are cracked in many cases. Some old cracks 

^ . in the N."to S. wall of the main corridor have been 

Prison. 

quite unaffected. 

A transverse partition wall in the Infirmary — direction N. :$o° W. 

to S. 35° E. — has three very bad cracks, one over the 

side of the arched doorway, and two extending from 

floor to roof beside the chimney flue. This wall 

required dismantling. 

The British Infantry, the Cavalry, and the Royal Horse Artillery bar- 
racks, all show small cracks. Thev are solidlv built, 

Barracks, ... 

with thick walls, and have sustained little damage. 
Some of the Cantonment bungalows were badly cracked. 



17() MIDDLKMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Each of two small cylindrical minarets standing over the entrance 
gateway of the mosque shewed a conspicuous ver- 
tical crack. The direction of the gateway was N. 
E. to S. W., and the direction of the planes in which the cracks lay 
was in both cases N.N. E. to S. S.W., the shock apparently having 
struck the mosque from the E. S. E. 

House (i), two-storied— burnt brick with plaster. The N. wall 
of the upper story throughout the length of three rooms fallen out, 
and there is a very wide crack in the side wall. House (ii), one- 
storied. Has fallen down. House (iii), rudely built, with thin walls. 
Has fallen. House (iv), two-storied — dangerously cracked. House 
(v), has four stories and an attic. Upper story cracked. House (vi), 
four-storied. Upper story dangerously cracked and partly fallen. 
House (vii), two-storied. Upper story fell. There were several three- 
storied and some four-storied houses in the bazar. All these were 
cracked in the upper stories at least. Some loose bricks fell from 
N. — S. wall 12 ft. high, but none from a similar E. — W. wall. 

A lamp hanging in a bedroom by an iron rod about 12 feet long 

was seen by one observer to swing somewhat 

Direction ami In- obliquely across a room, through an arc of about 

tensity. x ' ' ° 

2 feet. The path described, however, was not a 
straight line but a very much elongated ellipse whose major axis pointed 
\V. 30° N. and E. 30° S. 

A second observer describes a lamp swinging from a similar iron 
rod in a direction N. 20° W. to S. 20° E ., the path being a straight line 
as far as could be seen. 

A lamp in the Military prison was seen to swing E. to W. 

The covers of four telegraph instruments in telegraph office fell off 
towards the W. on to the tables. These covers were so placed on the 
sides of the instruments that no moderate shock except one from 
approximately E. or W. could have dislodged them. A violent shock 
from the N. E., S. W., N. W., or S. E. might have done so, but a shock 
from the N. or S. would almost certainly have left them in place. 

In the Telegraph Master's private quarters, a lamp was seen to 
swing due E. and W. as lar as can be remembered. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. m 

Nearly all the houses in the city are cracked : one has completely 
fallen, and about six partly fallen. Burnt brick buildings were said 
to have suffered more than those of sun-dried brick, but stability of 
structure depends as .much upon the cement as upon the brick used. 
The intensity was greater than at' Wazirabad, and appears to have 
almost equalled that at Lahore. 

Earthy aaJce Forms — SialTcot. 

Mr. J. F. Kennegy, Telegraph Master. — Time about 6-12 a.m. Office clock 
stopped at (3-15. One smart and continuous tremor, no separate shocks. Doors 
rattled loudly. House rocked for a few seconds. Direction E. — W. by hanging 
lamp. Distinctly felt. Light zinc covers of the telegraph instruments 4" by 
3V by 2'' tilted on one side of the instruments. Walls slightly cracked. Humb- 
ling sound during main shock. 

Mr. Carl H. H. Midler, Executive Engineer, Upper Chenab Canal. — Time 
6- 10 by watch set by railway time. One severe shook for one minute, 3 or 
4: other shocks. Direction E. — W. Bed moved. He was first awakened by a 
sound like wind. There was a rolling movement like a boat at sea. Plaster fell 
from walls. Walls cracked, roof groaned, trees swayed and birds flew round 
and dogs barked. Ponies restless and neighing. He felt nausea. 

Jammu. 
At the post office the time was stated to have beenabout (3-J3 A.M., 
„. . duration about two minutes. According to another 

lime observations. ° 

observer, 6-5 was recorded by a clock said to have 
been keeping Madras time : duration two and-a-half minutes. 

Two distinct shocks are reported, the second the stronger of the 
Number of shocks tw0 * Continuous tremors followed the main shock 
for more than 20 minutes as indicated by the vi- 
bration of a key-ring suspended on a knife-edge : these tremors were not 
otherwise perceptible. Slight shocks occurred subsequently during the 
day : one at 4-30 p.m. lasting for about fifteen seconds. 

A rumbling noise is described as having been 

iSound. 

heard ; but for a short time only. 

Effect upon build- ^ ne P ost °^- ce ls > intact, but the adjoining Post- 
ings : Post Office. master's private quarters are cracked in several 
places. 



172 M1DDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The principal gate of the Governor's Palace is severely cracked at 
the four corners. Some staircases are said to be 

(.'overnor\s Palace. 

dangerously fractured, and there are many small 

cracks in the various buildings. A brick pillar at the corner of a 

parapet on the third floor roof fell towards the E. into the Palace 

yard. 

The Governor's offices, a tall building of three or four stories, is 

quite unaffected, and the State school also, an ex- 
Offices : school. . 

tensive building, is practically intact. 

A large two-storied building forming the rest-house has the 

h use lower story apparently unaffected, but the upper 

is seriously cracked, especially in corners and over 

arches. The cracks are larger and more frequent in arches and wall 

lying W. 15° N. The bungalow is declared to be unsafe and is closed. 

A large lofty red brick building, the Palace of Ramnagar, built in 
Palace of Ram- the English style and on an eminence, has a few 
na ° ar - slight cracks. 

A solidly constructed rampart is cracked and part has fallen. The 
upper portion of a gateway arching from N. 30° E. to S. 30° W. has 
fallen towards the E. The material consists of large moraine pebbles 
cemented together. Walls have fallen in the case of 7 houses in the 
bazar, but nearly all these were two-storied dwellings : many houses 
are cracked but no very serious damage has been done. 

The movement appeared to be from E. S. E. to W. N. W. A 

Direction and in- clerk in the -Mining Office, sitting upon the floor 

tensit y- and facing E. S. E., was thrown flat upon his back. 

Water in tanks is reported to have moved also in the direction 

E. S. E. and W. N. W. 

Although the inhabitants of Jammu described the shock as being a 
very severe one, the intensity, estimated from the effect upon buildings, 
is surprisingly less than at Sialkot, 2C miles away. Possibly this is due 
to the fact that Jammu is situated upon a low hill of boulder graved 
while Sialkot lies upon the flat alluvial plain. The intensity does not 
appear to have been greater than that at Ferozepur. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 173 

Earlhqnaka Forms — Jammu. 

Mr. J. Godwin, Mining Officer. — He was indoors on 3rd floor of house. There 
were first tremulous vibrations for 2 seconds (guessed), next 6 principal and 
most violent shocks lasting 2^ minutes with intervals of about 8 to 10 seconds. 
Thirdly, tremulous vibrations continued for more than 20 minutes after principal 
shocks. Direction E. S. E. and W. N. W., ascertained by suspending ring of 
bunch of keys attached to door frame. Sound, 1st a rumbling, 2nd " whizzing" 
when the movements were violent. Almost all buildings have received more or 
less damage. Tank water moved E. S. E.— W. N. W. 

Bakshi Chandulal Sitaram, Divisional Engineer, Public Works Department. 
— The first shock was horizontal and undulating, continued for about 2\ minutes. 
Secondly, there were more shocks at small intervals much weaker in intensity and 
duration. Direction N. E. — S. W. from tank movement and cracks in buildings. 
Sound a continuous, dull, smothered sound. Universal alarm. At the first 
shock he was thrown S. W. On a repetition of it he went into the open air. 
Could not stand outside. Had to sit down. The sensation was as if at sea in 
an open boat. Metalled city roads badly damaged by upper layers of metal 
crumbling. The writer gives a long account of damage to walls of buildings, 
chiefly cracks and fissures, but some walls were overthrown. Estimated damage, 
Rs. 1,04,500. The following general results were ascertained : — (1) 'Houses built 
of boulder stone masonry suffered most. (2) Brick houses almost untouched, 
(3) Many-storied houses suffered more than single-storied. 

Ludhiana. 
One observer noted 6-10 immediately, by a watch keeping Madras 
time ; this was confirmed by the stopping of two 

Time observations. , , , , , . 

clocks at the same time. 
Another observer records 6-5 or 6-6 by his watch which had been 
corrected by the daily gun. 

A clock correct according to railway time, in a bungalow belonging 
to the American Mission, stopped at 6-5 a.m. 

A curved verandah on the S- of the post office 
ings : the Post Office, building shows a few wide cracks, and a small por- 
tion of it has fallen. 
The Postmaster's private quarters, however, have suffered severely. 
From the margin of a chamber built upon the roof, a very heavy cornice 
fell, broke the beams of the roof, and brought a large part of the latter 
down, wrecking a room below. Two rooms on the roof had to be dis- 
mantled as the walls were dangerously out of the vertical. 



£ 74 MIDDLEMISS : KANCRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Another room below has a very bad crack in one wall. 

The Fort is an old building, dating from the time of Ran jit Singh, 

situated on rising gound, its longer axis pointing 

Fort * N. 30° E. and S. 30° W- The roof is low, heavy and 

vaulted, the vaults being upheld by massiv pillars. There are several 

wide cracks in the roof, one admitting daylight ; all of them are parallel 

to the longer axis. 

All the door and window arches on the second story of the officers' 
quarters, which are also old, have been cracked ; the ground floor is 
practically intact. 

The Church is uninjured except for the loss of a few slates. The 
, ^ , „ dak bungalow has a few cracks, but these are 

Church: Dak Bun- & 

galow : District En- unimportant. In the District Engineer's bungalow, 
gincer's Bungalow. a c himney fell and cracked the verandah roof ; a 
gate-post showed many cracks. 

The direction of the longer axis of the Court House is E. to W. 

There are very bad cracks in the verandah, and the 

upper parts of the walls are cracked, but the cracks 

traverse the mortar and not the bricks. Cracks in the rooms are more 

frequent in the walls running N. and S. 

The Treasury building itself is intact. The outer court is enclosed 

by four high walls with a projecting imitation round 
The Treasury. 

" tower " at each corner. These towers are floorless, 

roof-less, and the walls are incomplete on the inside. All four are 
cracked down the centre, while the walls connecting them are 
immune. 

The Town Hall, a large capacious building, has 
escaped almost entirely. 
In the principal bungalow of the American Mission, a house of two 
The American stories, there are slight cracks above the verandah 
Mlss,on - arches on the ground- floor, and larger ones in the 

same position on the upper floor. There are several cracks in walls 
and corners, especially in the upper story and especially on the N 
side of the house, where the verandah is situated. 



LARGE CITIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIttt ISOSEIST. ^5 

A well in the fort, 20 feet deep, is cracked slightly in the portion 
above ground : below this there is no damage what- 
ever. The same thing applies to a well in the Tehsil 
Courtyard. This rises 2 feet above the ground, and is traversed 
horizontally by a crack about 1 foot below the ground level. 
This is built of burnt brick. Two minarets, rising originally 12 feet 
from the front angles of the sanctuary roof, were 
snapped at the roof level and fell into the court- 
yard below. The direct ons of fall, indicated by the repaired court- 
yard pavement, were in the case of the N. minaret E. 18° S. and in the 
case of the S. minaret E. 10° S. 

Two small minarets over the sanctuary entrance, rising 2\ feet above 

the roof, fell towards the W. on to the roof. Rather 
Mosque (11). 

curiously, two larger minarets at the front corners of 

the sanctuary, rising 4 feet from the roof, did not fall. 

From five to six houses in the bazar are in a dangerous condition, 

either on account of leaning walls or large cracks, 

and some of these are old buildings and were more 

or less unsafe before the earthquake. Very little has fallen. Burnt 

brick buildings were said to have suffered more than sun-dried brick 

buildings. 

An observer sleeping in a single-poled tent near Ludhiana noticed 

Direction and in- the pole oscillating in the direction N. N. W. to 

tenslty * S. S. E. : an ordinary rectangular based medicine 

bottle standing with its longer base axis N. E. to S. W. fell towards the 

S.E. 

The first shock is described as having been felt from S. S. E. to 
N. N. W. and the second from E. S. E. to W. N. W. A hanging lamp 
was found swinging in an ellipse whose major axis was about 9 inches. 

The intensity here may be estimated to have been a little less than 

at Lahore. 

Earthquake Forms — Ludhiana. 

Mr. C. J. Hennessey, Postmaster. — Time 6-4 telegraph time. — First there were 
2 shocks, or rather the direction seemed to change from N. — S, to E. — W., the firs^ 



176 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



shock being of greater intensity. Second, vibrations continued for 1 minute after. 
Small articles on shelves were thrown to the ground. Walls rocked like the sides of a 
vessel in a storm. Beams collapsed and broke in two. N. and S. sides of buildings 
suffered. Clock pendulums swinging N. — S. f also those swinging E. — W., stopped 
respectively at 6-6 and 6-8 a.m. 

Mr. J. N. Gillman, Executive Engineer, Sirhind Canal.— Time 6-10 a.m. House 
rocked W. — E. Thumping on doors facing E. and W. of 3 minutes' duration. Pic- 
tures facing N. or S. swung like pendulums E. and W. Cracks in walls. 

Mr. G. W. Mafl in, Assistant Engineer. — Time 6-5 by watch. Two chief shocks 
and then tremulous vibrations for 2 minutes. First shock W. — E, 2nd shock 
S. — N. He gives an excellent elevation sketch of a mosque the minarets of which 
fell. (See fig. 44. ) Booming sound during vibrations. 




Fig. 44. 



LARGE CTTIES OF THE PLAINS NEAR THE VIIth ISOSEIST. 177 

Mr. R. L. Bonnaud, Punjab Educational Department (retired). — Time 6-10 a.m. 

by watch showing Madras time, also by the stoppage of two clocks. There were 1st 
no preliminary tremors,. 2nd 2 shocks, the 1st undulatory and the 2nd like a push or 
thrust in a W. direction, with intermediately violent vibrations too rapid to be 
counted, as if the house were a box shaken to and fro by giant hands, 3rd tremulous 
vibrations afterwards for 2 to 2\ minutes. Direction of the 1st shock S. S. E. — N. N. W. 
that of the 2nd being E. S.. E. — W. N. W., judging by sensations and by move- 
ments of hanging lamp and water in tub. Felt slight nausea. No articles overthrown. 
Pictures on walls awry. The N. E. part of the buildings suffered more than anyother 
part. The writer mentions subterranean sounds (Barisal Guns) like distant artillery 
heard for long ages In Ludhiana. Such are more frequent in the hot and rainy 
season. They start in one quarter and continue there till they die away in about an 
hour. He was never able to locate them and failed to explain them by bombs, etc., 
exploded at native weddings, etc. No fixed period or times associated with their 
appearance. A few days before the earthquake at 11 a.m. they were unusually loud. 
Since the caithquake there has been a lull. 



Multan. 

An Assistant Stationmaster of Amritsar, on leave at Multan, noted 
the time of the shock at once, by a clock keeping 
correct railway time. The time was 6-12 and the 



duration a little over 1 minute. 



Earthquake Forms — Multayi. 

Captain G. W. Robinson, 27th Punjabis — One main shock, very distinctly felt, 
caused nausea, houses creaked but no plaster fell. It was severe enough to wake most 
people and make them leave their beds. No difficulty in keeping equilibrium. No 
sound noticed. 

Narain Das, Meteorological Observer, Multan Observatory, and Head Clerk in Civil 
Surgeon's office.— No preliminary tremors, 3 main shocks at intervals of about 1 
second. The 1st and 3rd intense. There were tremors for 1 minute afterwards. 
Direction S. 8. W.— N. N. E. Buildings shook, doors and windows rattled, hanging 
lamps swung, pictures were displaced. No buildings in Multan were cracked, nothing 
overturned, etc. No sounds. 



Phagwara. 

Time of the first shock, 6-10 a.m. ; duration \\ minutes : direction 
Time, etc. appeared to be from E. to W. 

N 



178 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Earthquake Form — Phagwara. 

Hecra Lai Varma, Telegraph Master. — Time 6-10, Madras time, by office clod-, 
stopped. Daring the first violent shock the direction was apparently E. — W. The 
walls of houses trembled. The floors of all rooms terribly shaken. It was difficult 
to stand. No objects overturned. Fine cracks in rooms. The sound was like a 
heavy vehicle on the road near by and just before the main shock. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 179 

CHAPTER IV 

REMAINING PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY THE 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

For this vast area, which the officers of the Geological Survey were 
unable to examine, the earthquake forms furnish the only evidence. 
The particular arrangement of these that has seemed the most suitable 
is generally one by districts, and the order in which the latter are 
taken is shown by the following groups, which disregarding the pro- 
vinces in which they may occur, sweep round the epicentral area from 
N. W. to S. E. That is to say — each group of districts begins at the 
N. W. end of the epicentral area, sweeps round in a curve and finishes 
at the S.E. of the epicentral area. The groups follow each other con- 
centrically, embracing successively areas further and further away from 
the epicentrum. In the case of areas very far away from that region, 
from which only a few records have been received, larger group units 
are however adopted, such as Baluchistan, Central India, Burma, etc. 
As explained in the Introduction, it has been found impossible to 
quote all the earthquake form reports. In each district or group unit 
the localities are arranged alphabetically. 



Group 1, 



Chamba. 
Gurdaspur. 
Hoshiarpur. 
Simla. 



Dehra Dun. 
Garhwal (Native). 
Garhwal (British). 



Group 2. 



Kashmir (including 

Jamu). 

Sialkot. 

Amritsar. 
Kapurthala. 
Jullundur. 
Ludhiana. 



Amballa. 

Saharanpur. 

Bijnor. 

Naini Tal. 

Almora. 

Azamgarb. 



n2 



180 



MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Group 3. 



Gujrat. 

Gujranwala. 

Lahore. 

Ferozeporo. 

Faridkot. 

Patiala, 



Karnal. 

Mozaffarnagar. 

Meerut. 

Moradabad. 

Bareilly. 

Pilibhit. 





Group 4. 




Hazara. 




Jind. 


Attock. 




Rohtak. 


Rawalpindi. 




Delhi. 


Jhelum. 




Bulandshahr. 


Shahpur, 




Budaun. 


Jhang. 




Shajahanpur. 


Montgoruery,- 




Kheri. 


Hissar, 







Group 5. 

Chitral. 

Peshawar. 

Kohal. 

Mian wali. 

Mooltan. 

(returning to the N. W. 

frontier). 
Bannu. 

Dera Ismail Khan. 
Dera Ghazi Khan. 
Lyallpur. 
Bikaner. 
Jaipur. 



Alvvar. 

Gurgaon. 

Bharatpur. 

M ultra. 

Aligarh. 

Agra. 

Etah. 

Mainpuri. 

P'arukubad. 

Hardoi. 

Sitapur. 

Bahraich. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 181 



Group 6. 
Jaisalmer. 

Marvvar or Jodhpur. 

Sirohi. 

Merwara. 

Ajmer. 
Kishangarh. 
Tonk. 
Me war. 
Karauli. 
Kotah. 
Jhalawar. 
E taw ah. 

Jalaun. 

Cawnpore. 

Unao. 
Lucknow. 



Bara Banki. 

Gonda. 

Hamirpur. 

Fate h pur. 

Rae Bareilly, 

Fyzabad. 

Basti. 

Banda. 

Allahabad. 

Partabgarh. 

Mirzapur. 

Gorakhpur. 

Benares. 

Ghazipur. 

Ballia. 



Group 7. 



Afghanistan. 
Baluchistan, 
Bombay. 
Central India. 
Central Provinces. 



Bengal 

Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

Nepal. 

Madras. 

Burma. 



GROUP 1. 
Chamba State. 
Chamba. — Ram Dass Kakar, Telegraph Master. Time 6-10 by 
office watch. There were 3 shocks at intervals of a few seconds- 
Direction E. — W. and N. — S. It was distinctly felt. Two houses 
(mission house and travellers' bungaiow) collapsed. Nearly all houses 
show cracks, often amounting to rents and fissures. A boulder fell 
from the slope. Fire tubs in the verandah nearly emptied of water. 
Hanging pictures moved. No earth fissures. Rumbling sound just 
before main shock. 



182 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Gurdaspur District. 

Aliwal. — Mr. F. W. Shonemann, Executive Engineer. There 
were, first, violent shocks which after 10 seconds became, second, a 
regular forward and backward motion, apparently horizontal. Total 
duration 3 minutes by guess. Direction N. — S. by fern basket, cracks 
in. walls, church spire, and bottles on mantelpiece. The church spire 
was broken and the top stone shifted S. The bottles fell. Tum- 
blers did not fall, but shifted \ inch N. Cracks in arches of roof. 

Bakhh. — Postmaster, A shock of 2 minutes' duration. Direction 
E. — W. Most severe. 

Batala. — Mr. J. A. Ward, M.A. Arches and walls running N. — S. 
are cracked, those E. — W. not so. 

Bhim/pur (Bari Doab Canal). — Mr. F. E. Kanthack (see p. 344). 

Dalhousie.— Mi. H. Foster, Military Telegraphist- Time 6-15 a.m. 
by clock regulated by telegraph clock. There were, first, innumer- 
able trem. vibrations, second, the main shock. Direction N. — S. Office 
walls slightly cracked. Fissure in earth, slight, near barracks. A 
loud rumbling sound during main shock. 

Dhariwal. — Postmaster. Duration 2 to 3 minutes. Direction W. — E 
and N. — S. Sound like cannons. He thought walls would fall. Tele- 
graph poles trembled very much. He was not in sound senses to 
make observations. [Although not mentioned by the writer, the 
high chimneys- belonging to the Dhariwal Mills were apparently not 
damaged, as they were standing when the author passed through on 
his way to Pathankot.] 

Gurdaspur. — Chiman Lall, Postmaster. There were 2 main 
shocks N. E. — 8. W. the shocks were awful. Trees had a tremendous 
motion, they seemed to kiss the ground both ways. Doors opened 
and closed with great noise and force. The buildings were one-storied, 
and with solid foundations. Therefore no loss of life. Cracks never- 
theless in every building, and sometimes dangerous. Nothing over- 
turned. The effect on tanks was described as the same as that of 
the moon on the ocean. The waves travelled in both directions, first 
opposite and then with ihe earthquake wave. Hanging lamps moved 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 133 

N. E. — S. W. No sound before the shocks. With the shocks came a 
noise very irregular and having certain beats which varied with the 
intensity of the shocks. 
Pathankot. — (See p. 8.) 

Hoshiarpur District. 

Hoshiarpur. — Dr. D. N. P. Datta, Civil Surgeon. Trem. vibra- 
tions not noticed. Principal shock very severe. Horses began jump- 
ing about, bungalow began to shake and he ran out but could not 
stand. After a while everything was shaken irregularly and violently. 
Bungalow rocked to and fro. Trees bent up and down. The ground 
appeared like a sheet of water in a storm (like a rough sea). He 
heard no sound. Chimney stack fell W. and E., walls of old house 
cracked from above downwards. [The writer also gives details of a 
tour via Jawalamukhi, Daulatpur, Nagrota, Palampur, etc., which 
area is, however, covered by my own notes, see pp. 38—44.] 

Hoshiarpur. — Bishan Das, Head Treasury Clerk. He was in the 
open air walking and so did not feel the prelim, tremors. The main 
shock was severe, duration about 3 minutes. First; trees rocked and 
swayed as if a hurricane was blowing. As the shock became more 
severe he had to kneel, and finally sit on the ground, as also had the 
coolies working near. Bricks, etc., fell from houses on the W. side. 
Slight cracks in uppermost stories of houses and arches. A few fissures, 
E. — W. in the ground ± inch wide. " Kacha" houses stood the shock 
very well. No sounds noticed. 

Simla District. 

Dagshai. — Postmaster. Time 6-10. Duration 3 minutes, Many 
houses cracked. 

Dagshai. — Sita Ram, Signaller. Time 6-15 a.m. by a good time- 
keeping watch. Direction E. — W. Very heavily felt, and all things 
were in a moving condition. Many houses cracked, some chimneys 
fell. Sound like " heavily blowing." 

Mashobra. — Time from 6-0 to 6-25. The house trembled. 



184 M1DDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Rohru via Mashob'a. — Mr. C. E. Tendall. Time about 6 . a.m. 
Direction N. W. — S. E. There was one severe shock. In his own house 
nothing was thrown down and no stones displaced. No damage. 
Water in tub agitated violently and water thrown W. S. W. No 
damage in Pabar valley beyond some few houses being cracked 
Those On ridges chiefly affected. Some few very old rickety houses 
in the valley have fallen. The high ridge dividing the Pabar and 
Sutlej rivers seems to have been the limit of the severity of the earth- 
quake. On the Sutlej watershed the village of Rampur suffered 
severely. Many villages in the Nogli river basin also. The road from 
Rampur to Sungn via Bali also suffered in some places. Serahan, 2 
stages from Rampur up the Sutlej valley, had no damage. 

Sanawar. — Mr.-W. J. Warburton, Telegraph Master. Time of 1st 
shock 6 a.m. 2nd shock 6-15 a.m. by watch checked by tele- 
graph time. Direction W. — E. by motion of church steeple which was 
inclined GO out of the vertical. There were no trem. vibrations 
before or after the main shocks. 

Chor Peak near Simla. — The Meteorological Observer, Sarain 
Observatory. Time 6 a.m. It was a violent shock and damaged 
many temples, devtas and old houses. In one village near Sarain 2 
women and 6 cows were buried. 

Bhajji Staie.-M.di}. M. W. Douglas, C.I.E., Superintendent, Hili 
States, reports that the Rana of Bhajji heard loud noises resembling the 
filing of cannons on 5th and 7th April. 

Solon near Simia.— The Postmaster. Time 6-5 a.m. by the tele- 
graph clock. There were several shocks lasting about 15 minutes. The 
P. 0. building cracked in five places. 
Simla— (See p. 73.) 

Dehra Dun District. 
Barkot. — Pitambas, Forest Ranger. There were 1st trem. vibra- 
tions. He sat up and then ran out. The thatched chappar and posts 
fell and moved S. W.— N. E. Doors rumbled and other building timbers. 
The shock was felt with such an intensity as if some one were shaking 
the bed Cracks in walls running W!— E. and also in arches of doors. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. X85 

Chakrata. — Mr. H. James, Mily. Telegraphist and Meteorological 
Observer. Severe shock lasting 2 minutes and several more minor 
shocks afterwards. Direction N. — S. No sound. Bungalow swayed N. — 
S. No damage to office building, but great damage to houses in the 
bazar. 

Dehra Dun, Mussoorie, Landour, Rurki, Saharanpur and Hardwar. 
—(See p.. 80.) 

Karanpur. — Four or five distinct shocks N. W. — S. E. by fall of 
bottles, etc. Sound indeterminate. Eucalyptus tree in compound 
moved N. — S., its range of swing being 4 or 5 feet, the tree being about 
30 ft. high. Some previously dry streams and wells have become 
supplied with water. 

Raiwala. — Mr. C. Hope* I.C.S., Superintendent of the Dun. There 
was one big shock with 3 small vibrations within 5 minutes of the big 
shock. He was in a small two-poled tent, and was awakened by a 
tugging at the tent ropes as if some animal had run against them, and 
by a violent napping of the curtains at each end as if a gale of wind 
had sprung up. 

Rambagh. — Mr. J. C. Tulloch, Deputy Conservator of Forests. 
First feeling as if a dog under the bed scratching himself. A double- 
storied cottage 40 feet high swayed about 2 feet on either side of the 
vertical. Direction N. W. — S. E. Sound as if a train passing in a 
tunnel. 

Garhwal District. 

Lansdoivne. — Capt. H. M. MacTier, l-39th Garhwal Rifles. Time 
6-13 by watch set by time gun. The shock was severe. Direction 
N. — S. Objects thrown down were a looking glass from a chest of 
drawers, 2 pairs of leather gaiters. A riding boot with tree was- flung 
to the S. 

Pauri. — Mr. J. H. Messmore, Superintendent, Garhwal Mission. Fif- 
teen piles of rupees (20 in each) were thrown down N. They were free to 
fall N. or S. or E. but not W. They were in an iron safe built in the wall 
running E. — W. The movement seemed twisting. Other writers, Mr. 
E. M. Rennell, P. W. D., and the Postmaster, mention that the shock 



Igg MIDDLExMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

was most violent. Water, spilt out of basin N. W. — S. E., *a chimney 
stack fell N. No bottles, etc., overturned. All cracks were vertical. 
A chestnut tree moved N. W. — S. E. Roof cracked and rattled its 
slates. No sound. 

Srinagar. — Pandit Gobind Prasad Ghildyal, B.A., Excise Inspector. 
Principal shock lasted 5 minutes about. Trem. vibrations for a few 
sees. Before the shock it appeared as if some big rat ran over planks 
followed by a cat from W. to E. Trees shook N. — S. People were 
terrified. Buildings cracked chiefly in W. and N. walls. All door 
arches cracked. 

Srinagar. — Postmaster. He reports that many houses were cracked 
and the flow of the Ganges stopped during the earthquake. 

Tehri Garhwal District. 

Mania". — Kaushi Ram Kapur, Deota Range Officer. Two principal 
shocks, the interval being less than \ hour. The first was the more 
severe. Direction E. — W. by the swinging of Chir pine trees and oscilla- 
tions of walls. The oldest inhabitants say they have never felt such 
vere shock. Large stones overturned [presumably on slopes]. 
Tehri. — Suraj Bali Dikshet, Postmaster. Duration of the shock 
ut t minutes. Direction N. W, — S. E. by cracks of walls. H. H. 
■ raja's elephant tried to break loose. Four arches of the Maharaja's 
damaged and thrown aside. It is built at a high level. 
I tower cracked in upper part. 

GROUP 2. 

Kashmir. 

- nil being one of the areas of the Himalaya and of 

rhere earthquakes are common and have been destruc- 

d " times, r lu:i-«> was much anxiety during the first few 

rthquake regarding the fate of that country. Events, 

that the shock, although very severe, was not very 

Iru tive. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. jg7 

In this state the towns are arranged in alphabetical order without 
being grouped under their respective districts. 

Baramulla Pattern. — Sant Ram, Settlement Tebsildar. He was 
indoors lying down, but went into open air at first shock. Three distinct 
and principal shocks lasting for 3 or 4 minutes. Direction E. — W. 
Kacha walls of house fell to W. and heavy stone of Pandulari temple 
was projected 2 to 3 yards to the W. No sound. 

Bhadaywar m& Jummoo. — Mr. G. F. Moyer. Time sunrise (sun 
just coming over the hills). Direction of shock E. — W. After the 
first shock there were several lighter ones continuing for about 1 hour 
afterwards. The main shock was a severe one, but there was no damage^ 

Chilas.— Thakarwaso, Telegraph Master. Time about 6 a.m. He 
was sleeping. One slight shock. 

Bras. — Hari Ram Sethi, Meteorological Observer. Time 5-50 by 
telegraph time, watch correct with Madras time. Three severe shocks 
during the first minute. Some other shocks during the ensuing 35 
minutes. Roof and doors and windows severely cracked [later he says 
no damage or cracks on houses, but cracks on ground ice]. Maximum 
thermometer fell in cage but was undamaged. At Machori and Baltel 
passes much snow fell in avalanches. No sound. 

Astor-Gilgit road. — Mr. H. Dean, Telegraph Department. Time 
6-30 by telegraph clock. He was indoors lying down. Several 
shocks felt E. — W. Rattling of doors before main shock. Duration 
about 3 minutes. Bed rocked to and fro for 3 minutes. 

Astor. — Dhanpatkai, Tehsildar. One continuous slight trem. vibra- 
tion lasting k minute. Direction S. E. — N. W. No sounds. 

Bandipur. — Mr. F. Donne, Telegraph Master. Direction E.— W. by 
swinging of a notice board in the verandah. Duration about 5 minutes. 
Office buildings, trees and other objects were rocking visibly. No 
separate shocks but of one continuous intensity from beginning to end. 

Gharki (Mozaffarabad Dist.). — Raja Ram, Branch Postmaster. Three 
shock's, each after an interval of a little over 1 minute. He was shaken 
in bed as if some one was waking him. Tables trembled. No sound, 
no damage. 



188 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Gilgit. — Agency Surgeon. One shock, no trem. vibrations. Distinctly 
felt. No damage. 

Gupis. — One shock distinctly felt. There was also the noise of big 
stones falling from hills surrounding the station. No damage, no 
anxiety. 

Gupka {3 miles E. of Srinagar). — Mr. M. Peychand, Director of 
Agriculture, Kashmir State. Indoors first, afterwards jumped out of 
doors. Three distinct shocks without stoppage of vibration. Interval 
between first and second = 30 seconds. Interval between second and 
third = 1 minute. The second shock was stronger than the first, and 
the third was similar. Duration of shocks 3 minutes in all. Direction 
S. E. — N. W. judging by movement of corners of walls rocking 2| inches. 
No noise, but others heard report as of a big gun after the first shock 
travelling N. W.— S. E. In his opinion it was the biggest shock since 
1885 (there have been 8 to 10 shocks a year during this interval). 
Plaster fell from upper story of house and earth from mud roof. Three 
unimportant cracks in walls running S. W. — N. E. The rocking was 
about twice every second. Whereas the 1885 earthquake brought down 
plaster of all the rooms and put the outer walls out of plumb as 
much as 3 inches, this time only a few pieces of plaster fell and the 
walls do not appear to have bulged. 

Gurais. — Mr. L. H. Coombs, Telegraph Master. One shock. Duration 
2 minutes. Direction W. — E. by shaking bed. Severe and distinctly 
felt. No damage. 

Handwara. — Mirza Jalal Uddin, Tehsildar. One severe shock. Dura- 
tion about 1 minutes. Then interval of 2 minutes. Then second shock 
severe and of 1 minutes' duration. The shock so severely felt that a 
man could remain standing only with difficulty. 

Islamabad.— Mr. A. L. Coverdale, CM. S. Hospital. Time 6-17 a.m. 
at close of first severe shock by clock set with midday gun in Srinagar. 
Two bicycles set in rests fell S. The house rocked violently. Trees 
swayed to and fro. Walking was like on deck of a ship. Chimneys 
were overturned. One fell N. W. 

Jammu. — (See p. 171.) 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Jg9 

Sonemarg. — Three shocks at intervals of J second. Trem. vibrations 
for 5 minutes afterwards. 

Kolakam. — Sohnn Sing, Tehsildar. Three distinct shocks, first slight, 
second and third severe. Direction E. — W by cloth hanging on string. 
According to report water undulated on canals. 

Leh (Ladak). — Rev. H. B. Mark, Moravian Missionary. One shock of 
duration 1 minute 10 seconds. Direction N. — S. Distinctly felt. One 
door banged, window panes and iron stove rattled. Curtains wa\ed. 
Second shock about 10 minutes afterwards. It was hardly felt but the 
curtains waved again. It lasted several minutes. He felt sea-sick. 

Bunji. — Haridutt Tiwari, Telegraph Master. One shock slight with 
no vibrations, of very low intensity. Distinctly felt. No sound. 

Minimarg. — Mr. C. Kilmar, Telegraph Master. One continuous 
shock lasting 1| minutes. Direction W. — E. Rumbling noise during the 
shock. No damage. 

Monza-Boodhgam.— -Felt shock W. — E. Heard noise for a short time. 
Two trees shook W. — E. 

Muzafferabad. — Hasmat Ullah Khan, Tehsildar. Two shocks dis- 
tinctly felt. 

Fyemo (15 miles W. of Leh). — Dr. E. Shawe. He was indoors in 
the second story of the rest-house moving about at the time. There 
was a shaking motion for 1 minute. He thought it was someone on the 
roof. Direction N. — S. by hanging articles. He went out to see who was 
walking on the roof, and then recognised that it was an earthquake. His 
wife was made quite sick. Coolies were made dizzy. It was not alarm- 
ing., no damage. A few rocks and boulders fell from the hill sides. 

Uri fort. — Azizdin Ashac, Tehsildar. First a rumbling noise and 
tremor, second severe shocks N. and W. (sic) without intervals. The 
station was rocking to and fro. Debris fell down from here and there. 
No damage, no loss of life. Clothes hanging from pegs moved. 

Poonch. — Pandit Bhairati Dutt Joshi, Head Master, Victoria Jubilee 
School. Time. 6-20 a.m. , telegraph time (Madras). He was indoors lying 
down at first. There was first a rumbling noise like a heavy cart on 
metalled road. Next 2 prominent shocks, very severe, with an interval of 



190 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

nearly 10 seconds. Trem. vibrations lasted for 2 minutes. Direction 
N. E.— S. W. The rumbling noise continued till after the second shock 
and then faded away. No serious damage or loss of life. Two or 3 old 
houses fell down. Rows of birch trees swung E. — W. for several minutes 
after the shock subsided. Dust haze, yellow and very heavy, preceded 
the shock by a few days. 

Raja-mi [Riasi District, Jammu Province). — Mr. W..S. Talbot, I.C.S. 
Settlement Commissioner. He was in a tent in bed. No trem. vibra 
tions noticed. Main shock rather of the nature of an almost conti 
nuous oscillation. Duration abuut 1 minute. Very distinctly felt 
Observer was awakened by the rocking of the bed, but did not get up 
Direction E. — W. rather than N. — S. No particular damage noticed 
No sound. He also visited the following places : — Darhal, Budil, Poni 
Riasi, Udhampur, Chineni, Ramban, Banihal, Vernay and Islamnagar. 
He noticed very little damage, a small pakka fort collapsed at Riasi and 
some ordinary native houses at Udhampur. 

Sangri (Aus R.) } lit. 33° 22', long. 74° 50'— Mr. C. M. P. Wright, 
Kashmir Mineral Co. His camp was on the river gravel just at the 
junction of the Murree rocks and the Ruling and Supra-Kuling series. 
The shock was felt slightly. 

Segpoora (Ootur Machipooi Dist.). — Lieutenant-Colonel S. D. 
Turnbull, retired list. He was lying down in bed on the ground floor 
of a Kashmir 3-storied ''lurry." Two shocks were most distinctly felt 
with constant trem. vibrations between, and possibly before, the main 
shock. Duration 2 or 3 minutes. Direction E. — W. by movements of 
bed, and N. — S. by rope with clothes. He was on the point of leaving 
the house " lurry" but did not do so as it was a new one and likely to 
stand. 

Skardu (Ladak Dist.). — Gandamall, Meteorological Observer. He 
was indoors lying down at first but got up immediately to watch the 
occurrence. Three terrible shocks of equal intensity followed by trem. 
vibrations. Intervals of 4 or 5 seconds. Direction N. — S. by water. 

-ounds. Timbers of roof were crashing very frightfully and branches 
of trcesmoving up and down. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 191 

Sonemarg. — Meteorological Observer. (By telegram) 6-0 a.m., slight, 
lasted 1 minute 30 seconds. 

Sopor. — Sub -Postmaster. No movement of any kind seen. It was 
hardly felt. Hanging lamp fell and broke. No sound. 

Srinagar (Munshi Bagh).—Di. E. F. Neve, F.R.C.S. Time 6-10 
a.m. by watch regulated at midday by gun. There were 2 severe 
shocks and trem. vibrations afterwards for an hour. Direction E. — W. 
Pictures on walls facing N. swung to the W. and remained there. 
House oscillated several inches. All chimneys cracked or bent. Much 
plaster fell from E. facing wall. One book fell out of book-case 
facing E. This house was on alluvium of the thickness of about 
200 feet at greatest. The Mission Hospital on a rocky hill was 
uninjured. 

Srinagar. — Mr. C. J. Burrow, State Bandmaster. He has had 20 
years' experience of Kashmir. He was indoors at first, afterwards 
out of doors with family. He first felt a sidelong to and fro move- 
ment. There were no shocks, but violent tremors which lasted 3 
minutes or more. Direction W.S.W. — E.N.E. The house in which he 
was was built of a wooden frame and brickwork. As judged by hang- 
ing lamp, there were tremors during best part of the day lasting up to 
3 p.m. No sound. He considers this unusual, as in 40 or 50 shocks felt 
by him during 20 years there was always a sound like distant thunder 
before the shock or tremor. Outside the chenar and poplar trees 
swayed 3 feet i.e. 1^ feet each way from the vertical, first W. — E. and 
then N.W. — S.E. Such a tremor has never been experienced by him 
before. The first one was so bad that he could hardly stand. 

Srinagar. — Mr. B. Thornhill, Chief Engineer, Kashmir Railway Sur- 
vey. In a house -boat lying in bed. One continuous shock. A wave or 
swirl of water came down the river showing a return shock which must 
have been very sligh . Direction W. — E. No sound. No objects in 
boat overturned. Cracks in old office on land, and one partition wall 
cracked and bulged 6 inches. Servants say that a small wave travelled 
W.— E. against the stream and returned after 2 or 3 minutes. 



]92 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Srinagar. — Dr. A. Mitra, Mcteorol. Reporter to the State. (With 
reference to his remarks and the seismogram recorded by the Milne- 
Casella seismograph (see p. 352). 

Srinagar. — Mr. W. Rehill, Postmaster. Time 6-10 a.m. by watch 
and telegraph clock regulated every day by gunfire by Madras time. 
Among other things this observer noticed a rumbling noise a few seconds 
before the shock like distant thunder. House seemed to move 3 inches. 
Bottles were overturned in cupboards generally towards W. Hanging 
lamps swung about 2 feet E. — W. 

Titwal Station (Tehsil Kernah). — BalaKoul Moharir, Grazing Depart- 
ment. Two principal and prominent shocks with 15 seconds interval. 
The first was slightly the more intense. Trem. vibration lasted' for 2 
minutes. Direction E. — W. by falling to W. 

Sialkote District. 

Nowshera.— Mr. W. J. Rose, Government Telegraph Office. Pre- 
lim, tremors felt ; every door rattled. The main shock was a fear- 
ful to and fro movement. He felt giddy. Trem. vibrations after 
for several seconds. Direction E.-— W. It was very severe, far more 
so than he felt at Patna during the 1897 earthquake. Large trees 
moved. Punkah swung violently. No damage. No sound. 

Sawbrial—Charu Duss, Sub-Postmaster. Two large and many 
small shocks. Direction N.— S. Cracks in wall. No sound. 

Sambrial— Captain Deas, I.M.S., 51st Sikhs. There was move- 
ment first from side to side (E.— W.) and then up and down. Dis- 
tinctly felt. Punkah ropes swung for several minutes (there was no 
punkah attached). Trees moved. Birds left trees. Nausea. A rumbl- 
i ng noise before first ^Wi; about 30 seconds. 

Sialkote. — (See p. i i8.) 

Amritsar District. 

Raya.— Ali Mahomed, Sub-Engineer, Bari Doab Canal. Time 
fl-15 a.m. by clock checked a week ago. Direction E.— W., about. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 193 

Doors and windows shook heavily. Water from canal spread over 
canal bank. 

(See also p. 344.) 

Kapurthala State. 

Kapurthala. — Pandit Birbal, Magistrate's Office. Time 6-9 by Bee 
clock regulated by State clock keeping Madras time. First, no trem. 
vibrations, second, three distinct shocks, the first being very intense and 
lasting 50 seconds. Then 1 minute interval followed by the second 
shock which was terribly intense and made all the buildings move to and. 
fro. Next after 1 second interval, third shock lasting 55 seconds. 
Finally trem. vibrations for 2 minutes 56 seconds. No loss of life. 
The State houses suffered much. They were cracked more or less. One- 
storied houses with mud walls stood the shock wonderfully well. There 
was a thundering noise 1 second before first shock like a running mail 
train. 

Jullundur District. 

Jullundur. — (See p. 146.) 

Kartarpur. — Jamma Dass Sahgal, Sub- Postmaster and Telegraph 

Officer. At 6 11 clock stopped. There were about 5 movements 

in direction N. — S. -Nearly all houses in the town damaged more or 

less. High buildings suffered most. The historical monument to the 

Sikhs fell down. Clock moved to S. about \ inch. No sound. 

Nakadar. — Hir Dey Ram, Sub-Postmaster. The first shock was 
terrible. 

Nawashahr— Signaller. Time 6-10. Distinctly felt. Postmaster left 
his house. 

Phillaur. — Mr. T. E. Collins, Loco. Foreman, N. W. Railway. 
Time 6-10 by watch correct with N.-W. Railway platform clocks. Plat- 
form clock stopped at 6-10, presumably by the earthquake. One very 
severe shock from 6-10 to 6-14. Direction S.W.— N.E. He was able 
to stand without support which he was not able to do at Bongong in 
Jessore in the 1897 earthquake. [This comparison is no doubt quite 
correct. Jessore lies N. E. of Calcutta and in the 1S97 quake must 

o 



194 M1DDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

have been much more violently affected than Phillaur in that of 1905.] 
Nothing was overturned. All door and window arches facing N. and S. 
were cracked. Roof girders of station house and loco, shed displaced 
E. and W. along their length. Archways subsided 1 inch. Water in 
Sutlej River close by vibrated and spread into dry hollows in the bed 
of the river. No sounds. 

Rahon. — Shib Dial, Sub- Postmaster. One severe and tremendous 
shock, very intense. Direction E. — W. Buildings trembled, and many 
were cracked, but none fell. There was a roaring sound like a thunder- 
storm 1 to 2 seconds before the main shock. 

Ludhiana District. 

Ludhicma. — (See p. 173.) 

Jagraon. — Alia Baksh. Time 6-15 by office clock corrected every 
day at 4 p.m. with Madras time. One main shock. Walls of many build- 
ings cracked. Direction W. — E. by movements of office almirah. 
Sound like mail train passing at full speed. 

Khanna. — Lakshami Cband, Sub -Postmaster. Cracks in walls of 
Post Office and other houses in the city. Books and forms of records 
overthrown S — N. (the slope of the shelf was towards N.). No sound. 

Amballa District. 

Amballa. — Captain A. A. Crookshank, R.E. The earthquake was 
distinctly felt. Brushes were knocked off the dressing table. 
A door closed by an English spring lock was burst open. Tn a nullah 
subsoil water was forced 5 feet and left little cones of sand 1 to J feet 
high. Bed of nullah previously dry for 3 weeks was now covered by 
pools. It looked as if a flood had recently come down. Fissures in 
the grand trunk road parallel to the bed of the nullah. Buildings 
with arch work or with old work joined to new (being the most 
inelastic form of structure) suffered most. No sound. 

Amballa. — Mr. H. E. Chappel. Superintendent, Telegraphs. Delhi 
Division. Pendulum clock stopped at 6-12. The door of his room 
shook. He left the house quickly. There was a shower of bricks 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 195 

from the chimneys. Trees swayed as on ship-board. First shock 2 to 
3 minutes. Hanging lamp swayed N. — S. Cracks in house corners. 
Chimneys destroyed. Burnt brick buildings belonging to the Military 
Department quite destroyed. Telegraph running nearly E. — W. 
got loose having pulled the stay out and the post having gone 
over to E. 

Amballa.-— Mt. W. H. Johnson, Telegraph Master. Time 6-13 by 
office clock stopped between 6-13 and 6-14. The first shock, followed 
by trem. vibrations, lasted 70 seconds. Direction S. W. His body 
swayed freely in bed 2 inches. Outside he had to stand still to maintain 
his balance. Flower vases 8 inches by 2 inches were upset on mantel- 
shelf in south direction. Training class buildings damaged. No sound 
before. During the vibrations a dull rumbling sound followed the 
first shock by 8 seconds. This was followed by distant booming 
as of guns. 

Amballa Cantonment. — Mr. C. E. Goument, Sanitary Engineer 
to the Government. Preliminary tremors were noticed. The main shock 
lasted about 3 or 4 minutes. No definite shooks, simply swinging 
movement to and fro. Direction N.W. — S.E. Large bucket oscillated 
freely. Large pipal tree moved backward and forward as in 
a high wind. He made no detailed examination of the damage. 
Sound a rumbling accompanied by sounds resembling those produced 
by collapse of tiled roof buildings. 

Amballa Cantonment.— -Mr. H. C. Robertson, Executive Engineer. 
Vibrations all through. No distinct shocks and no distinct to-and- 
fro motion such as would convey any sense of direction. Nausea 
produced. Walls in almost all houses cracked, in many cases from 
top to bottom. A chimney at the pumping station of Amballa City 
was cracked with fine hair-crack right round it in a horizontal plane. 
There was no displacement. The chimney is 7 feet across, 35 feet high. 
The crack is 23 feet 10 inches from the summit, and the portion above 
the crack weighs 24 tons. At the Circuit House (newly built) there 
is a continuous crack right round all four sides at junction of the 
roof. No sound. 

o2 



196 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Amballa City. — Jagun Nath, Sub- Postmaster. Direction E. — W. 
Nearly all big houses of the city cracked and some fell. No sound. 

Amballa City. — B. Sant Ram, Head Signaller. Many upper stories 
of buildings fell. Sound like a river flowing or train moving. 
Motion of all articles in post office. 

Amballa City. — R. S. Shankara, Meteorological Observer. Direction 
N.W. — S.E. Duration 2 minutes. Very severe, more so than previ- 
ously experienced. Nearly all houses damaged. Many fell. Many 
persons injured and 2 killed. People terrified and slept in the open 
air. 

Amballa City.— Abdul Rahman, Sub-Postmaster, Sudder Bazar. 
Direction W.— E. Distinctly felt. Roofs and walls swung like a 
boat in water. No particular sound. 

Dadupur. — Mr. J. B. G. Smith, Officiating Executive Engineer, 
W. Jumna Canal Two principal shocks with 2 minutes' interval. 
Direction S.W.— N.E. Most distinctly felt. He ran out and could 
scarcely keep his feet. Two noticeable cracks, vertical in corners. 
Water in bath tub severely shaken. Milk in cream dishes thrown 
out. The dishes were 2£ inches high and the milk was 1J inches deep. 

Dadupur.— Sohan Lai. Sub-Overseer, W. Jumna Canal. It was 
severe and continued 3 minutes. The canal water waved. Small boats 
were thrown out of the water by the serious beat of the first shocks. 
Small cracks in buildings. Lamps, etc., shook. Dry channel of river 
burst and water and sand gushed out. The sound was " felt ' ' under 
ground like a heavy railway train from W — E. It occurred about 
2 minutes before the first shock. 

Jagadhri.—Ha,]\ Mahomed, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-17 by Post 
Office clock, Madras time. Tremors were felt. The main shock was 
a " stirring up and spinning " of the houses. Direction W .— E. 
first, and afterwards N.— S. It was a very terrible shock. He thought 
the end of the world was coming. Trees and houses and all solid 
things moved violently in a windless atmosphere. Many people 
slept out 8 or 4 days, A water pitcher overturned. Cracks in 
buildings N.~S. and E.— W. Water flew out "eastwards from north 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY .GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 197 

to south." Up and down movement of houses. Sound a rumbling 
and roaring preceding by 5 seconds the first shock. 

Jagadhri. — Sham Lai. W. Jumna Canal. Doors shook. Walls 
cracked in several places. Some buildings feil down. Arches of 
door cracked at crown. No sound. 

Deodhur.—Mi. P. Parker, A.M.I.C.E., B.C.E. Time, began 6-10'-40" 
and lasted till 6-12'-43" as recorded by watch compared with 
Jagadhri railway time. (The observer records a possible error of 10 
seconds* but the accuracy of the tints at Jagadhri is doubted.) 
There were 2 shocks, the second the more violent. Direction W. — E. by 
guess. The shaking was constant in intensity for 40 seconds. His bed 
shook and woke him. Three mud walls 10 feet high by 1 foot thick fell 
down. x4m empty scda water bottle was not overturned. At Jagadhri 
3 houses fell and one man was killed. The N.-W. Railway across the 
Western Jumna Canal had its brickwork cracked, whilst the wood- 
work by pressure chipped off flakes from bricks of pier. No sound : 
the writer is certain of this as he knows the earthquake sound quite 
well, and he was in a tent. 

Kdlka. — Gurdit Singh. Time 6-12 a.m. by office time piece. Three 
distinct shocks and two afterwards. The first was very severe and the 
second and third slight. Direction E. — W. by hanging lamp. Office 
walls in. great motion. 

Kasauli. — Mr. E. J. Mullins, Telegraph Master. Three shocks in 
quick succession, the first the most severe, like a cart on a rough 
road. Office doors slammed, bed shook irregularly, his head reeled. 
It was alarming. The second shock produced similar but less marked 
results. The third was a very distinct tremor gradually dying away. 
One pinnacle of the church was thrown to the ground, and the other 
three so damaged that they had to be taken down. The station 
hospital was also damaged, particulars unknown. No §ound. 

Nahan. — B. Badri Naik, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-5 a.m. by 
clock tower, the clock daily compared with Madras time. Two prin 
cipal shocks. Direct ion N.— S. by falling houses. Some shops 9 to 10 



198 MIDDLEMISS: KANCjRA EARTHQUAKE. 

feet high fell during the second shock. Some fell to the N., others 
to the S. Nearly all houses cracked. 

Ruvw— Postmaster. Duration 7 minutes. Direction N.— S. Sound 
a thundering noise accompanying the first shock. 

Tajawala. — Mr. W. R. Turner, Assistant Engineer, Karnal Division. 
One continuous shock increasing in violence until it attained its maxi- 
mum force and then ceased. Direction varying between W. — E. and 
S.W. — N.E. It was distinctly felt, a kind of racking and twisting 
movement. No objects overturned. A sun-dried brick house cracked 
in 4 corners. Old rest-house of the same pattern severely cracked, 
all the cracks being approximately vertical. Sound like a heavy 
running vehicle during the shock. 

Saharanpur District. 

Deoband. — Damodar Dass, Sub-Postmaster. There was, first, a 
blowing of wind and rustling of leaves, followed by 5 seconds interval ; 
second, one principal and prominent shock ; third, 6 trem. vibrations. 
Direction N. — S. The shock was very intensely felt. He felt as if some 
one was violently shaking his body. Doors trembled, books and inkpots 
upset on the table. Windows fluttered about very quickly and 
noisily. The whole house shook as if about to fall. Giddiness was 
produced. There were earth-fissures, and some of the houses of the 
town have fallen down. 

Jmvalapur. — Postmaster. A distinct shock. Several walls cracked. 

Manqlaur. — M. Abdulmahid, Government Pensioner. Time 6-15 
by watch regulated by railway time. There was, first, a slight shock which 
increased in a fearful manner in a few seconds. Duration 1 \ minutes 
or less. Direction W. — E. by articles fallen from the corner. Sound 
like a gale of wind. He experienced great difficulty in walking. At 
first charpoys and hanging things moved, afterwards doors, walls, 
roofs and everything began to swing to and fro, and closed doors 
were burst open. Animals cried with fear. Hens crowed, birds 
screamed. A woman and child were killed under a wall. Walls of 
enormous size were overturned, mostly N.N.W. to E. (sic). Cracks 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 199 

in 40 buildings, mostly in walls facing N.W., N.N.W. and E. Water 
of tank rose very high, N.N.W.-— E. (sic). A parrot in a swinging 
cage whistled as it had been taught to do when danger was near. 

Pathri (10 miles south of Hardwar).—Mis. E. Rushton. Three dis- 
tinct shocks, the first being very strong. No sounds. She was awakened 
out of a sound sleep. Hardly able to stand or walk. A soda water 
bottle fell off a shelf. The canal was in waves, trees shaking wildly 
and swaying through arcs of 15° on each side of the vertical. Mr. 
W. H. Rushton, Executive Engineer, N. D. G. Canal, gives the direc- 
tion as N. 15° E. The canal wet its banks. (See also Mr. Simpson's 
account, p. 118.) 

Ranipur (3 miles south of Hardwar). — Sansar Singh, Forest Ranger. 
One main shock. The whole house and ground trembled. Direction 
W.— E. by pictures on the wall. One picture fell No other damage. 
(See also p. 118.) 

Saharanpur, — (See p. 126.) 

Bijnor District. 

Bijnor.— Babu Dharani Dhar Dass, Supervisor, District Surveys. 
Four shocks in all, the first being the most intense. (The rest of the 
four shocks are given at later houra by the writer showing that they are 
really aftershocks.) The shock produced giddiness and nausea. Build- 
ings vibrated, doors and windows struck violently against the walls. 
Alarm among many people who thought they would be buried alive 
under the houses. Many houses damaged, e.g., the Collector's, a 
double-storied house which had the walls out of the vertical and 
several gaping cracks. It was declared unsafe by the Divisional 
Engineer and was pulled down. Other houses were more or less 
damaged, but not seriously. Water spilled over E. side of trough, 
buckets and tubs, 

Bijnor. — Kazi Ziauddin, Postmaster. Indoors sitting at first, after- 
wards outside. Three shocks, the first lasting 2 minutes and being veiy 
severe. Direction S.W.— N.E. by fall of articles. No sound except 
deep vibrations like thunder during the shocks. The main shock 



200 MIDDLEMISS: KANORA EARTHQUAKE. 

cracked many buildings. Pictures on walls, clothes, umbrellas, etc., 
on pegs fell down towards N. side. Water in tanks had a N. move- 
ment. Earth-fissures near the banks of the Ganges 4 to 5 miles 
from Bijnor. 

Bijnor. — Rev. J. H. Gill, Missionary. The shocks lasted about 
1 minute. Cracks in house and chapel. The fallen plaster of both 
weighed 30 lbs. 

Nagina. — The Meteorological Signaller mentions 2 foreshocks, one 
at 11 p.m. on the preceding day and the second at 2 a.m. on the day 
of the earthquake (See also p. 355.) 

Najibabad. — Thurmilal, Sub -Postmaster. During the first shock 
the wall of houses first bent from S. — N. and then from E. — W., after 
which the earth remained in a trembling condition for a short time. 
Nearly all walls cracked, 

Naini Tal District. 

Bhim Tal. — Postmaster. Three shocks, the first being the most 
severe. No buildings destroyed. 

Bazpur (18 miles from the hills).— Mi. F. Clayton, Executive 
Engineer. Duration of shock 1 minute or more. A rumbling stated to 
have been heard at Haldwani 6 seconds before the main shock. The 
earthquake was very distinctly felt. He went out of his house to see 
if the chimneys were cracking. Iron roof and beams cracked, chim- 
neys and trees swayed. He experienced nausea. No objects over- 
turned. At Gadeyur E. — W. end walls parted from main walls, 
especially at E. ends. 

Haldwani. — Telegraph Signaller. Two shocks only felt with 16 
seconds interval. Direction W. — E. The sound was a strong bustling. 

Jeolikote. — Amlia Datt Jah, Sub -Postmaster and Signaller. Two 
shocks with 15 seconds interval. Direction W. — E. A humming 
sound at first. No damage. 

Kathgodam. — The Sub-Postmaster. Doors opened and closed again. 

Mukhtesar.— Mahommad Akbar Khan, Suli-Postmaster The shock 
was severe and terrible. Government buildings cracked vertically. 
None fell down, no loss of life. No sound. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 201 

Naini Tal. — Mr. J. Smith, Accountant, Public Works Department. 
At " Springdale," at the foot of Ayarpatha Hill. Clock stopped at 
6-15. Beds shook, closed doors rattled, pictures on walls moved like 
.pendulums, timbers of roof creaked. There was a rumbling noise of 
falling stones, and small stones fell from Ayarpatha. Duration 2 
minutes. A rumbling noise after the shock. 

Naini Tal—'Mi. G. Jasbo, Extra- Assistant Superintendent, Survey 
of India (retired). At the "Retreat." The first shock threw him 
and his wife each to the E. Duration 10 seconds. There was then 
a rumbling noise like a distant train which continued about 20 
seconds. This was followed by the second shock. Plaster cracked 
in places. Hanging lamp with 9 ft. swing moved W. — E. The house 
lies with its long axis E. — W. on a hill spur running N. — S., the hill 
being to the S. 

Naini Tal— Mr. F. T. Coode, District Engineer, at "The Club." 
The main shock continued nearly 1 minute, its vibrations being fairly 
constant throughout. Direction W. — E., deduced from fissures in 
buildings. No sound heard. The shock woke all in bed. No articles 
of furniture overturned. Roofs creaked, doors rattled. The general 
direction of cracks in houses were N. — S. None were badly cracked. 
The end walls of Ramgarh travellers' bungalow bulged. The only 
buildings affected were those on insecure soil, and old, previously 
shaken buildings. Observation pillars for registering any movements 
of the Ayarpatha slopes did not show any movement 

Naini Tal — Sub-Conductor W. H. Tivey, Supervisor. Public Works 
Department. One main shock only. Direction N.E. — S.W. Doors 
and windows rattled. The shock began quietly, and gradually increased 
in intensity until the bed rocked from side to side. Total duration 
about 2- minutes. It suddenly ceased. Government House has fine 
hair-cracks in most of the arches in upper storey walls running 
N.E. — S.W. (Some are old cracks showing again.) They are of 
no importance. The cords and pulleys 



202 MIDDLEMISSi KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Almora District. 

Almora.— Mr. C. H. West, Executive Engineer, P. W. D. He 
first felt as if there were a large dog under the bed scratching 
himself. This lasted for 10 seconds. Next came the principal shock 
with a duration of 2 minutes. Direction N.N.W. — S.S.E. No sounds. 
Tt was distinctly felt and caused most people to rush out of their 
houses at once. Only a few remained. The shock was much more 
severely felt on the crest of ridges, and houses placed there were more 
severely cracked. Very few objects were overturned. Pictures on 
walls in houses on the ridge crests were displaced. Old cracks of 
the earthquake of May 1903 were reopened in many houses. Many 
are at the junction of cross walls running N. — S. and E. — W. They 
appear at a height of 7 feet from the ground and extend upwards. 
Arches are cracked. But damage to house property, as a rule, was 
not serious. [Note. — The earthquake of May 1903 referred to is said 
by the writer to have had its origin somewhere near Nanda Devi and 
the Pindari Glacier where he was in camp.] 

Kousanie. — Mr. N. F. T. Troup, Hony. Magistrate. He was indoors 
at first and afterwards in the verandah. First the usual vibrations and 
then three distinct violent shocks. Water in bath swayed S.W. — N.E. 
Hanging lamp swayed for 15 minutes. Rushing sound heard before first 
tremors like a high wind in the trees. No damage. 

Ranikhet. — Rev. B. Kitchin, Chaplain. Four shocks between 6 and 
7 a.m. preceded by vibrations which passed into rocking movements. 
Direction E. — W. by hanging lamp. No damage to the station, not 
even cracks. Boulder fell near Bhowali killing one of the men of the 
East Surrey Regiment. Other observers mention rumbling noises during 
the shock, bungalows in a continuous tremble, pictures moved on the 
walls and in some cases undoubtedly cracks in walls though not of a 
very serious nature. Trees swayed violently. 

Dwarahath.—Misa M. A. Seymour, M. S. Mission. Time 6-10 a.m. 
by clock set with mid-day gun. One severe shock. Duration 1 minute. 
Direction N.— S. by hanging lamp and bath. The shock and the 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 203 

aftershocks were preceded by a rumbling sound like a chimney on fire. 
It died away after each shock. Distinctly felt. A crack appeared in 
plaster and wood- work. 

Azamgarh District. 

Azamgarh. — -Mr. W. A. Marshall, District Engineer. He was out 
of doors walking. The shock was not felt by him, but by a few 
natives. No sound. 

GROUP 3. 
Gujrat District. 

Aurangabad. — Mr. C. A. Colyer, A.M.I.C.E., Assistant Engineer, 
Upper Jhelum Canal. Time 6-18 a.m. by watch regulated by Jhelum 
railway station. First a feeling as if a big dog under the bed was trying 
to lift it up ; second, a low chattering rumble like a traction engine on 
the Grand Trunk Road outside ; third, after about half minute every- 
thing began to rattle and vibrate violently ; fourth, after half minute 
more this was followed by a rocking motion, duration 30 to 60 
seconds. Nausea produced. Direction S.S.W. — N.N.E. by rocking of 
bed at right angles to length and to length of house. He was impressed 
by the ideas that the S. wall of the room lifted up and settled down 
followed by the N. wall. Cracks in plaster. Clothes swung S. — N. 
making angle of 14° with the vertical. No objects overturned. 

Gujrat.— (See p. 167.) 

Gujrat City. — Gurmaki Rao, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-15 a.m. by 
watch correct with telegraph time. Three shocks at intervals of nearly 
four minutes. Direction S. — N. by swing of door and charpoys (native 
bedsteads). Sound like heavy wind. No damage. All safe. 

Gujrat City (8 miles N. of). — Mr. H. Martyn-Newton, L.R.C.S., 
Church of Scotland Mission. Time 6 a.m. by watch corrected the same 
day by railway time. One shock of 2 to 3 minutes' duration. Direc- 
tion N.E. — S.W. Some houses fell in the town. 

Jallalpur Jattan. — Time 6-20 at the end of quake. First, 6 trem. 
vibrations, second, 3 shocks, the 3rd dangerous. Direction E.— W. by 



204 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

water of tank. Many walls of buildings fell down and ma-ny had cracks. 

Sound like that of carriages. 

Tauda. — Postmaster. Time C-20 to G-27 nearly. One horrible 

shock. 

Gujranwala District. 

Gujramrala. — (See p. J 65.) 

Hafizabad. — Mr. E. H. Jeffries, Engineer. First, trem. vibrations 
for a few seconds, causing door bolts to rattle. Second, 1 severe shock 
of 1 minute's duration. Third, no trem. vibrations afterwards. Direction 
E. — W. It was distinctly felt to an alarming extent. The whole house 
rocked E. — \V. He could hardly stand and went outside. Two meat 
safes suspended from pegs in the walls at right angles to each other, 
the house facing due N., behaved as follows : that on the E. — W. wall 
swung freely, that on the N. — S. wall bumped against the wall. Trees 
swayed. Water in channels thrown out. No objects overturned. No 
cracks in buildings. 

K an g ah- Dog rem. — Postmaster. Five or 6 shocks lasting nearly 3 
minutes. No damage. 

Khanki. — Hony. Lieut. C. Gentry, Assistant En^neer, Lower Chenab 
Canal. Fiist, no trem. vibrations before, secend, very severe shocks 
for 5 minutes. Direction N.E.— S.W. It was difficult to stand without 
support. Trees shook a good deal. Cracks very numerous in kacha 
built houses. Pucca built houses do not show so many. The regulator 
at the head of the Chenab Canal cracked in several places. There was 
general alarm. All rushed to safe places outside buildings. Water in 
river a mile wide rose 6 inches immediately after the shock in 5 minutes. 
Water in canal 8 miles from Khanki, where there is a regulator, fell 0*20 
(? feet). The canal here is about 300 feet wide and 10 feet deep. All 
sluice gates were open. At Sagar, 28 miles from Khanki, the water rose 
0'40 (? feet). Here also there is a regulator, the canal being 200 feet 
wide and 10 feet deep. Direction of canal S.W. — N.E. 12 miles further 
on from Sagar in the same directum and 40 miles from Khanki the 
canal splits up into 3 branches with regulators at the head of each; 
Water rose 0'20 feet These uses show that the velocity of the water in 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 205 

the canal was greatly increased by trie earthquake. Earth-fissures in 
soft ground 2 miles long on the right bank of the Chenab river 5 J miles 
below the Alexandra Bridge on the N.-W. Railway. There are two 
holes about 30 feet diameter and 4 feet deep from which fissures radiate. 
The largest fissures are 2 feet wide. Water in great volumes is said to 
have come out of the fissures (see plan, pi. 2G). No sound except shak- 
ing of trees and roofs. 

Khanki. — Mr. E. H. Pargiter, Superintending Engineer, Lower 
Chenab Canal Circle. Time 6-12 by watch, whose possible error was 
2 minutes. First, no trem. vibrations before, second, a shock violently 
and rapidly felt for 2 minutes, and gradually decreasing in violence. 
Direction N. — S. by hanging lamp which with a 9 feet swing moved 
fully 4 feet between the ends of the swing. Walls of rest-house swayed 
about. Doors swung. Cracks in some houses. 

Marh Balochan. — Mr. C. A. Sharpe, Assistant Engineer, Chenab 
Canal. Time 6-14 a.m. by watch believed to be 2 minutes fast by rail- 
way time. A rapid vibration, quickly increasing to a maximum and 
then gradually dying away in the course of 1 minute. He was awaken- 
ed by the sideway swinging of the bed, which lay N. — S. Doors swung. 
No cracks seen in pucca buildings. 

Ramnagar. — Aziz Ullah, Sub-Postmaster. Shock E. — W., and the 
N. — S. houses trembled and moved. Thundering sound heard from the 
east 1 second before the first shock. He was greatly alarmed. 

Sangla. — L. Sahua Singh, Assistant Engineer, P. W. D. Two shocks, 
the first the more intense. Direction E. — W. by fall of basket and 
flapping of tent purdahs. No cracks, no sound. 

Lahore District. 

Lahore and Mian Mir. — (See p. 131.) 

Ganda Singhwala.—Mi. P. Claxton, Upper Sutlej Canals. No 
preliminary tremors. One severe to-and-fro movement. Direction 
W.— E. as noted by the sound. Distinctly felt. A " chathi " of water 
fell from shelf 6 inches wide. It was an irregular shock with no 
particular direction of oscillation, but was a shake-up in every 



206 MIDDLBMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

direction. Duration a little over a minute and died away more gradu- 
ally. A beam in outhouse sank 3 inches at west end owing to earthen 
wall giving. Sound a slight vibrating one. 

Kathyala. — Mr. M. S. Dhody, Assistant Engineer, Lower Chenab 
Canal. Direction N.W. — S.E. Distinctly felt. He ran out of doors 
for safety. There was a rumble of the earth, swaying of buildings, 
rattling of doors, movement of trees N.W. — S.E. No damage. 

Raewind. — B. Krishanchand, Sub-Postmaster, Four shocks. No 
effects on buildings, etc. Sound like train. 

Ferozepore District. 

Dhaipai near Kot-Kapura. — Mr. T. I. Dixon, Assistant Engineer. 
There were 4 shocks. Objects indoors danced and swung about, doors 
and windows flew open. Direction W. — E.(?) The big shock began 
gently and then got more violent. The ground heaved in an alarming 
way. People left their houses. It required an effort to stand. The 
shock ended abruptly. No cracks. 

Fazilka. — Maula Buksh, Sub -Postmaster. Nine shocks as follows, first 
shock, duration 60 seconds. Then 2 seconds' interval. Second shock, 
duration 30 seconds. Then half second interval. Third shock, dura- 
tion 30 seconds, followed by six shocks at intervals of half second 
during 30 seconds. Direction S.W. — N.E. Buildings shook like trees 
in a storm. Stool shook as dog underneath. Water moved S.W. 
Sound like dog's tail on the ground. No. damage. 

Ferozepore. — (See p. 159.) 

Asahutai. — Mr. H. W. P. Chestrey, W. J. Canal. One prominent 
shock lasting 3 or 4 minutes. Distinctly felt, doors rattled, furniture 
rocked. House seemed to rock. Plaster fell. No damage. No 
sounds especially noticed. 

Rasulpur (south of Ferozepore town). — Rai Sultan Singh, Sub- 
Engineer, P. W D., Irrigation Branch. Time about 6-13 a.m., Madras 
time. There were to-and-fro movements for 3 minutes. No distinct 
shocks. Direction N. — S. nearly. In the field " he was quite afraid the 
ground would split and he would go down into the cleft." Doors shook 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 207 

and struck wall violently. Sound like a railway train 3 or 4 miles away 
noticed immediately before the shock. No cracks in buildings. 

Faridkot State. 

Faridkot. — Postmaster. A severe shock lasting 5 minutes. House 
destroyed, but no loss of life. 

Faridkot City. — Mahomed Ramzam, Sub-Postmaster. He was lying 
down in an upper storey. There were, first; a slight tremor ; second, 
a great shock partly divided into two parts by either a slackening in the 
continuous shock or a distinct break ; third, distinct, trem. vibrations. 
Direction N.W. — S.E. It was distinctly felt. Nearly every " pacca " 
house in the town suffered. There were cracks in walls, minarets fell: 
No damage to " kacha " houses. No loss of life. Sound just before 
or more correctly along with the great shock, like the rumbling of a 
train. 

Kot-Kapura. — Ramchand, Sub-Postmaster. Second shocks " hardly " 
( ? severely) felt. Duration about 5 minutes. No damage. 

Patiala State. 

Bhatinda. — Maqbul Elahi, Post and Telegraph Master. There was 
first 1 heavy shock lasting 2 minutes. Then 1 minute interval, followed 
by 4 small shocks with intervals of 30 or 40 seconds between. Direction 
N.W.— S.E. Distinctly felt. Telegraph wires danced on posts. Wag- 
gons in railway yard were shivering. Walls trembled. Birds flew 
high and made much noise. No damage except few cracks. Sound 
like a running train, during the big shock. 

Dhakal. — Two shocks distinctly felt. Direction N. — S. No effects, 
no sound. 

Kanaud. — S. N. Chatterjee, Telegraph Master. There were 2 dis- 
tinct to-and-fro movements, followed by 3 less distinct up-and-down 
movements. The first were fairly intense, but the up-and-down 
motions were not generally noticed as they were confounded with the 
main shocks. Trem. vibrations after for a few seconds. Direction 
N.— S. Telegraph table and chair rocked violently and drowned the 



208 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

sound of the instrument. He thought it was a dog under the table. 
It was difficult to walk. A Nim tree in the garden shook violently. 
No objects were overturned, 2 or 3 houses were damaged. A rumbling 
sound like a mountain stream. 

Narnaul. — Bahmukand Kapoor, Telegraph Master. One shock with 
swing back and forward. Fairly severe. Trem. vibrations for 2 mins. 
after. Direction N. — S. by a tumbler of water falling. Instrument 
table and shelf swung backward and forward and shook for 2 minutes. 
Lime plaster fell from mosque. No sound. 

Patiala. — Mr. S. Brandreth, Kesident Engineer, Irrigation Branch. 
Hanging lamps swung. A bicycle fell from its stand. Direction E. — W- 
by the feel of the floor. There was a continuous rumble. The quake 
was most distinctly felt, heard and seen. Doors and walls trembled. 
Nausea produced. Up and down cracks in the walls. 

Patiala. — Mr. D. Farren, Assistant Engineer, Panjab Irrigation. 
Direction N. — S. and then almost at once E. — W. No damage. A little 
plaster fell. Nothing overturned, etc. Not very severe. No sound 
beyond doors and windows rattling. 

Karnal District. 

Dhanaura. — Chhajju Ram, Sub -Overseer, W. Jhelum Canal. Time 
6-15 a.m. by watch compared with railway time. It was distinctly 
felt. Direction N. — S. He was awakened from sleep. Doors and 
windows rattled. Regulator gates of canal made a great noise rattling 
against the masonry. Canal water waved about 3 feet higher on left 
bank than the original surface. Canal banks cracked in several places. 
Fifteen springs of water burst out from the earth along 100 feet N. — S., 
the original spring level being 3 feet underground. 

Kaithal. — Lala Daulat Ram, Sub-Postmaster. Direction E. — W. 
Beams in roofs fell. Many walls cracked. No sound. 

Karnal. — Postmaster. Duration 45 seconds. Direction S.W. — N.E. 
The office rolled like a steamer at sea. Water came out of the ground 
in places like fountains. Several houses have fallen in the city. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 209 

Panipat.— Raja Ram, Postmaster. Duration 3 minutes 56 seconds. 
Very severe. Direction W. — E. It shook the buildings from their 
bases. Some old buildings collapsed, others cracked. 

Pegan Chowki (36 miles S.W. 'by W. of Kamal). — Pandit Nihal 
Chand, Deputy Collector. Prelim, tremors felt. Afterwards 3 shocks at 
intervals of 10 to 13 seconds. After tremors for 1 minute. Direction 
N. E. — S.W. by doors and trees. It was distinctly and "hardly" felt. 
All houses being "one-roofed" (? one-storied) no house or part of 
house fell. Trees swung. In order to stand he had to keep his feet 
wide apart and facing N.W. On going out into the open air he heard 
a rumbling sound like a large humming top. 

Mundri and Kaul. — Mr. A. B. Arthen. There was a tremor increas- 
ing in intensity. Direction N.N.W. — S.S.E. by hanging lamp. Damage 
in all the surrounding villages. All report cracks, but very few have 
fallen, water in buckets splashed N.N.W. — S.S.E. Rumbling sound like 
distant train and accompanying the first severe shock. 

ShaJiabad.—Bii] Lall, Sub-Postmaster. Direction N.W.— S.E. Dis- 
tinctly felt. Damage to nearly all public buildings, Town Hall, Hospital, 
Railway Station. No loss of life. Many walls fell N.W. or W. and 
generally in 3rd or ±ih. stories. Earth -fissures N.E. — S.W. No sound. 

Thanesar. — Telu Ram, Sub-Postmaster. Duration 3 J minutes. Crack 
in temple 2 inches wide. Many roofs have fallen. Telegraph pole 
trembled E. — W. Sound like the grinding of mills. 

Muzaffarnagar District. 

Kliandhla. — Chainsukh, Sub-Postmaster. Six distinct shocks Direc- 
tion W. — E. No sound. Upper rooms of houses, walls, etc., fell down. 

Khatauli. — Har Pershad, Sub-Postmaster. Time 5-55 by time piece 
compared with telegraph (Madras) time. Two shocks. Movements of wall 
and creaking of doors. Some houses in the town fell. No loss of life. 

Khairana. — Hiru Raj, Sub-Postmaster. One main shock of 5 minutes' 
duration. Direction W. — E. by shaking of office table. A " some- 
what jingling tone felt " before the commencement of the earthquake 
and also afterwards. Walls of houses and iron sheet stirring-. 

P 



210 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Muzaffarnagar. — Ganesh Rai, District Surveyor. One main shock 

W. — E. by movements of doors, windows, etc. Distinctly felt. No 

sound. Door arches cracked. Walls and roofs of some houses cracked 

and damaged. No objects overthrown. Inspection houses at Khatowli 

and Pur Qazi have been cracked worst of all. Mostly the S. and W. 

parts of buildings affected. 

Meerut District, 

Aligarh. — Mr. Werner Bostron, Land Surveyor. Duration of shock 
2 minutes with interval of 15 seconds. Direction W.N.W. — E.S.E. 
Doors slammed violently. 

Bahugarh. — Postmaster. One shock lasting 2 minutes, strong. 
Houses and trees were shaking. No damage. 

Bagpet. — Sub-Postmaster. Indoors sitting. Five shocks distinctly 
felt with intervals of about 10 seconds between each. Total duration 
about 2 minutes. Direction W. — E. by guess. Sounds were noticed. 

Baraut. — Newal Kishore, Sub-Postmaster. Tndoors standing. He 
first heard rattling of window. Everything was moving. Everyone 
was fearful lest the house may fall. Some walls of houses cracked. 
Sound like a train running. 

Ohaprauli. — Ork&T Prashad, Sub -Postmaster and Signaller. To- 
and-fro movements distinctly felt but not counted. He ran out of 
office at the shock. Direction E. — W. apparently. Telegraph wires, 
trees and hanging things all shook. Birds in a confused and terrible 
state. Pots standing one on the other fell down. Foot passengers 
stood still, some fell down and some could not walk. All were fright- 
ened. He sat down, praying God. Walls cracked in villages 
and town. No one ever felt such a shock. Old "aged souls" 
thought ifc to be their last moment. Thundering sounds during the 
shock. 

DhaJcauli (16 miles N. 60° E. of Meerut)— -Mr. R. P. Atkinson, 
Superintending Engineer, Ganges Canal. He was in a tent, standing. 
Time 6-15 by watch supposed to be 3 minutes fast. One shock in 
three waves lasting 3 seconds. Direction N. — S. judging by the posi- 
tion of the tent. Very distinctly felt as it nearly upset him. Tent 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 211 

ropes strained as if camels or bullocks had run into them. Rattling, 
rumbling sound like an unloaded country cart running down a steep 
bridge, perhaps 1 minute before he felt anything. 

Garhmuktesar. — Ghasi Ram Varma, Sub-Postmaster. Distinct to- 
and-fro movements. Table and roof shook, beams and walls waved* 
He hastily went outside. Trees trembled nearly 5 minutes. No 
such sh<3ck known to the oldest inhabitants. Ganges River moved 
W. — E. according to hearsay. Some cracks in buildings. No serious 
damage. 

Ghaziabad. — Postmaster. Direction W. — E. Sound like top spin- 
ning. Another report by R. Sahai, Signaller, gave the time as about 
6-12 by time-piece daily compared with clock in signal room. First 
vibrations to and fro like train passing close by. Second, two actual 
shocks, and third, trem. vibrations afterwards for 1J minutes. Direc- 
tion W. — E. Utensils and clothes hanging moved. Water in jar shook. 
No sound. 

Hafur.— -Postmaster. First, a slow movement for 1 minute. Second, 
a severe shock for 2 minutes. Third, a slower movement for 2 J minutes. 
Then, after an interval of 3 minutes, some light jerks lasting for 3 minutes. 
Direction N.E.— -S.W. A rattling sound as of cannon discharged " far 
distant and dull" at the time when the shock became severe. Cracks 
in walls vertical from N. — S. 

Meerut. — Mr. H. S. Wildeblood, Executive Engineer. He noticed, 
first, trem. vibrations gradually increasing. Second, shocks not counted, 
not particularly distinct, more a roll than a shock. Third, trem. vibra- 
tions gradually dying away. Very distinctly felt. A verandah collapsed 
at Major Rind's house, portico badly cracked at the Kendels and 
McLeans' house, church spire cracked near the top, Thomason College, 
W. portico, badly cracked (its tall columns being cracked vertically 
up the centres), and other parts, especially the arches, cracked: 
Rebuilding of the latter will be necessary in parts. At St. John's 
Church the crowns of all the arches are cracked, that between the 
nave and chancel has to be rebuilt. 

? 2 



212 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Meerut. — Mr. R. B. Spilsbury, Assistant Engineer, P. W. D. He 
noticed a low humming in the air deadened by the shrieking of birds 
flying in an excited manner. He felt giddy. Poles of mosquito cur- 
tains waved 4 inches from the vertical E. — W. Trees also swayed 
E. — W. The shock appeared to be an undulation or roll. He noticed 
a foieshock at 2 a.m. on the same day. (See p. 356.) 

Meerut.— Mr. F. A. Plomer, Overseer, P. W. D. Time 6-15 a.m. by 
gun time. One principal shock, a to-and-fro movement continuing for 
2 J minutes. No trem. vibrations before or after. Direction E. — W. by 
fall of objects, water in the bath and swaying of chimney stack. He 
experienced the least difficulty in keeping his balance. Chimney stack 
4 feet high oscillated 4 or 5 inches. Portico pillar 11 J feet appeared 
to oscillate 6 or 7 inches. Clay statue 2| feet high on circular base of 
10 inches diameter fell to the E. In his bungalow and in the charitable 
dispensary the main long walls running E. — W. had no cracks. But ail 
cross walls running N. — S. were cracked at the join with the main walls. 
Also numerous cracks in the Tahsil. Waves in bath tub with 5 inches 
of water rose 3$ inches. The sound occurred during the main shock 

and for 15 to 20 seconds after. It was like the low rumbling of a train. 

There was no sound bofore. 

Meerut. — Suraj Boli Lai, Sub-Postmaster. There were trem. 

vibrations for 5 seconds, then shocks for 1 minute followed by trem. 

vibrations for 20 seconds. Direction N.W. — S.E. Distinctly felt. 

Table quivered. Doors moved to and fro, also windows opened and 

shut. Walls moved. Small mud jug with ball-shaped base (not flat) 

was circulating about its base with the hands of a watch. 

Meerut.— Riaz Ahmad Hasan, Signaller. Sound like " ghur " 

" slowly but fearfully." One minar of the Mustafa Castle fell. One 

small Masjid fell. 

Meerut. — Mr. W. R. Godfrey, Telegraph Master. He mentions an 

earth- crack 15 yards long running E. — W. in his compound. His office 

walls shook until he thought they could no longer stand it. 

Meerut. — Lieutenant J. K. Knowles, Cantonment Magistrate. He 

mentions among other things a rumbling like thunder and a great wind 

8 seconds before the shock. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED By GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 213 

Meerut. — Colonel W. J. Saunders, C.B., R.A.M.C. He mentions a 
rumbling noise like a furniture van passing soon after the commence- 
ment of vibrations. Spring mattress moved up like a boat on a wave. 
He and bis wife left the house and stood with feet apart. Ground 
moved, trees swayed, houses cracked. 

Sardhana. — Hira Lai, Sub -Postmaster. The shock was very dis- 
tinctly felt. Direction N. — S. No sounds. Certain damage to houses 
is reported, walls fell at Sardhana town. The cathedral top cracked, 
palace injured, police and tahsil quarters damaged. The writer gives 
details and a plan. He felt a foreshock (?) at 5-30 a.m. of the same 
day (time guessed). 

Moradabad District. 

Amroha. — Harnam Singh, Sub -Postmaster. Two shocks, one very 
heavily felt and lasting one minute. Direction N.—S. No sound. 

Moradabad. — Mr. J. E. Murphy, Executive Engineer, Public Works 
Department. Main shock of 2 seconds' duration. Direction N.—S. 
It was distinctly felt. Almirah in house began to sway. No damage. 

Moradabad. — Syed Hamid Ali. The- first shock was severe and 
lasted J minute. The Mission School entrance, gate at Tahsil and 
some double -storied houses were partly cracked. 

Bareilly District. 

Bareilhj.—'Mi. F. J. Laugh lin, Postmaster. Indoors sitting. Several 
shocks with tremors lasting about £ hour. Hanging lamps swung 
about E. — W., but afterwards in a circular way, with 6 inches diameter 
The shocks w ere distinctly felt. Chair heaved under him. On getting 
up to go outside he had to hold on to the table, door, etc. Outside as 
he was looking N. it seemed to him that the earth rose up under his 
right foot and rolled away as it were towards his left in a kind of wavy 
motion. Tall trees swayed E. — W. disturbing a number of birds in 
them. No damage to buildings. 

Bareilly.— Mr. W. B. V. Mason, Inspecting Telegraph Master. Time 
6 a.m. precisely, by clock keeping accurate Madras time, checked by 



214 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Telegraph Office the previous day. Clock stopped at 6-10, the pendu- 
lum swing being E. — W. First there was a sound resembling distant 
thunder, accompanied by a rapid vibration like that experienced 
when an express train passes a railway platform. Next a distinct shock 
backwards and forwards for about 35 seconds. Lastly the same sensa- 
tion as at first. Hanging lamp swung N. — S. exactly, the maximum 
swing being about 20° out of the vertical on either side. Closed doors 
were dashing against each other. Chain fastenings rattled. The move- 
ment did not seem undulatory but a back- and- forth displacement of 
about 3 inches horizontally. Plastering fell from doorways. No cracks. 
Water in tub moved N.— S. and also seemed to a small extent to be 
swirling around. 

Bareilly.— Mi. R. F. Roberts, District Engineer. Time 6-12 A.M. 
by watch correct with railway time. 

Bareilly. — Durga Prasad Shankhadar, Meteorological Observer. He 
observed three distinct shocks, the second being the principal, with 20 
seconds' interval between them. Direction W. — E. by tree opposite. 
No sound. Giddiness during the second shock. Cracks in N.W. — S.E. 
walls of Bareilly College and High School, also in N. — S* Walls of Town 
Hall, and in N.— S. walls of Kotwali building; 

Pilibhit District. 

Pilibhit. — Postmaster and Signaller. Three shocks and trem. vibra- 
tions for 90 seconds after. Direction N.W. — S.E. by hanging lamp. 
Three cracks in upper story. Water in tank in great mosque moved 
and flowed outside (overflowed). 

GROUP 4. 

Hazara District. 
Abbottahad. — Conductor B. Crowhurst, Telegraph Master. One 
shock lasting nearly two minutes. The worst he has experienced there 
where earthquakes are frequent. No trem. vibrations noticed before 
or after. Direction E. — W. by chimney, the loose stones of which 
fell E. Motion like a springless cart with loose axles. A succession 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 215 

of bumps and jars. Beams of roof creaked. Shingles of roof clattered. 
Old earthquake cracks opened again Falls of plaster occurred. Hang- 
ing lamp suspended by thick wire tied round a beam running E. — W. 
had much vertical motion. Dancing best describes the motion 
[Note. — This evidence of vertical motion so far from the epicentre is a 
little strange.] 

Haripur. — Mahomed Amir Ali, Signaller. Time 6-15 by telegraph 
time-piece. About 4 shocks. Direction N. — S. Trees moved heavily. 
He left his house immediately. No damage. Cracking of windows and 
doors. 

Mansehra. — Karim Bux, Postmaster. Time 6-20 by watch compared 
with telegraph clock. No trem. vibrations noticed. Five shocks. Trem. 
vibrations after for five minutes. Direction N.W. — S.E. Distinctly felt* 
Only earth fell from the roof. No cracks. 

Attock District. 

Attock.— Major W. K. Hardy, R.Y.A., Commanding at Attock. 
Time about 6-10. He was indoors lying down. No distinct shocks. 
Trem. vibrations only. Distinctly felt. Walls of Serai, 6 feet thick, 
vibrated distinctly. 

Campbellpore. — Goven Dhan Dass, Sub-Postmaster. He was in- 
doors working. Two shocks of trem. nature, duration 2 minutes. 
Direction E. — W. Roofs made a noise, and there was great fear in 
all minds. No objects overturned. No cracks. All hanging articles 
swung freely. 

Fatelijung. — Jagar Nath, Sub-Postmaster. Indoors lying down. 
First, several trem. vibrations, second, number of prominent shocks 
not counted, but each increased in intensity. Total duration about 
two minutes. Direction S.W. — N.E.(?) Thundering sounds heard 
under the earth. Distinctly felt. Buildings shook severely, but* no 
damage. No objects overturned, no cracks, etc. 

Rawalpindi District. 
(Jliora Galli.— Sergeant D. Kay, Meteorological Observer. He was 
lying in bed. There were two shocks, the first of which seemed very 



216 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

heavy. His bed rooked like a cradle. When walking he -felt as if 
treading on a number of inflated balls. The second shock was of equal 
intensity. Duration 10 to 30 seconds. Direction N. — S. No damage. 
A gracing sound at the end of the shock. 

Kohala.— Postmaster. One shock, shutters trembled, verandah 
also. Telegraph wires jingled. Trem. vibrations after for about 5 
minutes. Houses, trees and telegraph posts all m tremulous condition. 
He ran downstairs. 

Murree. — Telegraph Master, Time 6-16 a.m.. Madras time, usually 
two or three minutes fast. Oue shock followed by slight tremors for 
60 seconds. Direction B. — W. Doors and windows creaked and rat- 
tled slightly. No damage. 

Rawalpindi. — Ldeutenant-General Sir B. Blood, K.C.B., Command- 
ing Northern Forces. He was asleep in bed. Time 6-9 within a 
minute or two of error. There was one prolonged shock. A north 
door rattled and woke him. There was the usual rumbling ssound. 
•Roofs, doors and windows rattled. A packed portmanteau lying N. — S. 
rocked rather violently. Duration I J to 2 minutes, A pendulum 
clock facing W. stopped at 6-9. Another clock of the same kind 
facing S. did not stop. 

Rawalpindi, — Maya Dass, Postmaster, Durations minutes. Direc* 
tion S. — N. A few lofty houses in the town cracked. 

Rawalpindi City. — Postmaster. Duration 5 minutes. Three build- 
ings fell. 

Rawalpindi City.— Mr. G. W. Hollcy, Military Telegraphist, Dura 
tion 1 1 to 2 minutes. A few cracks in one bungalow of 9th Lancers' 
Lines. Direction N.— S. apparently. 

Rawalpindi —Mr. R. A. Munro, >Sub- Assistant Superintendent, 
Telegraphs. In bed lying down. Time 6-11 at- end of shock by times 
piece set by time signal from Madras Observatory at 10 hours the 
previous day. One shock. Direction N.N.W.— S.S.E. Duration 
1! .seconds. No sounds. 

Tret.— Kashi Pershad, Sub-Postmaster. The earth quaked here 
nominally for a few seconds. No damage at all. Hardly felt. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 217 

Jhelum District. 

Dandol Mine^—Mz. D. Thomson, Mining Manager. Time 6-15 to 

6-18. There was a broken window and some plaster fell. Some rocks 

fell on the hill side. In the mines it was not felt at all at 300 feet- 
depth. 

Jhelum City. — B. Jowihda Mall, Sub-Postmaster. Five.or 6 shocks 
at intervals of "2 or 3 seconds. Direction N.E, — S.W. Some buildings 
in the city cracked. Doors knocked. 

Jkelum. — Rev. R. Stewart, D.D., American United Presbyterian 

jion. First., prelim, tremors were felt, Second, 2 or 3 main shocks 
with intervals of perhaps 5 to 10 seconds. It was the hardest shock 
ever felt by him. Doors rattled but no damage. It was hard to con- 
tinue standing. He and his wife were both dizzy. (The writer gives 
details of houses belonging to the Mission in Dharmsala damaged.) 

Jhehun, — Mr. J. T. Farrant, Superintending Engineer, Upper 

Jhelum Canal. First a severe shock followed by gradually decreasing 

vibrations. Direction N.—S. by water in. a basin. He thought he was 

g rudely shaken by some one. Roof creaked. No cracks caused. 

Ihd vutenant-Colonei J. H. Balfour, 13th Lancers. Time 

., N.-W. Railway time, checked on the 7th. Duration J to 1 
te. 

Kheicra (at the Mayo Mine).— Mr. H. A. R. Lyon, Superintendent 

c. Forty seconds' duration. Several shocks were felt for 

time. A few buildings were cracked, but none fell. Underground 

.'ue mines it was felt but there was no damage. The mine is 500 
feet at the deepest. [Note.— Hitherto earthquake shocks have not 

i felt in a mine, but it should be remembered that these mines are 
of the nature of chambers cut out of the side of the hill and not mine 
sunk below the ordinary level of the country.] 

Nurpur Mines.— The Superintendent (name illegible). The mines 
were not working at the time of t. • earthquake. No effects were 

. ver discovered afterwards. No i fleets either above ground. 

Find Dadun Khan.— Ram Datt, Sub-Postmaater. Four trem. vibra- 
tions followed by 1 principal shock of 'J> minutes' duration. No trem. 



218 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

vibrations after. Direction S.E. — N. W- by hanging lamp. Window 
boards and walls were moving to and fro. He went tumbling, and 
the rupees which he was counting fell. 

Shahpur District (Punjab). 

Wan. — Mr." A. J. Gibbs, Assistant Engineer, Jhelum Canal. One 
shock. Direction W.— E. Distinctly felt. Not alarming, he did not 
leave the house. No effects. No sound. 

Khushab. — Lachman, Assistant Surgeon, Civil Dispensary of Mian- 
wali. No prelim, tremors. Three principal shocks, the first being the 
strongest. Distinctly felt. Chains swung. Walls of houses vibrated. 
One could not stand erect on the ground. No sound. 

Kot Nafa. — Mr. E. L. Glass, Assistant Engineer. Two distinct 
shocks. Trem. vibrations after each shock for about 1 minute. 
Direction E. — W- by doors. All doors and windows rattled. No 
sound. 

Sargodha. — Ram Labhaya Mall, Postmaster. Three principal 
shocks. N.E.— S.W. Nt> damage. Sound like "calm storm." 

Sargodha. — Mr. J. Middleton, Assistant Engineer. One continuous 
shock at first rapid to and fro and gradually getting slower but larger 
oscillation. Three and a half minutes' duration Direction W. — E. 
by punkah and by water in irrigation channels. It was distinctly 
felt. He went outside hastily. After the shock there was a tidal wave 
came down the canal N. — S. No sound. 

Shahpur. — Pastmaster. A slight shock. Duration about 2 
minutes. No sound, etc. 

Warcha {Mine) — Mr. G. Wilson, Manager. No effects were noticed 
below ground nor above except by a few natives. The miners' 
houses are very frail and if there had been any shock to speak of some 
traces would have been left. 

Jhang District. 
Jhang. — Mool Chand, Postmaster. Time C-10 by Post Office clock. 
Three shocks. Direction N. — S. It was distinctly felt, but there 
was no damage. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 219 

Chiniot. — Postmaster. Duration 4 minutes. Direction N. — S. 
The building was shaken violently, but there was no damage. 

Montgomery District. 

Dipalpur. — Postmaster. One shock. Direction E. — W. Hardly felt. 

Kamalia. — Ram Brosa, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-18 a.m., Madras 
time, by telegraph clock corrected the previous day at 4 p. m. No 
prelim, tremors. Two distinct shocks with 30 seconds' interval, the 
second being more severe than the first. No tremors after. Direction 
E. — W. It was distinctly felt, no such earthquake having occurred 
here since many years (50 or 60). The ground moved distinctly. 
Houses were shaken. No damage. No cracks, no objects overthrown, 
no sound. 

Montgomery. — Raushan Din, Head Clerk, Civil Surgeon's office. He 
felt, first, trem. vibrations, second, 4 or 5 sharp shocks in an E- — W. 
direction, third, trem. vibrations for 5 minutes. It was distinctly felt. 
The chain of door moved. Doors rattled and hanging lantern swayed 
vigorously E. — W. There was an unusual barking of dogs heard the 
night preceding the earthquake. No cracks. No objects overturned. 
Rumbling before the shock rather like a railway train in the distance 
and it lasted until the main shock was over. 

Hissar District. 

Bhiwani. — Nihal Singh, Sub-Postmaster. Two prelim, tremors. 
Table and lamp were "shocking" tremulously. One main shock of 3 
minutes' duration, Direction E. — W. by lamp and office table (?). Few 
Houses cracked. No sound. 

Hansi. — Babu Shadilal, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-13 by telegraph 
office clock. First, continuous, sudden thunder as if railway train passed 
by. Second. 1 severe shock of 3 .minutes' duration. Third, 2 slight 
shocks of i minute each. Direction N.E. — S.W. by fall of wall and 
hanging iron rod. Some houses cracked and a three-storied house fell. 
The telegraph line moved to and fro. 



220 MIDDLEMIS8: KAttGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Flissar.— Gujar Mall, Supervisor P. W. D. Time 6*15 by clock 
always compared with and corrected by local railway station. First, 
several trem. vibrations not counted. Main shock direction N.W. — 
S.E. Very severe. Several two-storied houses cracked slightly here 
and there in the city. 

fiirsa.— Hiya Singh, Sub-Postmaster and. Meteorological Observer. 
Time 6-10, Madras time, by watch. Three shocks were felt. The conches 
swayed, he was aroused from slumber and ran out. Direction N.— S, 
Fall of top of chimney of Railway Institute. Slight cracking of dome 
of mosque. Sound resembled boiler discharging steam and was simul- 
taneous with the shock. 

Sirsa. — Mr. A. P. Varma, Assistant Engineer, Cartels, He was asleep 
and did not feel any prelim, tremors. Two main shocks, the first dis- 
tinctly felt for nearly 2 minutes, second, about £ hour afterward-}. 
Direction N. — S. by punkah swinging. Rattling of doors and gentle 
rucking of bed awoke him. The punkah moved. No sound. 

Jhind State. 

Sangrur. — One continuous shock with 2 maxima. Duration 3 minutes, 
Direction W. — E. Articles were thrown E. A very severe shock. A two- 
storied house, substantially built, a mass of cracks from roof to floor, 
the cracks being 1 inch across. A piece of the upper story parapet 
12 inches cube on E. wall was detached and flung clear of the verandah 
and lodged 10 ft. off the building. Root plaster fell in large quantities. 
The Maharaja's Diwan Khana, a massive building about 00 feet high, 
was a mass of cracks, some gaping rents a few inches wide at top. 
Candle chandeliers with 30 feet suspension lost their candle guards which 
were strewn in broken glass on. the floor. Birds, especially pea-fowl 
and crows, during the shock kept up a continuous and awful shrieking. 

Sangrur. — D. Ramchander, Telegraph Master. Time 6-9 a.m. by 
stopped clock. Duration 2 minutes. Direction S.— N, No sound. 
Distinctly felt. A severe shock. Office buildings shook S. — N. No 
damage to office . 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 221 

Rohtak District. 

Bert. — Dalu Sabaj, Sub-Postmaster. About 12 stocks. Table 
shook, also hanging lamp. Trees shook. Only one upper story house 
was cracked. No sound. 

Gahanct. — Ragbhar Dial, Sub-Postmaster. Four shocks lasting 10 
minutes. Direction N.W. — S.E., first shock severe, the others slight. No 
damage, etc. Sound "like clouds." 

Jhojjar. — Shekh Ashref Ali, Overseer. About 3 shocks, the second 
being the most severe. Direction E. — W.(?) It was distinctly felt. The 
ground appeared to rise up and sink with a shaking to and fro E. — W. 
Walls and roofs swung. No objects overturned. No cracks. No 
sound. 

Kalumuf. — Jawarbarlal, Sub- Postmaster. Two shocks lasting a few 
seconds. T'rem. vibrations for 3 minutes after. Direction N. — S. Distinctly 
felt. A little earth fell out of roof, doors moved. No* other damage. 
No sound. 

Rohtak. — Hira Lai, Postmaster. One shock for 2 or 3 minutes without 
any interval. Direction E. — W. Very distinctly felt. Difficult to stand 
without support. Lamp would have fallen if he had not taken it 
from chimney and put it on the ground. No other effects. Sound 
like a train. 

Rohtak MawdL— Shankslall, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-13 by -time- 
piece compared with Madras time. Twelve shocks lasting 4£ minutes. 
Direction W — E. Distinctly felt. PvOof and chair creaked. Sound ag 
''slight hollow. 5 ' 

Delhi District. 

Delhi. — Sub-Postmaster of Dareeba. He was indoors working at 
the mail. Time 6-15 a. m. by office clock regulated daily. There 
were 3 shocks of nearly 2 seconds each. The first shock was felt with 
great "dramming.*' Direction N.E.—S.W. Tables moved. Cracks in 
Head Post Office. Turret of fort fell. Water of tank of Jama Masjid 
came out. Some cracks in tomb of Humayan. 

Delhi. — Mr- C Debenham. Indoors lying down. Time 6-12 by 
clock which stopped, corrected daily with time from Observatory. Ono 



222 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

very severe shock only. Direction E. — W. Cracks in post office. He 
did not hear any sound himself others did. 

Delhi. — Ramsaran, Sub-Postmaster, Maiden's Hotel. Time 6-10 to 
6-13. One shock, very dangerous. Direction E. — W. Serious damage to 
houses without loss of life. No sound. 

Delhi. — Mr. D. J. Lavelle, Executive Engineer, Provincial Division 
in Civil Lines near the Ridge. He was in bed asleep. Time 6-09 a.m. 
(? 6 hours 9 minutes) . First, a steady severe rumbling ending in 2nd 
a sharp shock. Direction N. — S. by the senses. He 'was aroused from 
sleep. Door rattled, etc. Cracks in buildings. 

Delhi. — Azizud Din, Sub-Postmaster, S udder Bazar. He was in- 
doors standing in upper story. Time 6-30 a.m. by Bee time-piece 
confirmed daily at 4 p=m. Four principal shocks, 2 of which were trem. 
vibrations. Direction W.--E. by hanging lamp. Very distinctly felt. 
Much damage to houses. 

Delhi. — Ram Rachpal, Sub-Postmaster, Chouri Bazar. Time 6-12 
(guessed). Three principal shocks. Fuel on roof sounded. 1 He first 
thought it was a "monkey walk." 2 Again the fuel sounded tremend- 
ously, and he was certain it was an earthquake. 

Delhi. — Chanan Ram, Sub -Postmaster, Chandni Chouk. Time 6-10 
by time-piece not compared. Three shock E. — W. 

Delhi.— K. M. Abdal Majid, B.A. Time 6-11 by pendulum clock 
which stopped (trustworthy). Three shocks at intervals of 3 seconds. 
Direction E. — W. Sound like country carts on rough road heard before 
each shock. 

Delhi.— Nathou Lai, Head Clerk, Civil Surgeon's Office. Time 6-10 
a.m., Madras time, by clock kept correct with railway time. Fifteen to 
20 shocks at 2 seconds' interval. Direction N. — S. (?) Buildings were 
seen tottering. Articles on shelves did not fall. In town very few 
houses are said to have cracked. A sound was " felt ' ' before the main 
shock at intervals of 2 seconds. 



1 In many parts of India wood fuel is piled on the roof to dry. 

? Refers to the fact that monkeys frequently gambol over the roofs in Delhi and 
other towns where they are sacred and protected animals. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 223 

Bulandshahr District. 

Bilaspur. — Mr. W. A. Kinloch, Manager, Fargus-Skinner Estate. 
Time 6-15 a.m. by large pendulum clock stopped (railway time). There 
was, first, a rumbling sound like thunder increasing rapidly. Beds, screens, 
almirahs and pictures swayed to and fro. Windows rattled and also 
glass doors like castanets. We rushed out to the lawn keeping our 
feet with difficulty. Huge trees" swayed and hanging baskets of ferns 
from N.— S. Duration 2 minutes. It was succeeded by a few small 
shocks. Large cracks in walls of single-storied pucca buildings. Fowls 
and frogs have cried day and night since and before the occur- 
rence. 

Bulandshahr. — Pandit Lakshmi Shanker, District Surveyor. Time 
6-12 a.m. by clock correct with clock tower, Three shocks distinctly felt. 
Duration 2 or 3 minutes. Direction N.W. — S.E. Bed shook, he went 
out. Trees shook heavily N.W.— S.E. Slight crack in church tower, 
canopy mortar fell. Another observer noted a slight whistling 
sound. 

SiJcandrabad. — Hargian Singh, 2nd Master, High School. Time 6-15 
a.m. clock compared with Post Office clock the previous day. Three 
shocks : first at 6-15, second at 6-18 and third at 6-20. Direction S.E. — 
N.W. Sound like a mail train . Bed swung, shutters of doors and windows 
struck against each other. He left house and saw a boy running 
towards him and stumbing as he went. No serious damage. Cornice 
of wall fell in another house. 

Budaun District. 

Budaun (at Kheri village near). — Hire Khan, Supervisor, District 
Surveyor, P.W.D. There were trem. vibrations for 2 or 3 minutes. 
Then a severe shock of 10 seconds' duration and then trem. vibrations 
again continuing for 10 minutes after. Direction E. — W. No particular 
sound. He was standing in the N. verandah and saw houses bending 
to the W. and the cracking of doors and roof timbers was heard. 
W T ater in a well moved E.— W. against the walls. Hanging flower pot 
moved E. — W. 



224 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Shajahanpur District. 

Rosa. — Shanki Day, Sub-Postmaster. Three shocks each lasting 1 
to H seconds. Direction E. — W. No sound. Everything shook. A 
palm tree remained shaking for a long time. 

Shajalianvnr. — Mahomed Ali, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-15 by 

h corrected the day before at 4 p.m. by Madras time. Three shocks 

minutes. Direction Wi — E. by branches of trees. His bed began 

to move from W. — E i bting on it facing S. Creaking sounds and 

rustling of trees prevented him hearing any peculiar sounds. Budhi 

ser, P.W.D., also recorded the shocks as, first, very slight. 

►rids afterwards, very distinct and lasted 4 

stcor slight. Direction. N. W. — S. E. No sound." During 

the s< Lock the touse distinctly moved N. — S. A bras3 

lota fell down from wall platform to S. 

Tilkar.— Postmaster. Three shocks. 

Kheri District. 

.K^m.— Postmaster. Two shocks lasting 40 seconds S.— N. 

Lakhinvpur.— Mr. R. K. Mosely, D. S. P. Time 6-10 by railway time. 
He was indoors in bed. Two shocks with hardly perceptible interval 
S, — jf. Bed tilted, feeling of nausea. Trees rocked about. No sound. 

Lakhimpur. — B. Shiam Manshar, Sub -Postmaster and Signaller. 
Time 6-15.-0 to 6-15-40 a.m. by time-piece always compared with Madras 
time. Two shocks. S. — N. by water in tank and lamp. No sound. 

Wesleypore. — Mr. G. E. Claxton. Time 6-15 a.m. by pendulum 
clock stopped. One shock lasting a little over 3 minutes. Direction 
E. — W. by hanging lamp. Doors rattled and wails swayed slightly, but 
not enough to affect pictures and ornaments. 



Chitral. 
Chitral — Mahomed Bux, Telegraph Master. He was indoors 
sitting. Time about 6-15. Duration about 25 to 30 seconds. There 
were 2 shocks in quick succession, the first being of greater intensity. 



PARTS OP INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 225 

Direction N.W.— S.E, Rumbling noise just before first shock None 
after. Distinctly felt but Slight. No damage, etc. 

Drosk. — Habibul Rahman Khan, Telegraph Master, Ke was 
indoors lying down awake. Time about 6-10 Madras time, There 
was one shock lasting 2 minutes. Direction N.E, — 3.W. It was dis- 
tinctly felt. No damage except, to loose stone walls. 

Mastig. — Usman Ghani, Telegraph Master, He was lying down 
asleep. Time about 6-15 a.m. No trem. vibration before. There were 
3 shocks, the first being the most severe and lasting for 15 seconds. 
Direction from Chitral to the Pamir. Doors moved to and fro slightly. 
No damage, no cracks, etc. His cot moved slowly but heavily, He 

38 that earthquakes are common here and Ke has felt 4 or 5 in the 
last 9 months. 

Dargai.—Mi. W. Grover, Military Telegraphist. Time 6-15 a.m. 
by telegraph clock. He was lying down, indoors. 1 shock hardly felt 
lasting for 1 or 1| minutes. No sound, 

Peshawar District, 

Charsadda, — M, Allah Din, Postmaster. He was indoors lying 
down. There were 3 shocks, slow in beginning and rapid at the end. 
Direction N.E. — S.W. It was distinctly felt, but only a little harder 
than an ordinary earthquake. No damage, etc. No sound. 

Cherai.—Mi. C. O'Connor, S, IX 0. He was indoors moving about. 
The shock was very slight, scarcely noticeable. 

Jamrud. — Kabu Manga! Singh Garanthi, Sikh Priest. He was 
indoors sitting, A slight shock. His cot swayed slightly for § minute. 
No sound. Clothes hanging on ropes moved E. — W. 

Landi i£ofoI— .Tagat Singh, Sub-Divisional Officer, Khyber Military 
Works. Time 6-18 by watch compared with a recognised standard 
time clock. No prelim, tremors noticed. Two shocks with interval ol 
20 seconds. Trem. vibrations after for 10 seconds. Doors and windows 
clattered. Direction E.— W. Distinctly felt. Distant sound between 
main shocks like railway carriage approaching. 

Q 



226 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Landi A'otaZ.— Guran Ditta Mall, Sub-Postmaster. Indoors lying 
down. Time 6-18 by office time -piece generally corrected at 4 p.m. 
Two shocks with interval of 10 seconds the first being the more intense. 
Sound before main shock like distant railway train. 

Mardan. — Mr. R. H. Tickell, Executive Engineer. Indoors lying 
down. He noticed, first, a trembling and vibration for 1 minute, 
second, a violent upheaval for 2 minutes, third, milder vibrations dying 
away. Direction E. — W. judging from polo sticks swinging on several 
walls. Slight nausea. No sound. An officer in the Guides says it was 
quite a mild shock compared with other shocks experienced here. No 
damage. 

Nowshera. — Mr. E. Tydeman, Sub-Engineer, Military Works. 
Time 6-7 by watch set by gun time. He was indoors lying down. 
One shock only. Tremors after for I minute. Distinctly felt as in a 
boat when moved by a swell. 

Peshawar. — Major N. J. D. Dundee, R.E. Indoors lying down. 
Prelim, tremors not felt as he only woke towards the end of the shock. 
Pictures on walls running N.W. — S.E. were crooked after the earth- 
quake. Those on N.E. — S.W. walls were not displaced. A fairly 
good shock. No damage. No sound. 

Peshawar. — Mr. C. Cuerden, Military Works. Indoors lying down. 
Time 6-20 a.m. according to local gun. He first felt a simple vibration, 
second, a to-and-fro movement like a ship, third, a jerky vibration 
gradually subsiding like an express train. Direction N. 23° W. A pair 
of binoculars on wall swung parallel to it. Doors and windows rattled. 
A rumbling sound lasting 30 seconds simultaneous with first vibrations. 

Peshauar. — Mr. W. P. Carr, Telegraph Master, Lahore, was com- 
municating at 6-14 when the telegraph suddenly ceased to work. One 
strong shock of 2 minutes' duration. Direction E. — W. Cot moved, 
also hanging lamp. Sparrows flew out of roof in a body. Doors 
croaked and vibrated. No damage. No sound. 

Shanhargarh. — Kashi Singh, Head Master. A slight shock for 5 
minutes. Bed moved. No curiosity in this place, 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 227 

Malakand. — Sergeant P. McCarrolL Telegraph Master. One slight 
trem. vibration. Direction N. — S. apparently. No damage, etc. No 
sound. 

Chakdara. — Mr. A. Colman and Mr. J. Mullar, Military Telegraphists. 
One shock. Charpoys shook. No damage. After the shock there was a 
" roll through the ground " lasting 2 seconds. 

Kohat District. 
Fort Lockhart. — Postmaster. Very slight shock of 2 or 3 minutes 5 
duration. No loss, no injuries. 

Parachinar, Kurram Valley. — Mr. S. Waterfield, Political Agent. 
Time 5-50 by watch and carriage clock correct 3 days before with rail- 
way time at Thai. There was, first, a long roll, second, a pause with 
tremors for a few seconds, third, a long roll. Direction N.W. — S.E. 
It was distinctly lelt as if in a swing going dead slow. It awoke him, 
but he did not get out of bed. The house shook and the rafters creaked. 
No sounds. 

Kohat. — Lieutenant C. Reed, R.A. One principal shock followed by 
trem. vibrations for 2 minutes. It woke him. No sound, etc. 

Kohat. — Major H. A. Magrath, 51st Sikhs. He was indoors lying 
down. Time 6-15 by watch proved 5 minutes fast by gun time. There 
were prolonged trem. vibrations, which after 2 minutes reached their 
maximum and then died away. Duration about 4 minutes. No definite 
shocks felt. Direction N.W. —S.E. by bird cage. It was slightly felt. 
No sound. 

Warshand.— Amin Chand, Village Postmaster. He was sitting out- 
side. There were 3 shocks, very weak, and with 1 seccnd intervals. 
Direction E.— W. by his feelings. Articles trembled slightly. As he 
sat he was much moved as to his upper part as if nodding in sleep. 
No sound. 

Zacfo.— Postmaster. It was not felt by him. A few others felt it. 
Duration 4 to 5 seconds. 

Sadda. — Ali Akbar Shah, Postman. He was indoors and lying 
down. The shock was felt once. 

Thull.— -Telegraph Master. The shock was not felt. 

Q2 



228 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE, 



Mianwaii District. 

iatt mbte).~Mt. C. H. J. Orchard, Superintendent. A 

severe shock of 1 minute's duration. The waters of the Indus were 

distil I ran up (he banks. In the mines (which are really open 

as do damage except earth falling. 

B. Balsarap. Three distinct shocks of 3 minutes' dura- 

No sound noted. It was a severer shock than 

■jury. 

Multan District, 

Mwto*.— ($ee p. 182.) 

r (16 miles N.E.of Multan).— -Mr, C. S. Faddy, Executive 
Engineer, Multan Canals. There were 2 principal shocks with trein. 
vibrations between and after the second, the whole lasting 1 \ seconds. 
Direction N.W.— S.E. The intensity was great. The sling chains of 

ce camp doors rattled, etc. Table oscillated. One .large fissure in 
the house. No sound, 

Bannu District. 

Bannu.— Capt. E. Kirkpatrick, 59th Scinde Rifles. He was indoors 
in an upper storey. Time between 6-30 and 7. There were, first, small 
tremors, second, larger tremors, third, small tremors again, the whole 
lasting for 1 minute. Direction E.~- W. by bottles hung on nails. No 
sound. Slightly felt. 

Bannu. - -Mrs. E. F. Pennell. She was indoors sitting. Time (3-25 a.m. 
Simple vibrations, somewhat distinctly felt. Direction W.— E. by 
water in bathing tank, and N.—S. by chain hanging, 

Bmnu.— Mr. E. M. Prescott, Telegraph Master. Felt by him about 
6-15 a.m., but not noticed by the majority of people. 

Boya.— Girdhari Lai Two principal shocks. No damage, etc. A 
small sound between the shocks. 

Datta Khel (Tochi Valley) — Rata Ram, Sub-Postmaster. Several 
shocks. Direction E.— -W. No sound, no damage, etc 

MiransJtah.— Sheikh Allah Buksh. Two slight shocks Direction 
E.— W. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 229 

Miranshah. — One big continuous tremble, People woke up from 
shaking beds. No sound. 

Idah.— Daulat Ram, Postmaster.' Three shocks at intervals of 1 
rainute. Direction S. — W. {sic). Very slight. No damage, 

KhajuH. — Ram Singh, Branch Postmaster. Three shocks. 
Charpoy moved to and fro N.W. — S.E. Duration 4 minutes. Dis- 
[y felt. Articles and telegraph instruments seemed moving. No 
damage, etc. Sound like light- phaeton passing. 

Dera Ismail Khan District. 
Bund Kami. — Mr. E. S. Bellasis, Superintending Engineer, Punjab 
Irrigation. He was in a tent in bed Time 6-15 about. Distinctly 
felt, bed shook for 5 to 10 sees. 

Darahan. — Sukh Dial, Postmaster. He was lying down. Time 
between 6-25 and 6-30 a.m. There were, first. 4 trem. vibrations, 
second, 2 principal shocks of 2 minutes' duration, third, trem. vibrations 
for i minutes. Charpoy moved E.— -W. and towards the N. No 
sound. 

Damzanda. — Amar Nath, Sub -Postmaster. Indoors sitting. Time 
6-7 by office watch. Four shocks,, the first severe lasting I minutes, the 
others J minute each. The third was a small one, but lasting about 3 
minutes. Direction W. — E. hy clothes on pegs. No sound. 

Dcra Ismail Khan. — Palamal, Telegraph Master. Indoors sitting. 
Time 6-15 A.M. by office clock. First, a rattling of doors, second, 
several shoks lasting; over 1 minute. Direction E. — W. Distinctly 
felt. No damu 

Kotla Lodian.—K. B. Sher Muhammad, Assistant Engineer. He 
Bitting in the verandah. One shock lasting 3 or 4 minutes. 
Distinctly felt. No damage, etc. No sound. 

Kidachi.-— Bhagat Sudainan, 2nd Master, D. B. School. Two shocks 
with 'interval, No damage, etc. 

k.~- Ghulam Hussain, R< ignailer. Indoors lying down. 

light shocks in 3 minutes. Duration, a few seconds each. No 
damage. No boi 



230 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Wano.-— The Political Agent. Time about 6-0 a.m. Slight. 
NilikucL — Postmaster. Not felt. 

Dera Ghazi Khan District. 

Kharr {near Fort Munro, Suleiman Range). — Mr. H. S. Cassen, 
Deputy Commissioner, Dera Ghazi Khan. He felt nothing personally, 
but the earthquake was said to have been felt in the Suleiman Range 
and at Harrand, 40 miles S. of Fort Munro. There were cracks in the 
military post (badly built) in the centre of the Suleiman Range. It 
was hardly felt. 

Taunsa. — Gulam Nabi, Sub-Postmaster. Indoors sitting. Time 
6-10 (guessed). One shock lasting half a minute. Slight. No damage. 

Dera Ghazi Khan. — Mr. D. M. Stewart, Assistant Engineer P. W. 
D. Indoors lying down. A continuous vibration for 2 minutes. 
Direction N. — S. by doors. No damage. No sound. 

Lyallpur District. 

Bachranwala Canal Inspection House. — Mr. W. H. Mills, Executive 
Engineer, Lower Chenab Canal. He wa3 in a tent. What seemed 
like a high wind woke him, doors and window purdahs flapped. 
His bed rolled E. — W. It was lying N. — S. No damage to buildings 
at Bachranwala. 

Chiniot Road. — Karm Narain Kapur, Sub-Postmaster. Direction 
N. — S. by doors. 

Kanya Canal Rest House. — Bhagwati Prasada Varma, C.E. Time 
6-14 a.m. by watch compared with railway time at Lyallpur on 8th 
April. Prelim, tremor not noticed. Two shocks at intervals of a few 
seconds, the second shock the more intense and lasted longer than the 
first. Trem. vibrations after for \ minute. Direction E. — W. and 2 
minutes' duration. Others say the direction was N.E.— S.W. He 
thought it was a dog under the bed. Tables, doors, etc., shook. Pictures 
on walls oscillated N. — S. No cracks, etc. Two almirahs hanging on pegs 
in W. wall w r ere tnrown down. His clerk sitting in the fields facing 
W. noticed the wheat about 4 feet high being bent down as if by 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 23l 

an invisible roller. There was no wind at the time. There was a light 
rumbling sound, faintly distinct like the rustling of trees during the 
shock. 

Khiderivala — Mohamed Nosib, Canal Signaller, Lower Chenab Canal. 
A few trem. vibrations followed by 3 shocks. Direction N. W, — S.E. 
It was distinctly felt. No cracks in any building. No sound. 

Khikhi (caned building). — Raghbir Singh, Deputy Collector. Two 
distinct shocks. No damage, no sound. 

Lyallpur City. — Mr. P. A. Hindley, Assistant Engineer, P. W. D. 
Irrigation Branch. Trem. vibrations for about 30 seconds, followed by 
2 distinct vibrations of greater magnitude in opposite directions of 4 
seconds duration each. Trem. vibrations for about 30 seconds. Direc- 
tion N.E. — S.W. and then back again. It was distinctly felt. Doors 
and windows rattled, clothes on pegs swung. Water in bath nearly 
slopped out. He was nearly shaken of! the side of the bed. No cracks, 
etc. Probably a rumbling sound. 

Lyallpur. — F. W. Carne, Executive Engineer, P. W. D., Irrigation 
Branch, Lower Chenab Canal. Direction N.E. — S.W. The undula- 
tions were very distinctly felt. Bed rocked. He went outside on hear- 
ing something fall. Duration 1 minute. He leant on S.W. wall and 
distinctly felt its rocking movement. Nothing overturned, etc. No 
cracks except in the house of the Deputy Superintendent of Police. No 
damage in the city. No sound. 

Tarkham. — Mr. H. Banerjee. No prelim, tremors noticed. Six 

shocks, the third being the most intense and altogether lasting 3 minutes. 

•No vibrations after. Direction 230° 30' by hanging lamp. Distinctly 

felt, nothing overturned, no cracks, water agitated. Deep growling 

sound heard by some. 

Ugbana. — Mr. W. F. Smith, Chenab Canal. Time 6-5 a.m. by watc h 
set by railway time at Lyallpur on the 2nd April. One shock lasting 
about 40 seconds. Direction E.— W. by water in bath. Distinctly ielt. 
Bed shook violently. His bearer almost fell down. Doors rattled, 
cooking pots on shelves were precipitated to the ground. He went out 
of the house. No cracks in buildings. A slight rumbling sound about 
5 seconds after he felt the shock and it lasted for '0 to 15 seconds. 



232 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Bikaner State. 

Bikaner City.— Diwan Chand, Compounder and Meteorological Obser- 
ver. Time 6-14 by watch compared with railway station clock (noted 
in note-book on the day of the earthquake). He was indoors sitting. 
Two shocks from N. — S. and vice versa after an interval of a few seconds. 
It was distinctly felt. 

fykaner City,— Mr. A. W. S. Standley, Executive Engineer. He 
was indoors lying down at first in upper storey 21 feet above ground. 
He got up and walked into the next room, then the movement ceased. 
The shock was a continuous vibration lasting 1| minutes. Direction 
E — W. or W. — E. The greatest movement at 21 feet above ground was 
i inch, i.e., i inch each way. Tiles rattled in E. and W. verandahs. 
No sound. Nothing overturned or damaged. 

Ratangarh. — Officiating Sub -Postmaster. Indoors sitting. " Con 
tinual shocking about 3 minutes. No intensitive shock but slow." 
Lamps and almirahs moving slowly. Sound like grinding stone. 

Sardanshahr. —Postmsistev. Time 6-13 to 6-16 by clock in Telegraph 
Office. One shock was felt. There was a thundering sound. Office 
and window doors were quaking, tables and chairs felt moving. No 



Sujangark — Gograjmal, Postmaster. At first indoors, afterwards 
outside. One shock for about 5 minutes. Distinctly felt. Trem. vibra- 
tion for about 2 minutes afterwards. Direction W. — E. No sound. 

Jaipur District. 

Bissau. — Ramehandra Dhuinsory, Postmaster. One prelim, vibra- 
tion, 3 minutes' shock. Distinctly felt. Direction N.—S. Only a 
thrilling sound. 

Chirawa. — Pundit Shirshanke Dube, Postmaster. One principal 
shock lasting 10 seconds and another lighter than the first. Total 
duration 2 minutes. Direction N.W.— S.E. The first shock was like 
a running train at full speed for 3 or 4 seconds, this was followed by a 
continued trembling for 5 seconds more. Then the other shock came 
lighter than the first. Water in cooking pots moved S.E. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 233 

Fatehpur — Sridat, Postmaster. Time 6-10 a.m. by office clock 
stopped. The shocks continued for 5 minutes. Office walls, tables, 
chairs and stools, etc., all moving. Direction from S. distinctly. Sound 
like " stone mill from the window shackles of my telegraph office." No 
damage. He and the signaller and clerks ran away and stood outside 
the office. 

Jaipur. — Mr. A. H. Oarton, Telegraph Master. Time 6-25 a.m., 
Madras time, clock checked daily from Madras. There was first a sound 
like a rushing wind from the S. (no wind outside), next 3 principal 
shocks, the third being very slight. Distinctly felt. Duration 15 seconds 
and with 15 seconds interval. Direction W. — E. by door which opened 
slightly. No damage. 

Jaipur. — Nathu Narain, second observer. Time 6-15, Madras time 
[10 minutes difference between this estimate and the last]. It was noticed 
indoors, upstairs, but not out of doors. No damage to buildings, but in 
the registration of the anemograph the pencil appeared to have risen 
slightly and marked a straight line over previous registration. 

Jhunjhnu. — Krishnarao, Postmaster. Time 5-55 by telegraph 
olock keeping Madras time. One shock, 5 minutes duration. Direction 
N. — S. There was a sound during the shocks. Distinctly felt. Rather 
severe. Three houses in the city were damaged. 

Khotri. — Amir Baksh, Officiating Signaller. Shocks lasted about 3 
minutes. Direction W. — E. by hanging lamps. Sound a small roaring 
sound like wind. All things in the office shivered. Telegraph instru- 
ments made a slight noise. Water in tank and bath tubs shook as if 
someone had thrown stones into it. 

Kotputli. — Bankey Lai, Signaller. Time 6-11 by telegraph clock. 
Two shocks. Iron chains of door and parcel scale moved. Sound like 
thunder at the beginning of the shock. Tower neai tank outside town 
broken 

Lachmangarh. — Harman Singh, Postmaster. About 4 or 5 distinct 
shocks. No damage. 

Mandawar. — Narayan Krishna Chiney, Postmaster. Two shocks 
like a train departing from a railway station. Doors and windows 



234 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

rattled in the same way. No sound. Slight damage to a fort called 
Gadh 

Nawalgarh — Gopal Panchuram, Postmaster. A continuous shock 
or shocks for 6 minutes. Direction N. — S. Distinctly felt. Sound like 
a " blow of wind of low degree." Trees and buildings all were moving. 
Wall of building rent and fallen down. 

Ramgarh. — Gulab Rai Varma, Postmaster. Time 6-8 a.m. to 6-10, 
clock daily compared with Ajmer clock. Two shocks,- the first being 
severe. Direction S.E. — N.W. A very loud sound " felt " about 
10 seconds betore first shock. Very distinctly felt. He thought it was 
a passing carriage at first. Tables, scales, doors and chairs were trem- 
bling. All in the office left work and began worshipping as it seemed 
that the whole building would collapse. They were too frightened to 
go out. It was the severest shock ever felt by any of them. No damage. 

Sikar. — Sub -Postmaster. One shock distinctly felt. No sound. 

Surajgarh. — Pannalal Sharmah, Sub-Postmaster. One shock for 5 
minutes The bed trembled. No sound noticed. A mud wall 15 feet 
by 5 feet by 1 foot fell towards W. 

Alwar District. 

Alwar. — Captain Garrett, R.E. Indoors lying down in an upper 
storey. Distinctly felt as a series of vibrations for a minute or more. 
2 or 3 finials on the City Palace fell in an E. or S.E. direction. Cracks 
only insignificant. No sound. 

KisJiengarh. — Lala Nand Kishore, Naib-Tehsildar. In the open 
air standing. One shock of 2 minutes' duration and with trem. vibra- 
tions for 1 minute afterwards. Direction W. — E. Hardly felt. A loud 
noise before the shock and peacocks were crying. 

Jhana Ghazi. — Ahmad Said Khan, Hospital Assistant. Three 
shocks of 4 or 5 minutes duration. His cot moved, doors made a noise, 
No sound. 

From the towns of Bahror, Mandawar, Kathumbar, Gobindgarh, 
Lachmangarh, Ramgarh similar brief reports have been received indi- 
cating a shock or shocks during varying periods and with no sound. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 235 

From Rajgarh came the statement that the noise was like a gun afar 

off. 

Gurgaon District. 

Palwal — Karam Chand, Sub-Postmaster. Two shocks. Some build- 
ings in the city got damaged. Some people got up and out into the air, 
hanging lamps, chains, walls and couches moved. No sound. 

Bharatpur State. 

Bharatpur.—Rev. J. M. Paterson, M.A., C.M.S. He was indoors 
lying down in an upper storey at the first shock. Half an hour later at 
the second shock he was sitting. At the first shock houses swayed a 
good deal for 3 minutes. Direction N.W.— S.E. Doors and windows 
rattled and in 15 to 20 minutes the houses began to sway. A sensation 
of giddiness was produced. Damage done was a crack in arch of S.E. 
room, extension of cracks in chimney, plaster of walls cracked in 
corners and round beams. 

Bharatpur.— Mi. J. A. Solomon, Hospital Assissant. Time 6-10 by a 
clock which is always compared with telegraph office clock. Four 
trem. vibrations before the first shock. Vibrations after the principal 
shocks felt for 30 seconds. Direction E.— W. Sound like railway train 
before the 1st shock. Water in moat of fort disturbed for an hour or 
so after the shock. Hanging lamps and earthen pots disturbed for 
some time. 

Bharatpur.— Shiam Lai, Overseer, P c W. D. He was indoors stand- 
ing. Time, at 6-10 a.m. railway time. He felt a shock, after 20 seconds a 
severe shock when buildings began to shake. Duration of this 30 
seconds. Then, after ? seconds' interval, another severe shock lasting 4 
minutes decreasing in force gradually to the end. All were within 5 
minutes. Direction N. — S. by hanging rope. No sound. 

j)lq % — Bhagwalpershad, Signaller. Indoors sitting. Three distinct 

shocks as follows : 6 to 6-1 slight, 6-1 to 6-2 stronger, and 6-2 to 6-4 

slight. 

Muttra District. 

Brindaban. — Badir Prasad, Sub -Postmaster. One shock, duration 3 

minutes. Distinctly felt. Punkah was moving N.— S. No sound. 



236 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Gokal. — Syed Taj Ammul Husain. One principal shock W. — E. 
Distinctly felt but caused no damage. 

Kosi. — Pandit Ram Krishna Rao, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-20 a.m. 
by time- piece compared with office clock keeping Madras time. Dura- 
tion 15 minutes (sic). Direction S.E. — N.W., later E. — W. It was 
distinctly felt. Everything in the office and house in a shaking condi- 
tion but nothing fell. There was a rumour that some houses fell in 
the city. 

Muttra City. — Lukhpat Ray, Overseer. Time 6-10 a.m. by watch 
corrected 3 or 4 days before with railway time. There were, first, trem. 
vibrations, then 1 shock and later trem. vibrations lasting 8 seconds 
nearly. No sound. The seat shook. He thought it was a dog 
underneath. A Nim tree was shaking. 

Aligarh District. 

Aligarh. — Radhamohan Lai, Postmaster. Office clock stopped at 
6-12. One shock, not severe. Duration 1 minut. Directione E. — W. 
Chair and table were " shocking," lamp trembling, water in tub shaking. 
Beds of children were " shocking." No damage. 

Aligarh. — Ambuj Nath Mukerji, Apprentice. Engineer. First, a 
rocking movement, second, 10 or 15 principal shocks with intervals of 
1 — 1 J seconds. Direction E. — W. No damage, no sound. It produced 
dizziness. Punkah frame, walls, doors and windows vibrated. 

Hathras. — Ducan Lai, Sub -Postmaster. 6-17 a.m. by office clock 
stopped. Three distinct shocks during 32 seconds. Direction N. — S. 
No sounds. 

Sakandra Rao. — Badri Prasada, Sub -Postmaster. Two shocks were 
ielt. 

Agra District. 

Agra. — Chimonlall. Time 6-16 a.m. by telegraph watch. One shock 
distinctly felt. Duration \ minute and 2 others not distinct. Direc- 
tion W. — E. All the buildings were seen to shake. 

Agra. — Lukshmi Ram Pandya, Observer. Time as above by watch 
compared with gun fire. Two shocks distinctly felt. Dutation \ 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 237 

minute. Direction N.W. — S.E. by articles hanging on pegs. No sound. 
No buildings destroyed, nor chimney fell. A few cracks in arches. 
Spire of St. Paul's Church shifted on base at a height of 8 feet from the 
top. All pendulum clocks stopped. 

Dholpur. — Mato Pershad, Sub -Postmaster. One shock, the door was 
once shaken. 

Kalpi. — Postmaster. One shock slight lasting 55 seconds. 

Kotla {near Ferozabad, E. I. R.).— Mr. F. E. Place. Two shocks. 
Lamps and punkahs swung 5 inches W. — E. 

Etah District. 
Etah. — Jagat Narain, Supervisor, District Surveys. Time 6-12 a.m. 
by clock compared with Telegraph Office and gun fire. He was indoors 
standing. The shock was distinctly felt. Hanging lamp 3 feet 5 inches 
from point of suspension oscillated nearly 9 inches. 

Mainpuri District. 

Mainpuri. — Bhagut Singh. Indoors standing. Three shocks dis- 
tinctly felt with 20 seconds intervals. Direction N. — S. No sound. 

Maiwpuri. — Pandit Benaprosad, Sub-Overseer, P. W. D. Indoors 
sitting. Time 6-15 a.m. by clock corrected 2 days before with Telegraph 
Office clock. One light shock lasting 2 to 3 seconds. Direction W. — E. 
Closed doors made a noise, bed moved very slowly. 

Shaikohabad.— Murli Dhar, Sub-Overseer, P. W. D. Time 6-12 to 
6-14 by watch compared with East Indian Railway time. Three vibra- 
tions S. — N., the first movement lasting 40 seconds, the second shock 15 
seconds, and the third movement being instantaneous. Doors "chat- 
tered," bottles on shelf moved at their tops. Brass-ware in basket had 
a slight motion. 

Farukhabad District. 

Fatehgarh. — B. Chhaj ju Singh, Postmaster. Three shocks at intervals 
of 2 or 3 seconds. Duration 20 seconds. He felt dizzy and saw table 
and chair shaking. Other observers describe it as a severe shock with 
continuous vibrations for 30 seconds or as 4 or 5 uniform shocks lasting 
2 minutes. Do rs rattled, roof creaked. No damage. 



238 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Farukhabad. — M. Ram Lai. Four shocks of uniform force. Bench 
trees, room shutters trembled. No sound. 

Tripaulia Muhalla. — P. Badri Narayan Misa, Deputy Inspector of 
Schools. Trem. vibrations distinctly felt for 2 minutes. Direction 
N. — S. Doors and chains clanked. Trees quaked and walls waved. 

Hardoi District. 

Hardoi. — Postmaster. One shock 1 minute's duration. Punkah 
moved E. — W. for about a minute. 

Shahabad. — Officiating Signaller. Five principal snocks each lasting 
minute, each accompanied by 3 shocks lasting 20 seconds each. 
Direction E. — W. The shock was distinctly felt for 5 minutes.. 

Sitapur District. 

Sitapur. — Mr. W. B. Partridge, Deputy Commissioner. Two very 
light shocks felt at an interval of 4 or 5 seconds. No sound, nothing 
fell. Bed shook (he thought it was an animal underneath at first). 
A box balanced on a pile of newspapers did not fall. 

Sitapur. — Mr. J. Sykes, District Surveyor, P. W. D. One continuous 
series of vibrations lasting about 30 seconds. Also Mr. A. Chunderkunar, 
Post and Telegraph Master, gives the time as 6-13 a.m. by office clock 
regulated daily at 4 p.m. There were 2 distinct shocks lasting for about 
2 minutes. A pile of books fell to W. Mr. W. F. Martin, D. S. P., 
also describes 1 shock lasting 10 to 15 seconds with rumbling sounds. 
He first thought it was a dog under the bed. 

Sultanpur — Mr. R. F. Young, District Superintendent of Police. 
Three shocks at close intervals. No trem. vibrations distinctly noticed. 
Duration of each shock 10 to 15 seconds. Direction N. — S. by 
punkahs. No sound noticed. [N. B. — The punkah which swung was 
hanging E.— W. Others at right angles did not swing but the ropes 
vibrated.] 

Bahraich District. 

Bahraich.— Syad Zahur Ahmad, District Surveyor, P W. D. He was 
indoors ritting at the first shock, afterwards on roof of house. Time 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 239 

6-15 a.m. by watch and clock keeping telegraph time. Two shocks 
Direction E. — W. by hanging lamps and bath tubs. Doors, bolts, chain, 
trees and lamps "shocked." Other observers in this town simply 
describe the shock as slight. 

Nanpara. — Tulsi Ram, Sub-Postmaster. One principal shock dis- 
tinctly felt which lasted for some three minutes. Direction from 
"N.W. side " judging by loose objects hanging indoors. No sound. 

No damage. 

GROUP 6. 

Jaisalmer District. 
Jaisalmer — Lala Bag Nath Nazim. Six slight shocks, N. — S. Dis- 
tinctly felt, bed moved. No sound, no damage. 

Jodhpur, or Marwar, District. 

Banner. — Munshi Ahsanali, Postmaster. Three shocks, the first 
and third intense. Duration 5 minutes altogether. Direction N. — S. 
No sound. 

Banner. — Kunwar Hem Singh, District Officer and Magistrate. One 
shock and continuous trem. motion for 5 seconds. Punkah moved a little. 
Sound a deep thundering just before the shock. 

Vidwana Salt source. — Mr. A. E. Cline, Assistant Commissioner 
collected the information. He himself did not feel it. Several people 
sitting or standing were rocked to and fro. Three distinct shocks within 
3 minutes. Distinctly felt. Loose bolts in doors rattled. Direction 
N. — S. Of two eight-day clocks facing S. and E., respectively, the one 
facing S. stopped, the other was not affected (the pendulum would be 
stopped by a N. — S. movement). A dull rumbling noise just before the 
earthquake. Weevil-eaten rafters 5 feet by 3 feet snapped and fell 
through ceiling cloth. Arches over doorways were affected (cracked), 
those facing E. — W. more than those facing N. — S. 

Jodhpur. — Capt. S. H. Jacob, Assistant Resident, W. Rajputana 
States. Time 6-5 by a reliable watch set by railway time a day or two 
before. A trem vibration which awoke observer. Bolts rattled, 
windows rattled and bed shook. Punkah oscillated due N. — S. Three 



240 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

or 4 inches. It was 10 feet long and the suspending rope about 6 feet. 
No alarm. No sound. 

Jodhpur. — Pandit Narbada Prasad Bbarqava, Meteorological 
Observer. Time 6-14 a.m. by watch compared with railway clock, 
correct. One shock felt. Doors shook and also window panes and an 
almirah for 2 minutes with an up-and-down movement and also a lateral 
one (N. — S ). A rumbling noise during the main shock. No disturbance 
in the trace of the barograph and thermograph. 

Pachbadra. — Mr. C. H. Holford, Assistant Commissioner, N. I. Salt 
Revenue. He was indoors sitting. Two gentle oscillations each lasting 
about 20 or 30 seconds with short intervals between. Direction E. — W, 
No sounds. Distinctly felt. Braces hanging from pegs swayed. 

Pokaran. — Rorhan Lai Udawat, Hospital Assistant. Indoors lying 
down in bed. Two shocks, the 2nd being the more intense with an in- 
terval of 2 seconds or so. Distinctly felt as something (e.g., cats) under 
the bed. Tables and bottles in the dispensary shaking, but nothing 
upset. 

Sambhar. — Mr. W. Lyon, Assistant Commissioner, Salt Revenue. 
Indoors sitting. Time about 6-10 by railway time. Two distinct shocks, 
the first having a duration of about 1 minute. It was noticed by 
rattling of doors. The 2nd about 10 minutes afterwards and lasted a 
few seconds. No sounds. 

Sajat. — Pandit Hazarilal Sharma, Head Master. Indoors lying down. 
Two distinct shocks, first duration 2 minutes, interval 3 minutes, 
second, 2 seconds. 

Sirohi District. 

Mount Abu. — M. M. Talati, Meteorological Observer. Indoors lying 
down. 6-50 a.m., Madras time, by clock not compared. No shock was 
felt by observer, only a rumbling sound from W. — E. lasting a few 
seconds. On the same date at 6-17 and at 10-21 a.m. there were 
similar rumblings. Dogs barked at the sound. [There is a note added 
by the Superintendent to the effect that he doubts the strict accuracy 
of the above because earthquakes are of such common occurrence there 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 241 

that no particular notice was taken of this one — nevertheless see next 
form which confirms the above.] 

Mount ^6?*.— Captain P. P. Kilkelly, I.M.S., Civil Surgeon. He 
was indoors lying down at first, afterwards standing up. Three shocks 
about 6 a.m. distinctly felt with 40 to 50 seconds interval. Direction 
S.W. — N.E. judging by the sound. The shocks were accompanied by 
a noise like a train or distant thunder, so that he got out of bed to see 
if a thunder storm was approaching. This observer also mentions 
the aftershock at about 10-15 a,m. which was most severe, the room 
shook, articles rattled and he was about to leave the room when it 
ceased. 

Ajmer-Merwara District. 

Ajmer. — Ram Pershad, Meteorological Observer. Time 5-53 local 
standard time — 6-15 Madras time. Two main shocks, each 1 to 2 
seconds and with 2 or 3 seconds interval. He first noticed cot in 
verandah moving slightly. Next, objects on table rattling and vibrating 
and then falling, the direction of fall being E. — W. taken from a 
glass phial 3 inches long which fell. [With reference to this statement 
Major W. R. Wortbest, I.M.8., Superintendent, Meteorological Obser- 
vatory, adds a note saying that he does not credit it.] No sound. No 
damage. 

Ajmer.— Pandit Brij Jiwan Lai Sarma, B.A., Tehsildar. Time 6-17 
a.m. He was indoors sitting in second story. One shock of 2 minutes' 
duration. He first thought it was something wrong with his head and 
so lay down on the ground. His body still moved E. — W. No damage. 
No sound. 

Ajmer.— Rai Bahadur Pandit Sham Nath, Executive Engineer. He 
was sitting on a chair in upper verandah. No distinct shocks but a 
continuous shivering. Trembling of closed doors and windows. Noth- 
ing damaged, etc. 

Ajmer.— Major W. R. Wortbest, I.M.S., Superintendent, Meteoro- 
logical Observatory. Two main shocks, distinctly felt, which woke him 
up. Felt by most people in Ajmer. 



L >42 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Beaivar. — Isban Tosh Mittra, Assistant Surgeon. He was roused 
from sleep by a rumbling sound, which he recognised at once as an 
earthquake. He got up and was leaving the room when it stopped. 
His bed quivered, window shook terribly. It continued for 4 or 5 
seconds with no distinct shocks No damage. 

Deoli. — Captain C. E. Tristram, 42nd Deoli Regiment. He was 
lying down in bed in upstairs room. Trem. vibrations for 90 
seconds, A bamboo teapoy and candlestick on it quivered perceptibly 
No sound. The door facing E. — W. has now lost its set and so scrapes 
the ground when closing. 

Kishengarh State. 

Kishengarh. — Mehta Daulutsingh Diwanji Mohulla. One shock E. — 
W. Bedstead was noticed to be shaking, also observer's body, etc. No 
sound. No damage. 

Tonk District. 

Tonh. — Captain A. B. Drummond, Political Agent. He was indoors 
lying down. Time 6-25 a.m., Madras time (watch compared on 5th 
instant with railway time at Jaipur station). [The time given is pro- 
bably a mistake for 6-15.] There were a series of sharp vibrations 
sufficient to rouse one from sleep. Duration 20 to 25 seconds gradually 
ceasing. Water in tumbler vibrated. A very distinct rumbling sound 
during the shock. 

Mewar District. 

Shahpura. — Poundarik Pandit Chatra Datt. Six or 7 shocks Direc- 
tion W. — E. by hanging lamps. 
Udaipur. — Not felt. 

Karauli State. 

Karauli.— Pandit Raghunath Prasad. Slight shocks lasting only a 
few seconds. No trem. vibrations. Hardly felt. No damage. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 243 

Kotah District. 

Baran. — G. C. Jagtap, Postal Signaller. Two shocks at intervals of 
2 seconds. Locke of boxes moved, also chair. No sound. Only felt 
by a few. 

Bundi.— Generally observed by those lying down. One shock, very 
slight, lasting a few seconds. Hardly felt. No sound. No damage. 

Kotah. — Major A. D.Banneiman, C.I.E., Political Agent. One siight 
vibration lasting nearly 1 minute. Direction. S.W. — N.E. Only felt by 
a few. Iron bedstead shook. Few loose stones on parapet of city wall 
fell. No sound. 

Kotah Cantonment. — Major P. J. Lumsden, I.M.S. One shock con- 
sisting of trem. vibrations for about J minute. Direction W. — E. 
Panes of glass rattled. Distinctly felt. He thought it was some dog 
scratching himself under the bed. 

Jhalawar State. 
Jhalrapatan. — Manna Lai, Rajput. Three distinct shocks. Water in 
well bubbled, turned muddy and burst into foam. Duration 3 or & 
minutes No sound. 

Etawah District. 

Etawah.—Mv. A. Cairncross, Sub-Conductor, District Surveyor. Time 
6-9 by watch often compared with railway time. The shock was not 
felt by himself, but by his wife who recognised the character of the 
shock. Bed swayed. Doors rattled. No loose objects fell. No sound. 
It was also felt by the servant. 

Etawah. — Mr. G. H. Kitching, Station Master, East Indian Railway. 
Time 6-13 to 6-15 a.m. He was standing on the platform at the- time 
and noticed the time from the station clock. One shock. Roof of 
corrugated iron sounded as if a man were running with haste along it. 
Direction W. — E. by the swinging of platform lamps. Nothing over- 
turned. No cracks. No sound except that of door and roof. 

Jalaun District. 
Kadaura. — Mum Taz Hosain, Sub-Postmaster. He was indoors 
sitting. A sensation of movement from N. — S. Two shocks at an 

r2 



244 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

interval of 2 seconds. No sound. Time G-30 compared with Cawn- 
pore. 

Kalyi (Orai). — Azmat Ali, Postmaster. One shock, duration 55 
seconds. Corrugated iron roof of ginning factory in a rattling state. 
Water in reservoir shaking from E. — W. Most people could not feel the 
shock. No sound heard. 

Kiinch. — Shivkam Pandya, Sub-Postmaster and Signaller. He was 
sitting indoors. Three distinct shocks N.W. — S.E. Distinctly felt. 
Chains of doors shook and utensils in a basket struck each other. 

Orai. — Mr. E. F. Hilton, District Surveyor, P. W. D. He was indoors 
lying down. One trem. movement, no separate shocks, 30 seconds' dura- 
tion. Direction N.E. — S.W. Doors swung and rattled gently. Cracks 
in residence of Special Judge of Orai. No sound. 

Machli Shahr. — Abdul Basir, Sub-Postmaster. One shock lasting 
few seconds. "Not hardly felt. 1 ' 

Mungra Badshahpur. — Lala Satnarain Lai, Sub -Postmaster. He 
was standing indoors. One shock slightly felt N. — S. His feet trembled 
as if he were about to fall. Hasps of doors rattled slightly. Water at 
Laloo's tank shook N. — S. Clothes swung from pegs. 

Cawnpore District. 

Caivnpore. — Mr. A. D'Moriar, Deputy Telegraph Master. Time 6-15 
a.m. There was first a slight to-and-fro movement for 1 minute, second 
2 prominent shocks at 2 and 3 seconds' interval, the first being of greater 
intensity. No trem. vibrations noticed afterwards. Direction W. — E. 
apparently. 

Cawnpore. — Radha Krishna, Agency Clerk, Government Telegraph 
Office. Indoors sitting in third story of the house. Time 6-15 a.m. by 
clock now and then compared with gun time. Shocks strong at first 
and distinctly felt and afterwards dying down. Lasted about 3 minutes 
in all. Direction W.—E. Faint rumbling sound during the shock. 
House shook slightly, things rattled and fell (a clock fell). Coats and 
clothes swung from pegs. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 245 

Unao District. 

Unao. — Postmaster. Duration about 1 minute. Furniture shook, 
room had a circular motion. 

Unao. — Pandit Basheshar Nath, Supervisor, District Surveys and 
P. W. D. Time 6-15 a.m. by watch corrected with railway time. One 
shock E.— W. Hardly felt. No damage. 

Lucknow District. 

Lucknow. — Rev. R. M. Kirwan, Garrison Chaplain, Dilkusha. Time 
6-15 a.m. by watch correct with Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway station. 
Two principal shocks of equal intensity from E. — W. with interval of 15 
seconds foflowed by a third from N. — S. of lesser intensity after the 
same interval. No sound, but the rustling of trees simultaneous with 
the shocks. The shock was very distinctly felt. His bed appeared to 
be rolling, also the house. Plates and dishes rattled, but nothing 
overturned. No cracks in buildings. Hanging lamp swung violently 
E. — W. One man in barracks told the observer that he saw the shock 
coming in the form of a wave from over a hundred yards. 

Lucknow. — Ram Dayal, Sub -Postmaster. He was indoors standing. 
He first felt some " round movement," then felt failing down towards 
the N., then stood tightly and again felt falling. Chair shook N.— S. 
He ran out of the house. " Round movement " and shocks all felt about 
2 minutes only. No sound. 

Lucknow. — Mr. J. F. Jackson, Traffic Sub-Assistant Superintendent. 
He was indoors sitting. Time 6-15 to 6-16 Madras time. First 2 trem. 
vibrations, second 2 shocks with 2 seconds' interval, the first being 
weaker than the second, but both feeble. Direction N.W. — S.E. He 
was sitting with his back to the W. and the second 3hock lifted him 
forward and the point of his pencil broke. No sounds. 

Sitapur.— Head Signaller. Two shocks lasting 2 minutes. Twenty 
large ledger books fell down at the first shock. 

Bara Banki District. 
Bara Banki. — Postmaster. Indoors sitting. Four or five shocks dis- 
tinctly felt. Direction N.— S. 



L >4(i MIDDLK.MISS: KANORA EARTHQUAKE. 

Gonda District. 

Gonda. — Kali Charan, Postmaster. He was indoors sitting. A slight 

shock for 3 or 4 minutes. He felt his body shaking and thought it might 

be his state of health. But others felt it. Windows and doors shook. 

No damage. 

Hamirpur District. 

Hamirpur — Mr. H. E. Miller, District Surveyor, P. W. D. He was 
indoors lying in bed. A series of trem. vibrations of a somewhat severe 
nature. Very distinctly felt. Punkah rocked visibly S.E. — N.W. Vibra- 
tion lasted about 30 seconds. A low rumbling sound as of distant 
thunder. 

Fatehpur District. 

Fatehpur — Rev. C. H. Mattison, A. P. Mission. First trem. vibra- 
tions very distinctly felt. Then 3 distinct bumps like a dog under the 
bed, the second being the heaviest. Doors and windows rattled, walls 
and punkahs swayed. Centre wall of mud, 20 feet high and 3 feet thick 
lying N.E.— S.W., was cracked vertically. 

Fatehpur. — Mr. A. C. Walker, I.C.S. Two distinct series of shocks, 
the first being the more intense, and minor subsequent vibrations. Chain 
vibrated N. — S. Giddiness produced. Doors standing open shook 
2 inches or so. Old cracks in walls reopened. 

Rae Bareli District. 
Roe Bareli. — Postmaster. One slight shock for 5 to 6 minutes- 

Direction W.— E. 

Fyzabad District. 

Fyzabad. — Rev. J. F. W. Gompertz, Chaplain. Time 6-134 to 
G-15 by watch constantly compared with railway time and an excel- 
lent time-keeper. First door of bedroom rattled and woke him, second 
beds shook and knocked against each other. The shock lasted roughly 
1 \ minutes. A slight rumbling sound. A number of other observers 
mention similar phenomena varying slightly. Many describe 1 shock 
only and no sound. The shaking of furniture is commonly recorded, 
whilst one mentions the fact that cracks formed by a previous earth- 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 247 

quake of a few years ago did not reopen. Trees swayed as in a high 

wind. 

Basti District. 

Basti. — Mr. K. R. Chatterjee, Assistant Engineer. Trem. vibra- 
tions. He was awakened by the clattering of windows and doors. 

Basti (Civil Lines). — Captain G. T. Carroll, Civil Surgeon. Trem. 
vibrations for about 10 seconds, with tq-and-fro movements. Distinctly 
felt. Direction E. — W. by water in tub. He felt giddy, others felt 
the same and one lady believed she was going to faint. 

Banda District. 

Banda. — Lala Chhote Lai, Assistant Engineer. He was indoors 
moving about, first shock lasted 1 minute, second shock after \ 
minute's interval and lasted J minute. It was feebler than the first. 
He only heard a rattling of window shutters at first and thought it 
was wind and then (seeing there was no wind) a lizard. Only after- 
wards he knew it must have been an earthquake. 

Banda. — Mr. G, T. Barlow, Executive Engineer. Time given as 
6-15. in one form and as 6-20 in another, 2 distinct shocks lasting a 
few seconds with J minute's interval. Direction N.W. — S.E. No 
s ound. Vibrations were rapid and felt as though his heart was beating 
against something hard, and then as if the ground was moving rapidly 
under him. Noticed by several. 

Allahabad District. 

Allahabad. — Mr. F. Taylor and Mr. J. S. Durack, Meteorological 
Reporter, record the shock. Three people's testimony gives the time as 
6-15 a.m., railway time. No one was awakened. No damage. The 
shock was a gentle tremor hardly felt. 

Meagher ganj and Sarsa. — Not felt. 

Partabgarh District. 
Kalakankar. — Jainte Prasad Kumreya, Officiating Sub-Postmaster. 
One shock, chain shook, trees trembled and swayed. Duration 1 
minute. 



248 MIDDLEM1SS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Partabgarh. — Mahommed Ibrahim Khan, Signaller. He was in 
the open ail sitting on the ground. Three slight shocks, 1 to 2 minutes' 
duration. He first thought it was a " weakening of his mind." 
Direction N.W. — S.E. " The sound of birds, who used to utter early 
in the morning, was not so sweet that day before the earthquake." 

Partabgarh. — Mr. E. Hill, Special Manager, Court of Wards. Three 
distinct shocks. The first felt like a dog under the bed " scratching 
and heaving me up." It was of a few seconds' duration. Then an in- 
terval of 20 seconds, second there was a more vigorous shaking which 
revealed to him that it was an earthquake. Thirty seconds' duration. 
Then followed 15 to 20 seconds' interval, and, thirdly, a table in the 
verandah began shaking. A square horizontal frame of iron rods 
hanging from the ceiling swayed N.N.W. — S.S.E. The suspending 
cords were 14 feet long and the movement was 6 to 8 inches from the 
vertical. No sound. 

Mirzapur District. 

Chunar. — Bishambar Nath, Signaller. One shock only, very 
slight 

Mirzapur. — Mr. W. H. Clifford, Executive Engineer. Shocks very 
slight in the early morning. 

Gorakpur District. 

Gorakpur. — Matilall, Officiating Telegraph Master. He was indoors 
sitting. No trem. vibration at first. The office floor seemed to shake. 
His wife continued this by observing water in the bathroom visibly 
shaking for 5 seconds. Direction W. — E. by men's statements. 
Hardly felt. 

Gorakpur. — Mr. J. Gilmore, District Surveyor, P. W. D. He was in 
the open air driving. He did not feel the shock, but on arriving at 
the Kapti River at 6-20 he was informed by a number of people that a 
tidal wave had been observed, and he saw the marks of the crest line on 
both banks. Also at Ami River where he was building a bridge he was 
told that water in the bridge foundation wells was much agitated, 
spilling over the top E. — W. 



PARTS OF IXDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 249 

Gorakpur—lxlT. J. F. C. Davis, Commissioner. He was indoors 
lying in bed. There were two perceptible tremors lasting 1 second each 
with an interval of 5 seconds. It is described by the writer as being 
about No. 2 or 3 of the Eossi-Forel scale of intensity [in which conclu- 
sion I think he was right]. 

Deoria.— Mr. W. C. C. Francis, P. W. D. Time 6-16 a.m. by watch 
compared evening before with railway time. Duration 18 seconds by 
counting. Five distinct shocks with about equal intervals. Direction 
W. — E. by punkah and water in bath. 

Benares District. 
Benares.— Jogindra Nath Mukerji, Telegraph Master. Time 6-15 
by telegraph clock regulated daily by Madras. One shock N.-—-S. 
slight. No apparent motion or displacement of objects. 

Ghazipur District. 

Ghazipur. — Mr. C. H. Burt, Sub -Divisional Opium Agent. 'He was 
indoors lying down. Two distinct tremors, the second being the more 
severe with an interval of 10 seconds. Direction N. — S. by punkah. 
[All punkah-derived directions are necessarily untrustworthy as the 
punkah has a tendency to swing in one direction only.] The shock 
woke observer up and he first thought it was a dog scratching himself 
against the bed post. 

Ballia District. 
Ballia. — Mr. B. K. Mukerji Assistant Surgeon. One shock dis- 
tinctly felt. Heavy iron bed rocked, E. door rattled. No sound. 

GROUP 7. 
Afghanistan. 
Jellalahad (in the Nimla Bagh). — Mr. H. Dobbs, with the Kabul 
Mission. He was in a tent, lying down in bed. About 5-30 Kabul 
time. There was first a distinct up-and-down movement of bed last- 
ing I minute. No sound. No damage. 



250 MIDDLKMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Baluchistan. 

Quetta. — Shiawakshaw Pherozeshaw, Government Contractor. Time 
in the morning. Felt very slightly. No cracks, etc. 

Quetta.— The Civil Surgeon. Not felt. 

Dhadur (near Sibi). — Major H. L. Showers, Political Agent. Not 
felt. 

Khost. — Manager, N.-W. State Railway. Not felt', but a lady at 
Slu,rig, 10 miles away, felt it slightly. 

Bombay. 

From the province of Bombay we have only received a few earth- 
quake forms, frequently not more than one for each district. Most of 
these therefore may be grouped together. Forms from the following 
places recorded that the shock was not felt : — Bombay town itself, 
Kolaba (although Mr. N. A. F. Moos, Director of the Government 
Observatory, has furnished a full account of the seismographic record, 
see p. 290), Deesa (Palanpur District), Karachi, Veeraval (Kathiawar 
District), Malegaon (Nasik District), Hyderabad (Sind), Jacobabad 
(Shikarpur District), Sind. Subjoined °are summaries of forms sent in 
from places where the shock was more or less felt. 

Ahmedabad City (Ahmedabad District). — Amichand Ambalal Modi, 
Head Clerk, Municipal Resident's Office, and Meteorological Observer. 
Time about 6-10. There were 2 or 3 to-and-fro movements as "if 
he had faints." Direction N. — S. judging from the flow of water 
in tanks. It was hardly felt. Partition walls, 9 inches thick, in the 
middle of water tanks of mills fell down about 8 feet irom top towards 
S. Tank water overflowed towards S. 

Ahmedabad City (Ahmedabad District). — Mr. A. R. Spencer, Assist- 
ant Engineer, P. W. D., also gives further details of these tanks. They 
were 150 feet across. The partitions were I3| in. thick, of burnt brick 
and lime masonry, and the water oh each side of the partition was at 
the same level, kept so by connecting arched openings. The water ,s 
described as having first risen on the N. side, then heaved to tne 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 251 

opposite direction. The partition walls fell in each case (of 3) to the 
S. Time about 6-8 (guessed). 

Ahmedabad City (Ahmedabad District). — Mr. W. Doderet, Collector, 
Time between 6 and 6-30. He heard that a slight shock was felt, but he 
did not feel it himself personally as he was asleep in bed. He men- 
tions that a mill-wheel was lifted off its level, and that small ablution 
tanks in a mas j id in the city were emptied of their water. 

Bhug {Ahmedabad District); — Not felt. 

Faizpur (Khandesh District). — Bhandor Digambar Rangari. Time 
about 6-25 a.m. He was indoors sitting. One shock of 2 seconds' 
duration. Direction W. — E. Hardly felt. Hanging lamps moved 
back and forth. No sound. 

Gandevi (Navsari District, Baroda State). — Sub-Postmaster. Time 
between 6-10 and 6-15 a.m. The windows shook and there was some 
little sound heard before, very slight. 

Kadi (Baroda State). — The Assistant Civil Surgeon. Time between 6 
and 6-15 a.m. He was indoors sitting. There was first a slight down- 
ward movement followed by an upward one. Then there was one shock, 
direction uncertain, hardly felt. Hanging lamps were seen to move 
and also water in tank. 

Nadiad (Kaira District). — Dayabhai Bhavanishanker, Post and 
Telegraph Master. Very slight shock, almost imperceptible. Clocks, 
etc., did not stop. 

Patau City (Baroda State). — Pundit Girdhar Lai, Raj Guru of 
Jhalawar. He was sitting indoors before sunrise. There were two 
different shocks felt with 2 minutes' interval. Direction N.E. — S.W. 
Books in notches turned topsy-turvey. 

Bander (Sural District). — Mahomedans praying in a masjid. Time 
about 5-30 to 6, Madras time. One shock. Direction E. — W. Dis- 
tinctly felt. Water of Hoz flowed E. — W. Hanging lamps struck 
against each other. Duration 1 minute. 

Sadra (Mahikantha District). — Ambalal Rouchlod, Maistry, P. W. D 
Time about 6-15. He was indoors sitting. There were about 15 prelim. 



252 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

tremors then a big shock and then 15 vibrations after for 10 seconds. 
Loose shutter and bamboo mat made a noise. 

Sural (Sural District).— Byramji A. Nandati. Time about 6 a.m. 
(guessed). There were 2 or 3 shocks at intervals of about 30 seconds. 
Direction E .— W. Slightly felt. 

Tando Masti Khan (Khairpur State, Sind). — Mr. E. H. Corridon, 
Sub-Assistant Superintendent, Survey of India. Time 6-11J a.m. by 
railway time at the beginning of the tremors and 6-49 at the end. The 
tremors were not sensibly felt, but were observed from the movements 
of the bubble in a level tube. The maximum deflection of 30 seconds 
of arc occurred between 6-20 and 6-25 and it increased again at 
6-35. The direction of the motion was not determinable, the instrument 
showing about the same amount of deflection when held N.E. — S.W. as 
at right angles to this. No sound. These details were corroborated 
by Sub-Assistant Syed Zille Hassair who set up his level at right angles 
to Mr. Corridon's. 

Vadanagar (Ahmedabad District). — Lalubhai Desai, Sub -Postmaster. 
Time 6-30, about. One indistinct shock. Loose objects hanging on 
wall fell. No sound. 

Central India. 

Baghelkhand Agency. 

Nowgong. — Sarat Chandra Dey, Head Clerk to Settlement Officer. 
He was indoors lying down asleep. Time shortly after 6. No trem. 
vibrations before the shock. Two shocks, the first very severe, the second 
a light one within the space of about 2 minutes ; there were trem. vibra- 
tions between and after the second shock. Duration about 3 minutes. 
Direction about N.W.— S.E. by swinging of the bed, and N. — S. by the 
fall of glasses. House utensils leaning against the walls fell down. A 
sound of " Gurr-r-rh " at the beginning of the earthquake. 

Sutna.— Not felt. 

Baoni District. 

Kadaura. — Ambaycharan, Head Master, Ang.-Ver. School. Time 
about 6 a.m. He was standing on the roof. Two shocks within 4 or 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 253 

5 seconds. It was distinctly felt. Trem. vibrations lasted 2 seconds. 
Direction N. — S. No sound. 

Bijawar State. 
Bijawar. — Gajadhar Prasad, Sub -Postmaster. Time about 9 a.m. 
[this is rather late for even a guess]. He observed a bubbling and 
spreading of water in a tank. Direction W. — E. 

Bundelkhand Agency. 

Jigni. — The Jagirdar of this place reports earthquake at daybreak. 
Direction N.— S. No damage done. 

Sarila. — Pandit Raghunandan Dikshit, Kamdar of the Sarila State. 
One slight shock felt distinctly. Door shutters made a slight rattling 
noise. No sound. 

Alifura. — Rao Bahadur Chhatr Pati, C.S.T., Rajah of Alipura. 
He was indoors lying down upstairs. Time 6-5 a.m. by "clock 
correct with sundial, showing Madras time." Two distinct but slight 
shocks at intervals of 1 second. Iron bolt of window shook violently 
for 3 seconds. Direction E. — W. 

Alampur. — Reported by the Indore Durbar. Time about 6-30 a.m. 

Gwalior State. 

Bhilsa. — G. P. Misra, Postmaster. Time 6 a.m. (guessed). In- 
doors sitting. There were prelim, vibrations to and fro. Then 3 
shocks very light followed by trem. vibrations afterwards for 2 minutes. 
Direction S. — N. by movements of water. No sound. 

Morina Railway Station. — Har Sahai Lall Varma, Sub-Postmaster 
and Signaller. Time 6-12 to 6-13 by Railway Telegraph Office clock 
He was indoor sitting. One shock. Chairs shook E. — W. No sound. 

Neemuch. — Not felt. 

Ujjain. — Mr. G.H.G. Foxwell, Telegraph Master. Time between 5-30 
and 6 (guessed). Two shocks with about 20 to 30 seconds' interval. 
Direction W. — E. or N.W. — S.E. The shock was felt by many in the 
N. part of the town, causing oscillation of the buildings, displacement 
and rattling of tiles, glasses and bottles, especially in upper stories. 



254 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Hurra District. 

Agucha. — Reported by the Resident of Mewar. At sunrise. There 
was a slight rumbling sound for 1J minutes. 

Mandalgarh. — Reported as above. About 6 a.m. Water in re- 
servoir of fort shaken up several times. 

Kumalgarh. — The same authority records the same effects. 

Indore State. 

Indore. — Meteorological Observer. The shock was noticed by 
persons in upper rooms in bed. There was a rattling of doors. Time 
6-15 a.m., about. Direction E. — W. Duration about | minute. 

Samer. — Reported by the Indore Durbar. Time 5-30 a.m. Two 
shocks, with 5 minutes (sic) between. No damage. 

Manasa.— Reported by the Indore Durbar. At sunrise. Duration 
15 seconds. No damage. 

Malwa District. 

Rajgarh. — Lalla Bakhat Bahadar, Police Inspector. Lying down 
indoors. Shock of 2 seconds. There was a to-and-fro movement of 
chains fitted in doors. No damage. 

Narsingarh State. 
Narsingarh. — Durga Sahai, Superintendent, Narsingarh State. He 
was indoors, second story, asleep. Time 6-15 a.m: There were 3 
distinct shocks. The bed rocked as if there were an animal under it. 
Doors shook, punkah moved. He rushed out of doors. No objects 
were overturned. No cracks or fissures. It was only felt by some in 
the town. The shock was also said to be felt at Khujner, 30 miles to 
the W. There was an effect also on some of the dried-up nullahs in 
the Deccan Trap country, water appearing in them afterwards. No 

sound. 

Panna State. 

Panna. — Mr. E. Vredcnburg, Deputy Superintendent, Geological 
Survey of India. He was in bed. Time about 6-5 a.m. by clock and 



PAKTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 255 

gun. There were probably several shocks of varying intensity. Direc- 
tion N. — S. from movements of liquids in glasses, cups and flasks. No 
sound. It was distinctly felt, very rapid, and there was a rattling in 
the ceiling and a swinging of the bed. Duration about 1 min. It was 
not felt by servants and others moving about outside. Felt by many 
in the city. 

Rajgarh District. 

Biaora. — Not felt. 

Rajgarh. — Postmaster. Time about 5-30. A very slight shock, 
many people did not feel it at all. 

Jhansi District, U. P. 

{Lies within Central India area.) 

Tikamgarh. — H. H. Saramad-i-Rajahai, Bundelkhand Sawai Mahen- 
dra, Maharaja Sir Pratap Singh. Time about 6 a.m. He was indoors. 
No shock was felt, but movements of articles of worship were seen. 
No sound. 

Central Provinces. 



Akola. — Not felt. 



Amraoti. — Not felt. 



Akola District. 



Amraoti District. 



Bilaspur District. 

Pendra Road.— Mi. J. T. Kendall. There was first a rattling of 
windows and of handles on drawers, also fluttering of a tame parrot, 
second, oscillation of the ground. Third, rumbling noise from N. for 
10 seconds. No damage to bungalow. 

Pendra Road. — Kashinath Porshorom Meteorological Observer and 
Assistant Station Master. In the open air sitting. The shock was 
hardly felt. 



256 MIDDLEMISS : KANAKA EARTHQUAKE. 

Chanda District. 
CJianda. — Not felt. 

Chhindwara District. 
Seoni. — Not felt. 

Ellichpur District. 

Ellichpur. — Rama Chandra, Postmaster. Indoors sitting. First he 
felt an oscillation. Second, pans and beam of parcel scale moved vio- 
lently. Hanging lamp moved. The shock lasted about 2 minutes. 
Direction N.E. — S.W. Clock stopped at 6-15. No sound. No damage. 

Hoshangabad District. 

Itarsi. — Kundan Lall, Mail Contractor. He was indoors sitting. 
There was first a trem. vibration, second it continued for about 1J 
minutes. Direction E. — W. by hanging lamp. No sound. 

Pachmari. — Pratap Singh, 1st grade Hospital Assistant and Meteo- 
rological Observer. He was indoors. A trem. vibration hardly felt. 

No sound. 

Jubbulpore District. 

Jubbulpore. — Not felt. 
Katni.— Not felt. 



Nagpur District. 



Kamptee. — Not felt. 
Nagpur —Not felt. 



Narsinghpur District. 

Deori Camp (Beethi village). — Mr. B. M. Birrell. He was incloors 
sitting. There was a swaying sensation and trees swayed W. — E. 

Gadawara. — Rajendra Nath, Signaller. He was indoors sitting. A 

distinctly felt to-and-fro movement of his chair which lasted for 

1 minute. 

Raipur District. 

Raipur. — Not felt. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 257 

Sambalpur District. 
Sambalpur. — Not felt. 

Saugor District. 

Bina-Etawah. — Debi Prashad. He was indoors sitting. It was 
distinctly felt. Doors knocked about. No sound. 

Saugor (in Civil Lines). — General P. K. Sum Shara Junghavas 
Babadur, late Commander-in-Cbief, Nepalese Army. He was indoors 
sitting. Time 6-20 by clock regulated by gun. There were 2 prelim, 
trem. vibrations and a rattling noise of glass doors, followed 'by 
swaying movements lasting 1 minute. Direction E. — W. by banging 
lamps and punkabs which swung about 1 ft. each way. No sound. 

Saugor. — Shanker Rao. He was indoors lying down. There was 
a shaking of the sofa which lasted 1 min. "Handies" hanging in the 
room shook and tinkled. The lamp was shaking on the table. No 
sound. No damage. 

Bengal. 

Balasore District. 
Balasore. — Raja Baikunthanath De, Bahadur, of Balasore, Orissa, 
etc. He was indoors sitting. Time about 7 a.m. (local time). First 
shock about 4 seconds' duration. Second about 20 minutes afterwards, 
1 second's duration. There was, first, a shaking of doors and candela- 
bra, second, 1 or 2 seconds afterwards sounds like a railway train heard. 
Direction N.W.— S.E. Cracks in arches widened. 

Bhagalpur District. 

Madhipur. ^Not felt. 

Birbhum District. 
Bolpur.— Not felt. 

Suri.~-Ba.hu Gopal Chandra Chackerbutty, Hon. Magistrate, Suri. 
Windows and doors rattled and tiembled. Direction W.—E. A mm 
bling sound underground like that in the 1897 earthquake. Duration 
1£ minutes. 

s 



258 M1DDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Burdwan District. 

Burdwan. — Not felt. 
Raniganj. — tfot felt. 
Silarampur. — Not felt. 
Vkhara. — Not felt. 

Calcutta District. 

Calcutta.— Wooma Charn Chatterjee, Telegraph Master, 46, Strand 
Road. There were distinct prelim, vibrations, but of short duration, 
followed by 1 slight shock, and then trem. vibrations for a few seconds 
after. Direction N. — S. Water in tanks much agitated. No soundi. 

Calcutta— Mr. L. L. Fermor, A.R.S.M., F.G.S., Geological Survey 
of India. Time between 7 and 8 a.m. His bearer and Hem Babu noted 
the earthquake. The Babu noted water in tank having a N.W. — S.E. 
movement. 

Calcutta.— -Mr. A. J. Bolton, M.I.C.E., at 14, Ezra Mansions. He 
was sitting. Time 6-50. The direction of fans and lamps swinging 
was E.—VY. 

Calcutta.— Rev. Father Lafont, S. J., at 10-11, Park St. The electric 
clock stopped at 6-53 (Calcutta time). 

Kalighat (tiear Calcutta). — Annada Prosad Sircar, Executive Engineer* 
2nd Calcutta Division. Water of tank faintly moving from S.— N. and 
back for about 5 minutes. No sound. 

Champaran District. 

Baran Chohia. — Bishan Datt, Sub -Postmaster. Time about 8-30 or 
9-30 [too late]. Two shocks were felt which lasted 3 minutes. 

Betiah. — Gobind Chandra Mukerjee, Sub- Postmaster. Indoors sit- 
ting. Time about 6 a.m. There were a few very slight shocks for 
about 2 'seconds 

Kisoriah.— Golam Rasool. In the open air sitting. About 5 a.m. 
by guess. He noticed movements of tank water. 

Motihari. — Postmaster. Hardly felt. 

Raksal— Postmaster. Time 7 a.m. Very slight shock lasting 5 
minutes. Water overflowed 18 inches (? of tank). 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 259 

Segowlie. — Hari Das Guin. Sub -Postmaster. Indoors. Time 
6-30 a.m. (guessed). It was slightly felt by a feeling as if the brain 
were whirling for about 20 seconds. Water in tank slightly moved. 

Cuttack District. 

Cuttack. — Nagendra Nath Mitra, District Engineer. He was indoors 
sitting. Time 6 a.m. (guessed). There was, first, a slight prelim, tremor 
noticed by doors moving, and, second, 2 main shocks at intervals of 10 
seconds, the second shock being the more intense. Direction N. — S. by 
doors [not a trustworthy observation]. It was distinctly felt. " If 
there had been a little more I would probably have tumbled down from 
chair." 

Jobra. — Mrs. M. Marchant. She was sitting indoors. Time about 
6-45 a.m. Two shocks. Only very slight to-and-fro movements. There was 
no interval between the shocks but a difference of direction, 1st, N. — S. 
and afterwards N.W. — S.E. No trem. vibrations before or after. 
Duration about 1 minute. The shocks were distinctly felt by herself and 
by friends living some distance away. A glass of water placed on table 
gave the direction. The servants noticed the tops of mango trees sway- 
ing about 40 yards away. [Note by Telegraph Master. — " The shock 
was not felt by others in the station."] 

False Point Lighthouse. — Biswanath Singh, Flagman, Government 
Telegraph Department. He was indoors seated. Time 6-30 a.m. (light- 
house time, which is 26 minutes in advance of Madras firne) [this 
seems too early]. There was 1 shock only which was hardly felt by 
the flagman where he was seated, but the look-out shouted from above 
asking whether it was felt below. The flagman then noticed that the 
lightning conductor above the lighthouse was swaying as if some one 
were shaking it. 

Darbhanga District. 

Darbhanga. — Jogin Chancier Bannerjee, Hospital Clerk. He was 
indoors sitting. Time about 6 a.m. (guessed). There were 2 shocks 
lasting 4 seconds. Hardly felt. 

S2 



260 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Kamtaul. — Postmaster, Time 6-15 a.m. It lasted 2 minutes. No 
damage. 

Lakeria Serai. — Ishon Chandra Dey, Sub-Postmaster. He was 
indoors standing. Time 6-10 a.m. by Telegraph Office clock. There was 
one shock. No trem. vibrations before or after. Oscillations of hang- 
ing lamp from N. — S. Water in pool waved gently. No sound. 

Naraya. — Postmaster. Felt slightly by some people. 

Pandaul. — Mahomed Ali Habib, Sub -Postmaster. He was indoors 
sitting. Time 6-30. It was slightly felt., weighing scale shook. There 
were 3 or 4 slight shocks at intervals of 5 or 6 seconds. Duration 
nearly 1 minute. Movements of water in tank and river. No sound. 
No damage. 

Pusa. — Babu Suresh Chandra Mukerjee. He was indoors standing. 
Time 6-15 p.m. [probably a slip for a.m.] by watch compared with 
telegraph clock. There were 4 or 5 shocks felt with intervals of 3 
or 4 seconds. It was distinctly felt. Chains of door moved. Sound 
before the shock like falling of trees and stones. 

Rajnagar. — Not felt. 

Darjeeling District. 

Darjeeling. — Mr. F: E. Moller, of Halcyon House. He was indoors 
lying down. Time 6-50 A. M by watch. It was hardly felt. Chains of 
hanging lamp went up and down. Direction E. — W. 

Darjeeling. — Mr. J. Stalke, Rischol Tea Estate. He was upstairs on 
a balcony. Time 6-35 a.m. by watch found to be 2 minutes faster than 
railway time 2 days after at Darjeeling station. There were 4 distinct 
tremors at intervals of 20 seconds, each being of equal intensity. Total 
duration 2 minutes by watch. Direction W.—E. from tea in his cup. 

Gaya District. 
Gay a. — Not felt. 

Hazaribagh District. 

Hazaribagh. — Nuthoo Lai, Meteorological Observer. Time between 
6-10 and 6-13, Madras time. He was asleep himself during the earth- 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 261 

quake, but it was reported that E. — W. movements were indicated by 
lamps suspended from the roof of the Mission Chapel. The rafters 
creaked. The shock gradually reached a climax and then subsided. 
The shocks were of 3 minutes' duration. 

Hazaribagh. — C. A. E. Kuchhop, Hospital Assistant to the Dublin 
University Mission. He was in the verandah sitting. Time past 
6 a.m. (judged by 6 o'clock prayer service going on at the time in the 
Mission Chapel). He received 3 or 4 shocks against the wall. Water 
lotah was troubled and also tea in cups. The roof rustled. Direc- 
tion E. — W. Duration about J minute. No damage. 

Hugli District. 

Chandernagar. — Gobordhone Seal. He was indoors, sitting. Time 
6-45 (guessed). Doors moved N. — S. 

Chandernagar. — Bhringeswar Srimany, Attorney-at-Law. Tank 
water moved W.—E. or E.— W. Time about 6-55 to 7-10 (Calcutta 
time). Possible error 2 minutes either way. Hanging lamps swung. 

Rishra. — Babu Hira Lall Banerjee. There was a little shock and 
movements of water in tanks, and trees. 

Serampore. — Not felt. 

Tarakeshivar. — Chandra Nath Bose, Sub-Postmaster. Time 6-38-10 
(Madras time) by clock daily regulated at 16 hr. by Madras-. Water of 
tank oscillated for at least 6 seconds, Direction W. — E. 

Jessore District. 
Jessore. — The District Engineer, Jessore [name illegible]. He was 
indoors. Time 6-30 a.m. (guessed). There were no distinct shocks*, 
only slight tremors. It was hardly felt. 

Khulna District. 
Khulna.— Hari Das Chatterjee, District Engineer. In an upper 
storey verandah facing the road. Time 7-5 about by watch and clock. 
There were 2 slight almost imperceptible shocks with 1 second's interval 
Duration 2 seconds. Direction N.W.— S.E. by his feelings and by move* 
ments of the water in a tank. No sound. 



262 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Manbhum District. 
Jharia. — Not felt. 

Midnapur District. 
Midnapur.— Babu Jadu Nath Ghosh, Head Clerk, Executive Engi- 
neer's Office. He was in the open air standing. Time about 6 or 6-30 
a.m. No shock was felt, but water in a tank moved E.— W. It was 
also noticed by many other people who recognised the nature of the 
phenomenon and blew conches. 

Monghir District. 

Begu Sarai. — Not felt. 

Gidhaur. — Srikantha Bhattacharyya, Sub -Postmaster and Signaller. 
Time 6-17 a.m., Madras time, by ,clock regulated daily at 16 hrs. 
There were 1 or 2 distinct tremors continuing for about 2 minutes. The 
table shook. Window planks and panes moved E. — W. No sound. 

Lakhi Sarai.—N ot felt. 

Monghir. — Mr. C. A. Oldham, Cojlector. He was indoors sitting. 
Time 6-12 by railway time, clock and watch. Only one shock felt. 
Direction N. — S. or N.W. — S.E. by revolving book-case 4 feet high 
shaking J inch and also by lamp. 

Monghir. — Grunga Bishoon Pershad, Head Signaller. He was sitting 
indoors. Time about 6-10. There were 2 distinct shocks. Walls and 
water begau to shake N. — S. No buildings cracked. No sound. 

Murshidabad District. 

Berhampore. — Mahendra Nath Ray, Meteorological Observer. He 
wa3 in the open air walking and so not felt, but he was told there was a 
shock felt by about 1 per cent, of the people. Punkah rope swung 
W.— E. 

Kandu— Officiating Sub-Postmaster. A slight shock between 6 and 
6-30. It was perceptible on the surface, of a tank. Direction W. — E. 

Patkabarie. — Observer was indoors lying down. Time about 6*30 
by gues?. Two distinct but slight shocks with 10 seconds' interval. 
Direction N.—S. 



PARTS OP INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 263 

Muzaffarpur District. 

Lalganj. — Mr. C. N. Gordon. He was sitting. Time between 6 
and 6-30 v There was a vibration lasting 16 seconds followed by a shock 
of 2 minutes' duration. Water was thrown out of tanks. No sound. 

Raipur. — Brajanandran Prasad Varman, Zemindar. Time between 
6 and 7 a.m. Duration about 3 mins. It was hardly felt. 

Sitamarhi, — Postmaster. Time 6-15. Duration 15 sees. 3 or 4 
slight shocks. Direction N. — S. 

Nadia District. 

Nadia. — Dharmi Das Mukerjee, Sub -Post master. He was sitting 
indoors. Time 6-50. One slight shock lasting 2 seconds. 

Nadia.— Postmaster. Time 6-50 (Calcutta time=6-17 Madras 
time). Duration 2 seconds. 

Palamau District. 

Daltonganj. — Not felt. 
Japla. — Not felt. 

Patna District. 

Bankipore. — Mr. J. S. Cohen, Signaller. He was indoors sitting, 
Time about 6-35 (guessed). Two shocks very slight, first lasting about 15 
seconds, then 10 seconds' interval, then second shock lasting about 15 to 
20 seconds. Direction N.W. — S.E. No sound. 

Bankipore.— Lieutenant- Colonel R. H. Whithwell, I.M.S., Civil 
Surgeon. He was sitting indoors. Time 6-10, Madras time. There 
was a sharp tremor accompanied by a slight rumbling noise. Direction 
N.W.— S.E. No damage. 

Bihar.— Hari Das Banerji, Sub -Postmaster. He was sitting in- 
doors. Time 6-15. One shock, very slight. Vibration lasted for 3 
seconds. Hanging lamp swung W. — E. No sound. 

Dinapur. — Not felt. 

Mokameh Ghat. — Mr. C. P. Warde, Inspector of Works, Bhagalpur 
Circle. Indoors lying down and sitting up. Time shordy after 6 



2(54 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

A number of to-and-fro movements in rapid succession -gradually 
lessening. Direction W. — E. A door half open swayed about J inch. 
No sound. 

Shahabad.— Postmaster. Time 6-20. Five shocks, E.— W. 

Purnea District. 
Purnea.— Capt. J. W. F. Rait, I.M.S. Not felt. 

Ranchi District. 

Ranchi. — Jatindra Nath Kundu, Clerk, Executive Engineer's Office. 
Indoors sitting. Time about 6 a.m. (guessed). One slight shock N.« — S. 
or S. — N. Chair moved, ropes swung and water in bath moved. No 
sound. 

Saran District: 

Chapra. — Mr. G. R. Ensell. He was indoors sitting at first, after- 
wards in the verandah standing. Time 6-15 a.m. by telegraph clock 
at the end of the shock. Three principal shocks of 2 seconds each at 
intervals of 3 seconds each. Direction S.W. — N.E. There was a 
tremulous vibration before the shock and a sound like the rumbling 
of a train gradually increasing. No trem. vibration afterwards. Birds 
in aviary and trees were frightened. A large tree rocked to and fro 
although the air was still. Slight cracks in buildings on W. side from 
N.-S. 

Digwara. — Postmaster. Time about 6 a.m. No details. 

Gopalganj. — Not felt. 

Hathwa. — Not felt. 

Jamo Bazar. — Harihar Charan Lai, Sub-Postmaster. He was sit- 
ting indoors. Time 7-7 a.m. by telegraph clock. It was a single slight 
shock of 5 seconds' duration. There were movements of water in tanks 
and fall of loose articles. 

Maharajganj. — Postmaster. A very slight shock lasting about 2 
Seconds. 

Mairwa. — Not. felt. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 265 

Revelganj. — Postmaster and Sub-Postmaster. Time 6 a.m. One 
slight shock of 1 second's duration. Direction W. — E. and N. — S. 
Silvan. — Not felt. 
Sonpur. — Not felt. 

Shahabad District. 

Arrah. — Mr. G. L. Shaw, Barrister-at-Law. Time about 6 a.m. 
(guessed). He felt a giddiness which he attributed to the earthquake, 
but he felt no shock. 

Buxar.— Not felt. 

Bihia. — Mr. E. Mylin. Others in bed felt a slight shock. 

Bihia. — Mr. C. Fox. Time 6-30 about. Only a slight tremor. 
Direction apparently N. — S. Only felt by a few. 

Sonthal Parganas. 
Pakur. — Postmaster. Not felt. 

24-Parganas District. 

Achipur. — Mr. G. C. Mukerji, Telegraph Master. Time 6-55 by office 
clock. Hardly felt. Water of tank moved S.W.— -N.E. and receded 
about 1 foot. 

Bahala. — Not felt. 

Budge-Budge. — Not felt. . 

Canningtown, — Not felt. 

Cossipur. — Jagat Durlove • Shaw, Sub-Postmaster. Movements of 
water in tank seen by Babu Ashutosh Mustafi, Money Order Clerk. 
Direction W. — E. 

Diamond Harbour. — Heshab Lall Chatter ji, Overseer, District Board. 
Hardly felt. Direction E. — W. by movements of tank water. Time 5 
or 10 minutes before 7 a.m". (guessed). 

Hooghly Point— W . C. Ghosh, Telegraph Master. Time 6-30 almost 
(local time) by telegraph clock. One shock hardly felt. Tank water 
moved E. — W. for 2 minutes. 

Kidderpore (at 7, Berapuker Road).— Baidyanath Ghosh, Signaller. 
Time 6-10 a.m. (guessed). One distinct shock, W.— E. 



266 MIDDLEMISS : KAMGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Mud Point.~G. C. Ghosh, Telegraph Master. Time 6-50 local time, 
telegraph clock = 6-17 Madras time. No shock felt. Water in tanks 
moved E.— W. 

Saugor Island. — Mr. T. W. de Souza, Telegraph Master. Local time 
6-50 a.m. =6-17 Madras time. He was indoors standing. The shock 
was not felt although Mud Point Telegraph Master drew his attention to 
it. The barograph which would show any movement from N.E. — S.W. 
has a distinct upright stroke about 6-45 a.m. while the thermograph 
which faces N. and would show any tremulous movement E. — W. shows 
nothing. Hence he concludes the slight shock which did occur passed 
from N.E.— S.W. between 6-40 and 6. 50 a,m. (local time). 

Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

Whilst many observers from places in this area have sent in earth- 
quake forms stating that no shock was felt at the date and time required 
for the Kangra earthquake, a number on the other hand have sent in 
forms giving such discordant times that they only more or less doubt- 
fully can be correlated as the distant effects of that shock. The 
frequent mention of sounds accompanying the shoeks at these places 
further disposes one to regard them as really local in origin, and having 
nothing to do with the Kangra quake ; for at such a distance it is not 
likely that any such sounds would have been heard, especially since at 
corresponding and intervening distances otherwise situated with regard 
to the epicentre no sounds have been recorded. Accounts have been 
received as follows : — 

Backerganj District. 

Barisal. — Syama Charan Chakraverty. Overseer, District Board. 
Time after 6, and nearing 7. Water in tank (artificial reservoir) rose 7 
inches at S.E. and N.W. corners and only 4 inches in the opposite 
corners. Also the water dashed more prominently on the N. and S. 
sides than on the E. and W. He concludes that the shock had a direc- 
tion about N.N.W.— S.3.E. No sound. 

Barisal. — Sreecharan Roy, Clerk in Post Office. Time about 6-30 by 
guess. Tank water moved N.-—S. No sound. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 267 

Bogra District. 
Bogra.— Not felt. 

Cachar District. 

Cachar {at Daloo Ted Estate). — Mr. A. Rose. He was indoors sit- 
ting. There was, first, a creaking of the roof, second, the main shock, 
and afterwards a quivering motion lasting 1 minute. Direction N. — S. 
or S. — N. Time shortly after 6 a.m. The factory bell rang at 6 o'clock 
and th.e. shock was felt about i hour afterwards. Sounds were heard 
the previous evening like dull thunder or heavy train over a bridge. 
Also heard £ hour after the shock. A tall flower vase upset pointing 
N. No cracks, no fissures. N.B. — The house is an iron-framed one 
with columns resting on brick pillars 3 feet below the surface. Conse- 
quently the least vibration is felt, but there being no brickwork there 

was no damage. 

Chittagong District. 

Banigram. — Lakshmi Kanta Bhattacharjee, Sub-Postmaster. He 
was standing in the verandah. Time about 7-15 (local time guessed). 
Movements in tank water from W.— E. There were 2 distinct shocks. 

Fatehabad. — Ananda Chandra Dass, Officiating Sub-Postmaster. He 
was sitting indoors. Time about 5-30 a.m. Movements of water in tank 
for about 20 minutes from N.— S. 

Katirhat. — Sub-Postmaster. No time given. The shock was felt 
very slightly by the water in tanks and by the swinging of lamps. 

Sholashahar. — Munshi Lakir Ali, 3rd clerk in District Engineer's 
Office. He was sitting outside. Time about 7 a.m. (guessed). Move- 
ments of water in tank lasting for 1 5 minutes was all that was noticed. 
Direction N.W, — S.E. The water suddenly subsided at one end and 
rose at the other end of the tank. 

Dacca District. 

Dacca. — Babu Sbashi Bhusan Mitter, B.C.E., District Engineer. 
He was out of doors moving. Time about 7 a.m. (local time guessed). 
The only effect was water in tank moving W. — E. 

Natr.ayanganj. — Not felt. 



268 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Faridpur District. 

F aridpur. — Babu Hari Mohan Mukerjee, Draughtsman, District En- 
gineer's Office. He was in the open air. Time about 8 a.m. by guess. 
It was distinctly noticed by movement of tank water from S. — N. and 
also by hanging earthen utensils in kitchen. 

Jalpaiguri District. 

Jalpaiguri. — Mr. J. E. Armstrong, District Superintendent of Police. 
He was indoors sitting up in bed. Time about 6-30 by guess. There 
was one shock or trem. vibration lasting 5 seconds. No sound. 

Lakhimpur District. 

Halwari. — Devendra Nath Mazumdar, Postmaster. Time about 
9-15 [guessed, but is rather late even for a bad guess]. One long shock, 
S. — N. There was a distinct rumbling noise for some seconds, followed 
at once by a severe shaking. The noise was very peculiar, coming so 
distinctly before the actual shock. No damage. 

Lakhimpur. — Kamad Nath Bhattacherjee, Postmaster. Time about 
8 a.m. [guessed, is rather late]. A fairly distinct shock. Direction 
W. — E. from mangoe tree movement. Sound at the beginning. No 
damage. 

Lakhimpur. — Mr. J. Paul, American Baptist Mission. Time 7-30 
(approximately) [if this is local time it is not far out]. Direction N. — S. 
from movements of water under bridge. 

Mymensingh District. 
Mymensingh. — K. Nag, Telegraph Master. Only movements of 
tank water perceived. 

Sibsagar District. 
Sibsagar. — Abinas Chandra Chatter jee, Meteorological Observer. 
Time 9-28 a.m. [this is much too late]. He gives sound records 
and other numerous details. 



PARTS OF INDIA NOT VISITED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 269 

Sylhet District. 

Chatali. — Mr. C. J. Jackson, Jagcherra Tea Estate. Time 1 o'clock 
[a.m. or p.m. not stated]. A slight shock. Hanging lamp swung. 

Chhatak. — Sasi Mohan Chaudhury, Postmaster. Time about 2 p.m. 
Direction S.E. — N.W. No sound. One shock, hardly felt. 

Patharkandi. — Ram Saran De. Time about 7, Madras time [it is 
of course possible that the observer was | hour out]. One shock, hardly 
felt. Direction N. — S. No sound. 

Charahamna. — Rajani Chandra Datta, Head Master (School). Time 
5-30 [too early]. There were movements of water S.W. — N.E. 

Sylhet. — Nagendra Chandra Bose, Telegraph Master. Time 12-48 
Madras time. Three or 4 smart shocks felt in quick succession at 
intervals of about 2 seconds. Distinctly felt. No sound, 

Tipperah District. 

Chandpur. — Chandra De. Between 7 and 8 a.m. Only 

movements of water seen. 

Chatelpur. — Sasi Bhusan Ghose, Sub- Postmaster. One shock hardly 
felt. Water of tank undulating. Time between 6 and 7. 

ComiUa. — District Engineer. Time 6-30 a.m. Water of tank 
oscillated violently. 

Sarail. — Girish Chandra Ghosh, Sub -Postmaster. Time between 
6 and 7 a.m. One shock, water of tank undulating. 

Nepal. 

Kaihmandu. — Major P. Canawd, Superintendent, Nepal Observatory. 
Time 6-6. The shock was slight. [No further details given.] 

Madras. 

There is only one account of the earthquake being felt in the 
Madras Presidency, and about this there is some doubt (see page 350) 
At Kodaikanal the shock was registered on the Milne seismograph. But 
the shock was net sensibly felt (see page 290). 



270 MIDDLEMTSS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Burma. 

There is no reliable evidence for the earthquake having been felt in 
Burma. From the following places we have received positive state- 
ments to the effect that it was not so felt :-r-Akyab, Bhamo, Mandalay, 
Mayrnyo, Minbu. On the other hand from Monywa, Mr. P. T. 
McCarthy, Superintendent, Meteorological Observatory, has recorded 
"slight tremors for a few seconds" but without giving any details. 
Similarly from Tiloya in the Southern Shan States, Mr. J. 0. B. 
Donaghey, Extra Assistant Superintendent, Survey of India, mentions 
distinct tremors lasting 3 seconds with a deep rumbling sound but occur- 
ring at 4 p.m. on the 22nd of March. This was therefore a local shock 
having nothing to do with the earthquake of the 4th April. 

An interesting account, however, comes from Thedaw in the Meik- 
tila District, Upper Burma, where Mr. R. Berrill, Public Works Depart- 
ment, noticed between 7 and 8 a.m. on the day of the big earthquake 
irregular movements of the bubble in his level tubes (see also page 328). 

List of Contributors to the Earthquake Forms. 



Abdul Aziz, Baramulla, Kashmir : Abdul Aziz, Gupis, Kashmir: Abdul Aziz, 
Nalapani, Dehra Dun : Abdul Aziz Khan, Dinapur: Abdul Jalil, Dehra Dun 
Abdul Kadir, Bharatpur, Rajputana : Abdul Majid, K. M., Delhi : Abdul Mohid, M., 
Manglaur, Saharanpur : Abdul Rahman, Amballa City, Amballa : Abdul Rahman 
Khan, Alwar, Rajputana : Abdul Rasid Khan, Sambhar, Rajputana : Abdul 
Wazir, Machhlishahr, Jaunpur : Absan Ali Munshi, Banner, Jodhpur: Adie, 
J. R., Ferozepore : Ahmed Ali Khan, Bud aun : Ahmed Hassan Khan? Kohala, 
Rawal Pindi : Ahmed Hassan Niaz, Meerut : Ahmad Said Khan, Thana Ghazi, 
Alwar: Akbar Shah, Ah, Sadda, Kohat: Allahdin, M., Charsadda, Peshawar : 
Allen, J., Naini Tal : Allen, J. M., Nairn Tal : Ali Mahomed, Raya, Amritsar: 
Alimuddin, Ratangarh, Bikaner: Alimuddiu, Agra: Allum, E. W.» Landour, 
Dehra Dun: Amarchand, Munshi, Boodhgam, Kashmir : Amar Nath, 
Darazanda, Dera Ismail Khan : Araar Nath, Baffa, Hazara : Amba 
Datt Joshi, Jealikote, Naini Tal: Amba Lall, Pandit, Halclwani, Naini 
Tal: Amba Lall Roushod, Sadra, Mahi Kantha: Amba Prasad, Dehra 
Dun : Ambiya Charan,- Kadaura, Baoni : Amesbury, S. C Roorkee : Amichund 
Ambalal Modi, Ahmedabad: Amir Ali, Mahomed, Haripur, Hazara: Amir Chand, 
Warshand, Kohat: Annada Chandra Dass, Fatehabad, Chittagong: Anderson, Ao 



CONTRIBUTORS TO EARTHQUAKE FORMS. 27} 

Dehra Dun : Anonymous, Sangrur, Jhind : Ansell, R. C.» Jullunder : Armstrong, J. 
E., Jalpaiguri: Arthen, A. B., Mundir, Karna-1 : Ashburn, A. R., Simla: Ashford, J., 
Amritaar : Ashly, R. J., Dinapore, Patna : Asvini Kumar Naha, Bagribari, Dhubri : 
Atkinson, R. P., Dhakauli, Meerut: Atkinson, G. W. E., Amritsar: Aulad^Kosein* 
S., Dehra Dun: Auruam Singh, Lachmangarh, Jaipur : Azizdinashai, Pjristan Fort, 
Kashmir : Azizuddin, Delhi : Azizullab, Ramnagar, Gujranwala : Azmat Aii, Kalpi, 
Orai. 

B 

Badir Prasad, Brindaban, Muttra: Badri Narayan Misra, Farrukhabad, Unite 
Provinces: Badri ~Nath, B., Nahan, Amballa : Badri Prasada, Sikandra Rao, Aligarh : 
Bhagat Singh, Mainpuri : Baikuniha Nath De, Raja, Balasore: Bairoti Lai, Hardoi: 
Eaksh, Alia, Jagradum, Ludhiana : Baksn, Amir, Khetri, Jaipur: Bala Koui, Tiiwal, 
Kashmir : Balfour, J. H,, Choya Saidan Sha, Jhelum : Balmokand, Munshi, Alwar, 
Rajputana: Balmukund Kapur, Narnaul, Patiala: Balsarup, B., Mianwali: 
Banerjee, Haridas, Bihar, Patna: Banerjee, Hira Lall, Rishra: Banerjee, Jogin 
Chander, Darbhanga: Banerjee, K,, Tarkhani, Lyallpur: Bankey Lai, Kotputli, 
Jaipur: Bannerman, A. D., Kotah: Barlow, G. T.. Baud: Barton, G., Kohat: 
Basheshar Das3, Jandiala, Amritsar: Basheshar Nath, Pandit, Unao City, United 
Provinces : Bosu. Sachiudra Nath, Bankipur: Battacharjee, Kumud Nath, Lakhim- 
pur : Battacharjee, Lukshmi Kanta, Banigram, Chittagong : B&itacharya, Sri- 
kanta, Gidhaur: Beaford, W., Landour, Dehra Dun: Behari Lai Kabra, 
Poonch, Kashmir: Bellasi3, E. S., Bard Kamai, Dera Ismail Khan: 
Beni Prasad, Pandit, Mainpuri: Bennett, W. E. T., Sialkot: Berril, R.,Thedaw, 
Burma: Bhagat Ram, Tank, Dera Ismail Khan : Bhagawat Ram Sanbay, Sibna, 
Ludhiana: Bhagat, Sudaman, Kulachi, Dera Ismail Khan : Bhagawat Dial, Tilhar 
Shajahanpur: Bhagwan Dass, A., Katni: Bhagwati Prasad a Varma, Kangra Canal 
Resthouse, Lyallpur: Bhagwal Persh ad, Digstate, Rajputana: Bhagwan Singh, 
Mardan, Peshawar : Bhai Sultan Singh, Rasalpur, Eerozepore : Bhairah, Dutt Joshi, 
Pandit, Poonch, Kashmir Bhanushankar Itcharam, J. . Gandevi, Baroda : Bliandeo 
Digambar Rangari, Faizpur, Khandwa : Bhi Ran Lai, Sahinspur, Dehra Dun: 
Bhoja Gawar, Kundala, Ajmere: Bhola Datt Tewari, Pauri, GarhwaJ : Bhola Nath 
Pundri, Karnal: Birbab Dehra Dun: Birbal, Pandit, Kapurthala: Birrell, B. M., 
Beethi, Narsingpur: Bishambhar Nath, Chunar. Mirzapur: Bishambar Nath, Dera 
Ghazi Khan : Bishambar Nath, Islam Canal, Multan : Bishambar Sarap, Jhojjar, 
Rohtak : Bishan Das, Hoshiarpur : Bishan Dass Dutt, Hissar : Biswanath Singh, 
False Point, Cuttack : Bisheswar Dyal, Muzaffarnagar : Blong, M. J., Mussoorie : 
Blood, Sir B., Rawal Pindi : Boaz, Gorakpur : Bolton, A. J., Calcutta: Bonnaud, 
R. L., Ludhiana: Boronha, L. J., Hyderabad. Sind : Bosanquet, 0. V., Samer Alam- 
pur, Indore : Bose, Chandra Nath, Tarakeshwar : Bosc, Nagendra Chandra, Sylhet: 
Bostron Werner, Meerut, Aligarh : Bons, H. J., Gopalpur, Madras : Bowder, A. G,, 
Landour, Mussoorie .Brajanandan Prasad Varman, Raipur, Muzaffarpur : Bran 



272 MIDDLEM1SS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

dreth, S., Patiala: Brij Jiwanlal Sarma, Pandit, Ajmere: Brij Lall, Shahabad, 
Karnal: Bristoe, F., Mussoorie: Brown Grey, Lahore : Bryson, A. C., Fyzabad : 
Buchanan, W. E., Simla: Budhu Ram, Shajahanpur City: Budin, S. S. N., Las 
Bela, Baluchistan : Brij Bash Lai, Okara, Montgomery: Buksh, Maula, Fazilka, 
Ferozepore :. Buksh, Nabi, Daraban, Dera Ismail Khan: Buksh, Pir, Jullundar : 
Buksh, Sheik Allah, Miranshah, Tochi : Buksh, Suraj Lala, Kathumbar, Alwar : 
Burn, I. M., Saharanpur : Burrard, Lieutenant-Colonel S. G., Dehra Dun : Burrow, 
C. J., Srinagar: Burt, C. H. S., Ghazipur: Bux, Mahomed, Chitral Fort. 



Cairncross, Arthur, Etawah : Cameron, Donald, Dehra Dun : Carim Bux, Man- 
sehra, Hazara : Carne, F. W., Lyallpur : Carr, W. P., Peshawar : Carroll, P. M., 
Malakand : Carroll, I. M. S., Basti, United Provinces : Cassen, H. A., Kharr, Dera 
Ghazi Khan : Castello, R. J., Mount Abu, Rajputana : Chainsukh, Kundhla, Muzaf- 
farnagar : Chakrabarty, Nobin Chand, Katirhat, Chittagong : Chakravarty', Syama 
Charan, Backergange : Chaker butty, Gopal Chandra, Suri, Birbhum : Chambers, 
N. A. R., Mussoorie: Champa Lai, Udaipur: Chandra, Upendra Ch., Revelganj, 
Saran : Chanan Ram, Delhi : Chandu Lai Sitaram, Bakshi, Jammu : Chapman, A., 
Mussoorie : Chappel, H. E., Amballa : Charan Singh, Lyallpur : Charles, J. R. E., 
Roorkee: Charu Dass, Sambria, Sialkot : Chatterjee, Abinas Chandra, Sibsagar: 
Chatterjee, Hari Das, Khulna : Chatterjee, Hari Kumar, Canning Town, 24-Par- 
ganas : Chatterjee, Keshab Lall, Diamond Harbour, 24-Parganas : Chatterjee, 
K. N., Allahabad: Chatterjee, K. R., Basti, United Provinces: Chatterjee, N. C, 
Budge Budge, 24-Parganas : Chatterjee, S. N., Kanaud, Patiala : Chatterjee, 
Wooma Charn, Howrah : Chatrapati, Rao Bahadur, Alipura, Bundelkund : Chatur, 
Behari Lai, Dehra Dun : Chaubay, Mewa Ram, Unao, United Provinces : Chestney, 
H. W. P., Asabutai, Ferozepore : Chhajju Singh, Fategarh, United Provinces : Chhajj 
Ram, Dhanaura, Karnal : Chiman Lall, Gurdaspur : Chimon Lai, Agra : Chiraup 
Dass, Nurmahal, Jullundar : Choti Lai, Lala, Banda : Choty Lai, Shahabad, 
Hardoi : Choudhuri, Taran Krishna, Raneebazar, Rajshahye : Chowdhury, Mo- 
khada Frosad, Burdwan : Chowdhury, Parshnath Roy, Jessore : Chowdhury, Sasi 
Mohan, Chatak, Sylhet : Claxton, G. E., Weslypore, Kheri: Claxton, P., Gonda: 
Singhwala, Lahore : Clayton, F., Tarai, Naini Tal : Clifford, W. H., Mirzapur : 
Cline, A. E.,Didwana, Marwar: Cohen, J. S., Bankipur: Coleman, A., Chakdara : 
Collins, B. B., Nalapani, Dehra Dun : Collins, T. E., Phillour, Jullundar: Collins, W. 
J., Fategarh, United Provinces: Colyer, C. A., Aurangabad, Gujrat : Coode, F. T., 
Naini Tal : Coombs, L. H., Garais, Kashmir : Coridon, E. H., Tando Masti Khan, 
Sind : Courthope, Edward A„ Dehra Dun: Coverdale, A. L., Islamatad, Kash- 
mir: Crawford, E. L., Amritsar: Crookshank, A., Amballa: Crosthwait, H. L., 
Captain, Cawnpore: Cuerden, C, Peshawar: Cullen, Captain W., Landour, Dehra 
Dun : Curtis, J. S., Muzafferpore. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO EARTHQUAKE FORMS. 273 



Daliya Ram Ramchand, Deesa : Dalu Sabay, Ban, Rhotak : Damodar Dass, 
Deo band, Saharanpur : Pari Lall Tripathi, Bahraich, United Provinces : Darby 
Bernard, Hard war, Saharanpur : Da tta, D.N. P., Hoshiarpur, Kangra : Datta, 
Rajani Chandra Charahamma, Sylhet : Daulat Rani, Lala, Kolthal, Karnal : Daulat 
Ram, Idak, Tochi : Daulat Singh, Mehta, Kishengarh : David, W. J., Mian Mir : 
Davies, J. F. C, Gorakpur : Dayashai Bhavanishanker, Nadiad, Kaira : D'Cruz, S., 
Simla : Deans, H., Astor, Kashmir : Deas, Captain, Sambrial, Sialkot : Debenham, 
C, Delhi : Dehi Sohai, Sultanpur, Oudh : Dessu Ram, Sirohi, Rajputana 
De Silva, F. A., Raniganj : Devereli, Hilda, Mrs., Lahore : Devinditta, Jammu : 
Dewan Ali, Shaik, Ludhiana : Deyi, A. L., Bankipur : Dey, Ishan Chandra, 
Laheriasarai, Durbhanga : Dhanpat Rai, Astor, Kashmir: Dharani Dhar Das,. 
Bijnaur : Dhera Mall, Dhariwall, Gurdaspur : Dhody, M. S., Kathyala, Lahore : 
Dhran Chand, Hangu, Kohat: Dhuli Chand, Bhim Tal, Naini Tal : Diwavali, 
Ludhiana : Dinga Singh, Mona, Shahpur : Diwan Chand, Bikaner, Rajputana : 
Dixon, F. G., Lahore : Dixon, T. I., Dhaipai, Ferozpore : D' Morris, Albert, 
Cawnpore : Dobbs, H., Nimla Bagh, Jallalabad : Daderet, W., Ahmedabad : 
Donaghey, J, O. B., Tiloya, S. Shan States : Donald Macfarlane, Simla : Donald, 
W. A., Simla : Donne, Bandipur, Kashmir : Douglas, M. W., Simla : Doulat Ram, 
Aligarh : Dowarllapershad, Uri, Kashmir : Drake, A. J. A., Nalapani, Dehra Dun r 
Drummond, A. B., Tonk, Rajputana : Duear Lai, Hatteras, Aligarh : Duli Chand, 
Pandit, Bansur, Alwar : Dundee, W. J. D., Peshawar : Dunning, C. W., Ranikhet , 
Almora : Durbar, Indore, Indore State : Durbar, Me war, Me war State : Durga 
Prasad Shankadhar, Bareiily : Durga Sahai, Narsingarh : Dutt, Bishan, Barah- 
chouki, Champaran : Dya Ram, Chum, Bikaner : Dya Ram, Etawah, 



E 

Eleazar, W. A., Burdwan: Ellis, B. J., Fatehpore, United Provinces : Eimslie, 
Nasirabad, Ajmer: Ensell, G. R. ; Chapra, Saran: Ernest, Melui, Bihia, Sh aha bad ; 
Evans, J. S. L., Mussoorie. 

P 

Faddy, C. S., Ilampur, Multan : Farranl, J. T., Jhelum : Farren, D., Patiala : 
Fateh Chand, L., Dhakal, Patiala: Fateh Shah Khan, Ferozpore : Fazl Elahi 
Gujranwala : Fenton, M. W., Jullundar : Fermor, L. L., Calcutta : Ferrar, M. L.. 
Dera Ghazi Khan : Fidelis, G., Bharatpur, Rajputana : Fitzgerald, F. A., Baijnatb, 
Kangra : Fleming, A. M., Chanda : Foord, A. W., Jubbulpore : Foster, H , Dal- 
housie, Gurdaspur : Fox, J., Bihia, Shahabad : Foxwell, G. H. G., Ujjain : 
Francis, W. C. C, Deoria, Gorakpur. 



274 MTDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

G 

Gabriel, F. E., Srinagar : Gajadhar Prasad, Bijawar, Bundelkhand : Gale, A. B. 
Luc know : Ganaisha, Bijawar, Bundelkhand: Ganda Mall, Skardu, Kashmir: 
Ganeshi Lai, Lala, Lachhmangarh, Alwar : Ganesh Prasad, Shukla, Etah 
Gancsh Rai, Muzaffarnagar ; Ganga Ram, Cherat, Peshawar : Ganpat Rai, Samundri 
Lyallpur : Garantha Mall, Landikotal, Peshawar : Gardner, A., Drang, Kangra : 
Gardner, W. H., Darjeeling : Gariba, B. B. s Ahmednagar : Garrett, Captain C. F., 
Alwar, Rajputana : Gentry, G., Khanki, Gujranwala : Ghasi Ram Varma, 
Garhmuktesar, Meerut : Ghomgusa Hussain, Mardan, Peshawar : Ghose, Sasi Bhusan, 
Chatalpur, Tipperah : Ghosh, Baidyanath, Kidderpore, Calcutta : Ghosh, Jadu Nath, 
Midnapore : Ghosh. G. C, Mud Point, 24-Parganas : Ghosh, Girish Chandra, 
Sarail, Tipperah : Ghosh, W. C, Hooghly Point, 24-Parganas : Ghulam Hassain, 
Tank, Dera Ismail Khan : Gibb, A. S., Wan, Shahpur : Gibson, A. T., Lahore : 
Gill, Joseph H., Bijnour : Gilmon, J. N., Ludhiana : Gilmore, J., Bapti River, 
Gorakhpur : Girdhar Lai, Rajguru : Patan, Surat : Girdhari Lai, Boya, Bannu 
Girdhari Lall, Sopor, Kashmir : Glass, E. L., Kot Naja, Shahpur : Gobardhone 
Seal, Chandeniagore : Gobind Prasad, Ghildyal, P., Srinagar, Garhwal : Godfrey, 
W. R., Meerut : Godwin, J., Jammu : Gograjmal, Sujangarh, Bikaner : Golam 
Rasool, Kisoriah, Chapraaran : Gompertz, J. F. W., Fyzabad : Goodman, W. J., 
Landour, Dehra Dun : Gopa.1 Puncharam, Nawalgarh, Jaipur : Gordon, C. N., 
Lalagunj, Murshidabad : Gorton, A. H., Jaipur : Goument, C. E., Amballa : Gcver- 
dhan Dar>3, Cambellpore : Govind Balwant Joshi, Dehra Dun : Govinda Mall, B., 
Jhelum : Govindasawmy Pillai, Mandalay, Burma : Gowhurst, D., Abbottabad, 
Hazara : Graham, A. A., Nalapani, Dehra Dun : Grant, F. H., Nalapani, Dehra 
Dun : Greene, A., Lahore : Gregory, S. H., Fyzabad : Grover, W., Dargai : Gujar 
Mall, Bissar : Gulab Rai Varma, Ramgarh Jaipur : Gulabsingh, Hazrao, Rawal- 
pindi : Gulam Nabi, Taunsa, Dera Ghazi Khan : Gulsbury, S, L, Bruce, Meerut 
Gonga Bishoon Prasad, Monghyr : Gurdit Singh, Kalka, Amballa : Gurh Ras, Guj- 
rat : Gurdas Singh, B., Oghi, Hazara : Guru Prasada, Bhatnagar, Bulandshahr, 
United Provinces : Guru Datta, Kotah. 



H 

Habibuilah, Kalabagh, Mianwali : Habiba) Rahman Khan, Drosb, Chitral : 
Hajee Mohamed, Jagadhri, Amballa : Hallowes, F. S., Mnssoorie : Hamedullah 
Khan, M., Gujrat : Hampden Hobart, A. G-, Dehra Dun: Hanson, R. ft, 
Nalapani, Dehra Diny Hannman Singh, Amraha, Moradabad : Hard war Nath, 
Mainpuri : Hargiait Singh, Sikandrabad, United Provinces : Hardial, Pathankot, 
Ourrlaspur : Hardy, W. K., Attock : Hari Dass Guin, Segowlia, Motihari : Haridut 
Tewari, Bunji, Kashmir : Harihar Charan Lai, Jamabazar, Saran : Haril- 
Syedh, I., Kadi : Hari Mall, B., Kalka, AmbalJa : Harkness Bruce, W., Dehra 
Dun : TIarman, T., Landour, Dehra Dun : Rar Pershad, Kb.atauli, Muzaffarnagar 



CONTRIBUTORS TO EARTHQUAKE FORMS. 275 

Hari Ram Settu, Dras, Kashmir : Harrington, A. G., Nalapani, Dehra Dun : 
Harrison, A. G., Srinagar : Harsahai Lall Varma, Morena, Gwalior State : 
Harvey, G. B., Multan : Hashmat Ullah. Khan, Muzafferabad, Kashmir : Hazarila 
Sharma, Pandit. Sajat, Rajputana : Heard, E. S., Amballa : Hem Chand Lai, 
Dehra Dun : Hem Baj, K air ana, Muzaffemagar : Hennessey, C J., Ludhiana : 
Hennessy, W. C., Amritsar : Hesari Lall, Bhatinda, Patiala : Hill, Edgar, Partafc- 
garh : Hills, E., Patkabari, Murshidabad : Hilton, E. F., Orai, Jalam : 
Hilton, G. J., Julluudar : Hindl3 r , 0. A., Lyalipur : Hiranand, Miranshah, Tochi : 
Hira Nand, Shahpur : Hira Lai, Sardhana, Meerut : Hira Lai, Rohtak : Hiia 
Lai Varma, Phagwara, Jullundar : Hira Singh, Sirsa, Hissar : Hirdcy Ram, 
Nokodar, •Jullundar : Hira Khan, Khera, Budaun : Hogan, W. J., Banda : 
Holford, C. H., Pachbudra, Jodhpur : Holley, G. H., Rawalpindi : Hope, G , 
Raiwala, Dehra Dun : Hope, Miss, Mussoorie : Horst, W. C, Mussoorie : 
Houseden, W. P., Naini Tal : Hughes, B. R, Nalapani, Dehra Dun : Human, W. H., 
Naini Tal. 



Imam Din, Mian Mir : Imamuddin. Doctor, Paraehinar, Kurram Valley : 
Imamuddin, C. Qazi Saiyad, Aimer: Ishan Chandra Dev, Dehra Dun: Ishwar 
Das. Sonemarg. Kashmir : Ives, H. W. M., Wan, Shahpur. 



Jackson. J. C., Chatali, Sylhet: Jackson, J. F., Lucknow : Jacob, S. H., Jodh- 
pur: Jagadambalal, Agra: Jagat ■ Narain, Etah, United Provinces: Jagan Nath 
Dutt, Amballa City, Amballa: Jagan Nath, Fatehjang, Attock: Jagannath Parshad, 
Sutna: Jagtap, G. C-, Baran, Kotah: Jagat Singh. Landikotal, Peshawar: Jaint 
Prasad, Kumrey a, Kalkankar, Partabgarh : Jallaluddin, Mirza, Handwara, Kash- 
mir: James, H., Chakrata, Dehra Dun; Jamna Dass, Sahgal, Kartarpur, Julluu- 
dar: Janki Prasad, Lala, Gobindgarh, Aiwar: Jasbo, G., Naini Tal: Jaspat Rai, 
Lahore: Jatindranath Kundu, Ranchi ; Jawaliarlal, Kalanaur. Rohtak: Jeewan 
Dass, Rawalpindi: Jeffries, E- H., Hafizabad, Gujranwala : Jhunnilal, Najibabad, 
Bijnour: Jogindra Nath Murkerjee,. Benares: Johnson, W. H., Amballa: 
Johnston, A. II., Amritsar: Jonson, V. T., Lahore: Joti Prasad, L., Gujranwala: 
Jugal Kuhnae, Hardoi, 

K 

Kali Charan, Gonda, Oudli: Kalidas Mitra, Benares: Kanhiya Lai, Indore: 
Kanthack, F. E., Amritsar: Karam Chand, Palwal, Gurdaspur : ICarm Narain Ka- 
pur, Chiniot Road, Lyalipur : Karam Singh, Depalpur, Montgomery: Kartar Singh, 
Dehra Dun: Kashinath Vittal, Lala, Kekri, Ajmer: Kashi Pershad, Tret, Ra- 
wal Pindi: Kanshi Ram Kapur, Mantar, Tehri-Garhwal : Kanshi Singh, Shanka - 
garh, Peshawar : Kavanagh, Hope, Hardwar, Saharanpur: Kay, Daria, Murree: 

T2 



276 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Kehar Singh, Gilgit, Kashmir: Keatinge, G. A., Mussoorie : Kelly, W. M., Dehra 
Dun: Kennedy, R. G., Simla: Kennegy, J. F., Sialkot : Kettlewell, H. W., 
Landour, Dehra Dun : Kifayat Ali, Mir, Rajgarh, Alwar: Kilkelly, Mount Abu, 
Rajputana: Kilman, C., Minimarg, Kashmir: Kingi, L., Mussoorie: Kinlock, W. A., 
Bilaspur, Central Provinces: Kirkpatrick, E., Bannu: Kirpa Ram, Fort Lockhart, 
Kchat: Kirpa Ram, Sonepat, Delhi: Kirwar, R. ML, Lucknow: Kishanchand, B., 
Raewind, Lahore: Kishori Lai, Bharatpur, Rajputana: Kitchin, B., Ranikhet, 
Almora: Kitching, G., Etawah: Knowles, J. K., Meerut : Kazi Ziauddin, Bijnour : 
Kripa Ram, Pilibhit, United Provinces: Kishnarao, Jhunjlmu, Jaipur: Kuchchhap, 
C. A. E., Hazaribagh: Kulan, E. J., Mussoorie : Kula Nand, Pandit, Saharanpur : 
Kunar, A. Ch under, Sitapur, Oudh : Kundan Lall, Itarsi : Kundan Mai, Asan, 
Ajmere: Kunjabihari Gomaun, Bari, Dholpur, Rajputana: Kunwar Hem Singh, 
Barmer, Jodhpur. 



Lachliman, Khushab, Shahpur : Lacki Ali, Munshi, Sholashaban, Chittagong : 
Lafont, Rev. F. E., Calcutta : Lahua Singh, Sangla, Gujranwala : Lakh pat Ray, 
Muttra : Lakhshmi Chand, Khauia, Ludhiana : Lakshmi Ram Pandya, Agra: 
Lala Bag Nath, Jaisalmer. Rajputana : Lala Bakhat Bahadur, Bisra, Rajgarh : 
Lall, C. B., Dehra Dim: Lalubhai Desai, Vadnagar, Ahmedabad: Laughlin, F. J., 
Barcilly: Lawrie, G. C., Gujranwala: Lavelle, D. J„ Delhi: Leager, Geo., Bareilly, 
Rohilkhand: Leake, H. s Saharanpur: Leventon, Arthur, Silchar, Assam : Lucas, 
F. J., Lahore : Lucas, T., Lyallpur : Lumsden, P. I., Kotah : Lyon, H. A. R., Mayo- 
mines, Jhelum : Lyon, W., Sambhar, Rajputana. 

M 

Maclagan, R. S., Simla : McCarthy, P. A., Monywa, Burma : McConaghey, J., 
Lahore : Mackinnon, P. W., Mussoorie: Mackinnon, V. A., Mussoorie: Madanlal, 
Tonk, Rajputana: Maclean, A. H., Palampur, Kangra : Macther, H. M., Lans- 
downe, Garhwal: Maflin, G. W., Ludhiana: Magbul Elahi, Bhatinda, Patiala : 
Magratt, H. A., Kohat : Mahabir Prasad, Sipri, Jhansi: Mahadeva Mudab'a, 
Madras : Nalapani, Dehra Dun : M'ahamed Ramzan, Faridkote, Ferozepore : Maha- 
med Akbar Khan, Muktesar, Naini Tal : Mahbuhab, Adampur, Jullundar : Mala 
Pershad, Dholpur: Mangal Singh, Garanthi, B., Jamrud, Peshawar : Manna Lai, 
Chaoni, Jhalrapatan : Marchant, Mrs. M-, Jobra, Cuttack: Marshall, W. A., Azam- 
garh United Provinces : Mart, H.B., Rev. Leh, Zadek, Kashmir : Martin, C, Bhamo, 
Burma: Martin, J. N., Quetta : Martin, W. F., Sitapur, Oudh: Mason, W. B. V., 
Bareilly : Mass, B. H., Simla: Mathews, S., Lucknow: Mathews, R. J., Fyzabad: 
Mathura Prasad Bhola, Hard war, United Provinces: Mattison, Ch., Rev., Fatehpur : 
Maya Dass, Rawal Pindi : Mayer, C. P., Bhadarwar, Jammoo : Mazumdar, N. R., 
Dehra Dun : Mazumdar, Devendra Nath, Hulmari, Lakhipur : Megh Rass, Dareeba, 
Delhi : Megha, Baiar, Ajmere: Messmore, J. H., Pauri, Garhwal: Mhal Chund, Pegan 



CONTRIBUTORS TO EARTHQUAKE FOEMS. 277 

Chauki, KarnaJ : Middleton, J., Sargodha, Shahpur : Mihal Singh, Bhiwaru, Hi&sar : 
Mil], W. H., Lyallpur : Miller, C. H. A., Sialkot : Miller. J., Chakdara : Miller, H. E., 
Hamirpur: Misra, G. P., Bhilsa, Gwalior. State: Mitra, A., Srinagar : Mitra, Ishan 
Tosh, Beawar, Ajmere: Mitra, Nagendra Nath, Cuttack: Mitter, Hari Da3, 
Serampore : Mitter, Sashi Bhushan, Dacca : Mohamed Abdullah, Gilgit, Kashmir : 
Mohamed Ali, Habib, Syed, Pandaul, Darbhanga : Mohamed Ali,Shajahanpm City : 
Mohamed Hussain, Dehra Dun : Mohamed Ibrahim Khan, Partabgarh : Mohamed 
Nasib, Khiderwala, Lyallpur : Moller, F. A., Darjeeling : Montgomery, A. P.', Lyall- 
pur : Mool Chand, Sirohi, Rajputana : Mool Chand, Jhang : Moolchand Gaur, Sardar- 
shah, Bikaner : Moos, N. A. F., Bombay : Moseley, R. K., Kheri, Oudh: Moses, 
G. C, Narayanganj : Motilall, Gorakhpur: Moti Ram, Dehra Dun: Mualitor Ahmed, 
Tarn Taran, Amritsar : Mukerjee, B. K., Ballia United Provinces : Mukerjee, Dharma 
Da3, Nadia: Mukerjee, Hari Mohan, Faridpur: Mukherjee, G. C, Achipur, 24- 
Parganas : Mukerjee, Sures Chandra, Pusa : Mukerjee, Ambuj Nath, Aligarh : 
Mukerjee, Govind Chandra, Bettia, Champaran: Mokund Singh, Westridge, 
Rawal Pindi : Mukundananda Acharya, Dehra Dun : Mukhu Ram, Lahore : Mullin, 
E. J., Kasauli, Sirhind: Mul, Rajpuri, Baijnath, Kangra: Mumtaz Hossain, 
Kadaura, Orai : Munro, R. A., Rawal Pindi : Murli Dhar, Sikhohabad, Mainpuri : 
Murphy, J. E., Moradabad: Murphy, A., Gujranwala. 



N 

Nag, K., Mymensingh : Nanadati, A«, Byramji, Surat : Nanavatty, B. H., 
Sura : Nand Lai, Dehra Dun : Nandlal Das, Derby, Cachar : Nand Krishna, Lala, 
Kishengarh : Nannid Rai, Lala, Bahror, Alwar : Nanuram Pandit, Sambha, 
Rajputana : Narain Dass, Multan : Narain Krishna, Chineij, Mandawa, Jaipur : 
Narain Sevan Bypai, Banda, United Provinces : Narain Bihari, Lala, Mandava, 
Alwar : Narain Singh, B., Amritsar : Narbada Prasad Bhurgava, Tandit, Jodhpur : 
Nathan Lai, Delhi : Nathan Khan, M., Gwalior Residency, Jhansi : Nathu Lai 
Pandit, Jodhpur : Nathu Mali, Bara Banki, United Provinces : Nathu Narain, 
Jaipur : Nathu Ram, Loharu, Hissar : Neve, E. E. F., Srinagar : Newal Kishore, 
Baraut, Meeiut : Newton, M. H., Jalalpur Jattan, Gujrat : Niblett, R. H., Mus- 
soorie : Nost, Arthur, Khost, Baluchistan : Nowrojee, Khujooeina, Nadir, Dharam- 
sala : Nuthoo Lall, Hazaribagh. 



0*Connor, C, Cherat, Peshawar : Ohmkar Prasad, Chaprauli, Meerut : Okhii 
Chandra De, Chandjjur, Tipperah : Oldham, C. A., Monghyr : Ollenbach, O. C, 
Dehra Dun : Oodoy Ram, Nowgong : Orchard, C. H. F., Kalabagh, Mianwali 
Osbora, W., Bajaura, Kangra : Owen, Percy, Dehra Dun : Qxley, J. C. S., Seoni. 



278 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Palamal. Dt'ra Ismail Khan : Palamull, Pindigkeb, Attock : Panday, R. G., 
Afcola . : Pandit Lakshmi Shanker, Bulandshahr, United Provinces: Pannalal 
Sharma, Surajgarh, Jaipur: Puranjape, S. G., Khandwa : Pargiter, E. H., Khanki, 
Gu jranwala : Parker, P., Deodhur, Ambaila : Parkes, B., Nagpur : Parsharam, 
Kashinath, Pendra Road : Paterson, Mapletoft, Bharatpur, Rajputana : Partridge, 
W. R., Sitapur, Oudh : Paul, Joseph, Lakhimpur : Paul, P. W., Jaipur : Pears, 
E.. Miranshah, Tochi : Peile, H. D., Raipur : Pennel, Mrs. E. F., Bannu : Pereira, 
J. C, Gauhati : Pereira, J. F., Amritsar : Perkins, Alfred, Murree : Peychand 
Gupkar, Kashmir : Phillips, P. P., Roorkee : Pitambar Dufct, Barkut, Dehra Dun : 
, F. E , Kotla, Ferozabad : Plomer, F. A., Meerut : Pope, Margaret Emily, 
Miss, Rurki: Poundarik, Pandit, Chatra : Dattji, Shahpura, Mewar : Powell, C. E., 
Saharanpur : Pra3had, Debi, Bina : Pratap Singh, Pachmarhi : Pratap Singh, 
Bahadar, Mohendra, Maharaja, Tikangarb. : Prese E. M., Bannu : Pyari Mohun, 
Bareca, Minbu, Burma. 

B, 

Radha Krishna, Cawnpore : Radhamohun Lai, Aligarh : Ragbhar Dial, Gohana 
Kohtak : Raghbir Singh, Kliiklt, Lyallpur : Roghubir Dayes, Raghatat, Meerut : 
Roghunandan Dikshit, P., Sarila, Bundelkund : Roghunath Prosad, Pandit, Karauli, 
Rajputana : Rohimali, Gujarkhan, Rawal Pindi : Rohim Ulla, Ferozepore : Rait, 
J. W. F., Purnea : Raja Ram, Garhi, Kashmir : Raja Ram, Panipat : Rajendra 
Mitra, Gadanvara, Narshingpur : Raj Narahi, Pandit, Tijara, Alwar : Rala Ram, 
DattakheL Bannu : Rama Chandra, Paratwara, Ellichpur : Rambhajanlal, Bindki, 
Fatehpore : Ram Bhrosa, Kamalia, Montgomery : Ram Chand, Eminabad, 
Gujranwala : Ramohand, Kotkapura, Faridkot : Ram Chand, Amritsar : Rama 
Chunder, D., Saugrur, Jhind : Ram Chandr ,, Dhaimsony, Bissan, Jaipur : Ram 
Tass, Pind Dadan Khan, Jhelum : Ram Dass, Kakar, Chamba : Ram Dayal, 
Lucknow: Ram Krishna Rao, Pundit, Kosi, Muttra: Ram Labhaya Mall, 
Sargodha, Shahpur: Ram Lakshman Bhakkar, Mianwali: Ram Halir, Lachiwala, 
Dehra Dun: Ram Lai, M., Fatehgarh, United Provinces: Ram Naryan, Orai, 
Jalam : Ram Pershad, Ajmere : Ram Per^had, Ajmere : Ram Pershad, Gwalior 
Station, Jhansi: Ram Rachpal, Private, Delhi : Ram Ratan, Dehra Dun: Rama 
Rathna Pathak, Benares: Ram Saran De, Patharkardi, Sylhet: Ramsaran. 
Delhi: Ram Singh, Khajuri, Tochi: Ram Singh, Bukshi, Ferozepore: Ranj it 
Singh, Chota Simla: Raushan Din, Monteoineiy: Ray, Mahendra Nath, 
Berhampore (Mursh dabad) : Reed, C, Kohat : Rendell, J. T., Pendra Road: 
Rennell, E. M., Pauri, Garhwal : Renill, W., Srinagar : Rennick, R. H. P., Kulu 
Valley, Kangra : Re »-e, J. G. S., Pathankot, Gurdaspur : Rickets, H., Attock : 
Roberts, R. F., Bareilly : Robertson, H. C, Ambala : Robey, P. E., Dehra Dun : 
Robinson, G. W., Multan : Roderick, A. J., Tezpur : Rose, A., Dalao Cacha : 



CONTRIBUTORS TO EARTHQUAKE FORMS. 279 

Rose, W. J., Nowshera, Sialkot : Roshanlal Utlawat, Pokaran, Marwar : Roy, Sre e 
Charan, Barisal: Rozario, E. D., Akyab, Burins,: Rufus, A., Srinagar: Rushton, 
E., Mrs., Rurki: Rushton, W. H., Rurki: Ryan, F. C, Meerut: Ryder, a H. D. 5 
Dehra Dan. 

S 

Sahai, R., Ghaziabad, Meerut : Sahasrabudhe, M. Amraoti : Sahibzada Hanii- 
duzzafor Khan, Jodlipur : Salig Rani, Barmer, Jodhpur : Saligrani Naga, Haniir- 
pur : Sansar Singh, Ranipur, Saharanpur : Sant Ram, Pattan, Kashmir : Sand 
Ram, B., Amballa : Sannyasy, Maymyo, Mandalay : Sanyal, Hem Chandra, Kandi, 
Murshidabad : Sanyal, K., Bogra : Sarada Kanta Banerjee, Cherapoonjee : Sardar 
Ahmed, Multan : Sarat Chandra Dey, Nowgong : Satish Chandra Sen, Dhubr! : 
Satnarain Lai, Mungra. Badshalpur, Jaunpur : Saunders, W. J., Meerut : Saveclra. 
A. G., Ferozepore^ Scaife, R. E., Srinagar : Schonemann, F. W., Aliwad and 
Amritsar, .Amritsar : Schoneniann, F. W., Aliwal, Gurdaspur : Schonemann, F. 
W., Amritsar : Seddon, T., Mian Mir : Seymour, M. A., Miss, Dwarahath, 
Kumaon : Shadilal, Hansi, Hissar : Sham Lai, Jagaclhri, Ambala : Sham Singh, 
Chhaoni, Jhalrapatan : Sham Nath, Pandit, Ajmere : Shambhoodayal, Lucknov : 
Shankarlall, Rhotakmandi, Rohtak : Shankarlal, Jhansi : Shankaia, R, S., 
Amballa: Shanker Dayas, Rosa, Saharanpur : Shanker Rao, Sagor : Shanon, C. 
H., Mussoorie: Sharpe, C. A., Marh, Balocharj, Gujranwnla : Shaw, Jagat D., 
Cossipore, 24-Parganas ; Shaw. G, L., Ai-rah, Shahabad: Shaw. H. G., Dehra Dun : 
Shawe, E., Dr., Nijemo, Ladak, Kashmir : Shekh Ashrif Ali, Jhujjar. Rohtak : 
Sheppard, S. H., Rurki: Sher Mahomed, K. B.,'Kotta, Lodian, Dera Ismail 
Khan : Sher Singh, Ranikhet, Almora : Sherwood, H. J., Rurki : Shiam Lai, 
Bharatpur, Rajput ana : Shiamkishan, Pherozeshaw, Quetta : Shiam, Manohar 
B., Lakhimpur, Kheri : Shib Dial, Rahon, Jullundar : Shivshanker Dube, Pandit, 
C hiarawa, Jaipur : Shiv Ram Pandya, Kunch, Orai : Showers, H. L., Dhadur, 
Sibi, Baluchistan : Silberrad, C. A., Banda : Singha, R. C, Baramulla, Kashmir: 
Sircar, Ananda Prasad, Calcutta : Sita Ram, Dagshai, Simla : Sivadatta Pande, 
Fatehgarh, United Provinces: Smith, C. S., Kamptee: Smith, W. F., Ugbana, Lyall- 
pur : Smith, J. B. G., Dadupur, Amballa : Smith, N., Naini Tal : Sohan Lai, 
Dadupur, Amballa : Sohan Lall, Ferozepore : Sohan Lall Kupur, Khewra, 
Jhelum : Sohan Singh, Kolakam, Kashmir : Solomon, I. A., Bharatpur, Raj 
putaDa: Soner, T. W. de, Saugor Island, 24-Parganas : Souza, T. W. de, Saugor ; 
Spencer, A. P., Ahmedabad : Splane, E. C, Malakand : Sridat, Fatehpur, Jaipur : 
Sri Gopal, Mandi : Srimany, Bringeswar, Chandernagar : Sri Ram, Khangah, 
Dogran. Gujranwala : Stalki, J. W., Darjeeling : Stansfeld, C, Dharmsala : Steel, 
R. F., Bhuj : Standley, A. W. E., Bikaner, Rajputana : Stepone, Le G. A,, 
Dibrugarh : Stevens, E. R., Dehra Dun : Stewart, D. M., Dera Ghazi Kban : 
Stewart, R., Jhelum: Strahan, G. A., Dehra Dun : Subal Chandra Saha Roy, 
My mensingh : Sukh Dial, Daraban, Dera Ismail Khan : Sunder Narain, Banda :. 
Suna Sharepung, Prince, K., Saugor: Suraj Bali Dikshit, Tehri-Carhwal: Suraj 
Bali Lai, Meerut : Sutherland, W. I)., Akola : Swey, W. H., Naini Tal : Syed 



280 MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Alimed All, Moradabad : Syed Tayainmal Hossain, Gokal, Muttra : Syed Zille 
Hossain, Tando Masti Khan, Sind : Sykes, J., Sitapur, Oudh. 



Talati, M. M., Mount Abu, Raj pu tana : Talbot, W. S., Rajauri, Jammu : Tara 
Chand, Pandit, Ramgarh, Alwar : Taylor, F., Allahabad : Teckchand Lekraj, 
Jacobabad, Sind : Tela Ram, Thanesar, Karnal : Tendall, C. E., Pabur River, 
Simla: Thakar Das, Chilas, Kashmir: Thaneshwar, Kathgodam, Naini Tal: 
Thomson, D., Dandot Colliery, Jhelum : Thorpe, A. N., Dholpur, Rajputana : 
Thornhill, B., Srinagar : Thurly, J. W., Karachi : Tickell, R. H., Mardan, Pesha- 
war : Tillard, P. H., Lucknow : Todd, R., Jodhpur : Tristram, C. E., Deoli, Aj- 
mere : Troup, N. F. T., Kaus&nie, Almora : Tullock, J. C, Rambagh, Dehra Dun : 
Tulsi Ram, Nanpara, Bahraich : Tunbridge, J., Dulchipass, Kangra : 'Turnbull, 
S. D„ Segpoora, Kashmir : Turner, W. R., TajawaJa, Amballa: Tydeman, E., 
Nowshera, Peshawar. 

U 

Uman Asan, Ajmere : Usman Ghani, Mastuj, Chitfal. 



Varma, A. P., Sirsa, Hissa : Verriares, A. C, Fyzabad : Vredenburg, E., 

Panna. 

W 

Wainright, E. A., Mussoorie : Wakefield, S., Kurrum Valley : Walayet Hosain, 
Saharanpur : Wali Mahomed, Dera Ismail Khan : Walker, A. C, Fatekpur : 
Wall, F., Fyzabad : Wallace, E. J., Lakhimpur, Kheri : Warburton, W. J., Sana- 
war, Simla : Ward, J. A., Batala, Gurdaspur : Warde, C. P., Mokameh Ghat : 
Walsh, F. R., Ranikhet, Aimora : Watling, F. H., Sambalpur : Wazir Sahai, 
Dehra Dun : Webster, J. E., Mymensingh : Well, S. A., Landikotal, Peshawar : 
West, J., Almora, United Province*?: West, W. E., Ranikhet, Almora: 
Wildeblood, H. S., Meerut : Wilkinson, R. ; Shillong : Williams, M. T„ Muzaffar- 
pur : Williamson, J. C, Landour, Mussoorie : Willoughbj'- Foster, R., Dehra Dun : 
Wilson, G., Warcha, Shapur : Winkfield, R. E., Calcutta: Whitwell, R. H„ 
Bankipur : Woodside, J. S., Landour, Dehra Dun : Woolberi, U. R., Ajmere: 
Worman, W. S., Lahore : Wright, C M. P., Sangri, Kashmir. 

Y 

Young, R. F., Snltanpur, Oudh. 

Z 

Zahur Ahmed, Syad, Bahraich, United Provinces. 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 281 



PART II 



Chapter V. 

I.— TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF 
PROPAGATION. 

The determination of the exact time of the earthquake, as experi- 
enced at the epicentre and at other places scattered 
Difficulties. r . . 

over the felt area, i.e., the construction of co-seismal 

lines, has been beset with all the difficulties usually encountered in such 
enquiries. 1 

The epicentral area itself, principally on account of its distance from 
Sources of infor- ^e larger cities of Upper India, has supplied no 
matlon - trustworthy information on this point. For the 

rest, of India, the information at my disposal has been derived from 
two main sources, namely, (1) the earthquake forms, which express the 
current general opinion, and (2) automatically registering instruments. 

It may here be mentioned that the time-standard use din this discus- 
sion will be that of Madras, which is 5h. 20m. 59*2s. 
east of Greenwich. At the date of the earthquake it 
was the standard in use for railway and telegraph traffic, 2 and to it many 
of the contributors to the forms referred their accounts of the shock. 
Such was not, however, invariably the case, and a large number of 
recorded times are local, or are unaccompanied by any reference to the 
standard used. 

Over the greater part of provincial India the times of the recorded 

Great irregularity shock, even when referred to some standard, are so 

of recorded times. irregular (as will have been seen frem the summary 

of the earthquake forms) that at a first glance nearly all must be deemed 

1 See R. D. Oldham, Mem. O. S. of I., Volume XXIX, page 52^tmeq. 
2 After July 1905 it was changed to so-called " Standard Indian Time " which is 
5A. 30m. east of Greenwich. 



282 MIDDLEMISS ; KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

untrustworthy, that is to say, from the point of view of the 
exactitude required by seismological observations. From certain consi- 
derations as given below, however, it became advisable to discuss these 
apparently irregularly varying times, inasmuch- as it was thought that 
they might conceivably fit in with a particular current theory of earth- 
quake propagation. 

(i) As recorded in the Earthquake forms. 

An elaborate interpretation of the irregularly varying times record- 
ed for certain remarkable earthquakes has. among 

Haiboc-s Theory. , ,. ■ „ , , , ? , * 

other reasons, led Harboe 1 to put forward the 
general theory that the focus of an earthquake is not a point, nor a line, 
but that it ramifies, with a varying degree nf initial violence over 
nearly the whole of the seismic area, and that the shock is transmitted 
very rapidly along these focal lines, whilst out from them at right angles 
it travels very slowly. He has concluded that the true rate of propaga- 
tion of the sensible shock is as low as 0*4 kilometres per second 
( = about i mile per second), and that the much higher rate of 33 
kilometres per second represents the speed through solid rock at some 
little distance below the surface, whilst other intermediate values are 
compounded of the rate of propagation of the disturbance along the 
complex origin and that of the wave motion set up by the disturbance. 

In consequence of the suggestion made to the author that the very 
varied values tor the time given in the returns of the present earthquake 
might also furnish evidence tending to support this, a scrutiny of the 
time-values was instituted with this object, — but with a different result. 

Shortly before 4 P.M. every day, when telegraph traffic is at its 

Daily time-signal lowest, all the telegraph operators in India are 

in India - supposed to get ready to receive the time-signal at 

4 p.m. issued at? the Madras Observatory. Theoretically, therefore, 

the time at all telegraph stations in India thus served should be uniform, 



1 Erdbeben-Linien (Beilrage /.ur G'eophysik, V, p. 206). See also letters in Nature 
of 26th April 1906. by R. L>. Oldham. 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 283 

within a few seconds of error. 1 Unfortunately the human equation of 
error, and also the individual clock errors spread over the hours elapsing 
General unreliahil- since 4 p.m of the preceding day must have had 
ky of the recorded an incalculably large influence on the registration 
on the earthquake °* those times as recorded in the earthquake forms, 
forms. for, an examination of the latter shows them to 

be inconsistent with one another. Leaving out of account all vaguely 
expressed or guessed times, and those given without any accurate refer- 
ence to the standard taken (of which the number is legion), and taking 
for consideration only those substantiated with the statement that the 
time-piece had been checked with telegraphed Madras time (or railway 
time, which was then the same), it nevertheless is at once evident 
that the great majority, even of these so-substantiated times, are 
hopelessly unreliable. This is made plain from a mass of instances 
that might be given showing that in the same town or locality or district 
(if we are to credit the so-recorded times) the shock occurred at impos- 
sibly varying times. 

A few examples will be sufficient to establish this : — 



Locality. Time, said to have been verified by 

telegraph from Madras, 





Kashmir. 




H. 


M. 


Dras . 






5—50 


Srinagar 


. 


. 


6- 


-10 


Poonch 


... 


. 


6- 


-20 


Astor-Gi] 


git road . 


• 


6- 


-30 



1 Mr. G. T. W. Olver, Superintendent, Indian Telegraphs, informs hie that atl5-55all 
work on all lines is stopped, and beats are given for 4 minutes. When the actual time, 
16 hours, is reached, the letter T (indicating " time ") is signalled from Madias to 
certain maiu centres. At these the operators are all waiting, and at the signal they 
immediately repeat "TV again to further centres, and so on. At the most a loss of 
1 second with each repetition might be expected. 



284 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Here the large difference of 40 minutes between the earliest and 
latest recorded times is an impossible condition, even in a large country- 
like Kashmir : for we know sufficiently well that 5-50 is far too early 
even in the most epicentral area, and 6-30 is far too late, being 
long behind the most distant effects as recorded by level tubes 
and water movements on the very confines of the hardly felt shock. 
Consider also the following : — 



Locality. 


Time, said to have oeen verified by 
telegraph from Madras. 


Ludhiana District. 


H. M. 


Ludhiana .... 

Do 

Jagraon .... 

Gujrat District. 

Gujrat .... 
Do. .... 


6-4 

6—10 
6—15 

6—0 
6—15 


Bareilly District. 

Bareilly .... 
Do 


6—9 
6—12 


Hazara District. 




Haripur .... 
Mansehra .... 


6—15 
6—20 


Rawal Pindi District. 




Murree 
Rawalpindi 

Hissar District. 


6—16 

6 — 11 (at end of shock). 


Hansi .... 
Hissar .... 
Sirsi .... 


6—13 
6—15 
6—10 


Delhi District. 




Delhi .... 
Do. .... 
Do 


6—10 
6—12 
6—30 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 



285 



Locality. 


Time, said to have been verified by- 
telegraph from Madras. 


Kheri District, 


H. M. 


Lakhimpur .... 
Do. .... 


6—10 

6—15 


Jaipur District. 




Jaipur .... 

Do 

Jhunjhnu .... 
Kotputli .... 


6—15 

6—25 
5—55 
6—11 


Etawah District. 

Etawah .... 
Do 


6—9 
6—13 



Conclusion. 



Nearly all the above examples tell the same tale of mutual irrecon- 
cilability : in particular I would draw attention to the varying values 
furnished by different observers for the same towns, which are conclu- 
sive ; for time difference in the same town could only arise from one 
cause, namely, imperfect registration. Such differences for the in- 
stances mentioned above are respectively 6, 15, 3, 20, 5, 1.0 and 4 
minutes, which give an average of 9 minutes. 

It is clear, therefore, in spite of their being substantiated, that no 
reliance can be placed on these recorded times, and 
no deduction drawn from them can have any weight, 
except the deduction that the ideas of time accuracy and the lack of 
conscientiousness of the operator or observer, as well as the poor time- 
keeping qualities of the clocks in use in many of the up-country offices, 
introduce so large a measure of error that their evidence is useless from 
the point of view of learning anything new about the rate of transmis- 
sion of the earthquake waves so recorded. The fact of the matter is 
that over the greater part of provincial India uniformly co-ordinated 
time is not yet recognised as a necessity, and therefore in spite of the 
well-meant daily signal it is not, as a matter of fact, kept. 



286 



MIDDLEMISS : KANORA EARTHQUAKE. 



On the other hand in very large or important cities, especially 

T , those situated on main lines of railways, we begin 

in large or mi- j 7 o 

portant centres the to see a closer grouping of the recorded times of 

recorded tunes are j ar g e numbers of observers round some common 
Less irregular. 

centre / 

The best examples of these are furnished along the great stretch of 
plain country within the neighbourhood of isoseist No. 7, and lying 
between Lahore and Saharanpur, a stretch of country which includes 
many important cities that are also railway centres connected by the 
main lines of railway in this part of India, and for which therefore 
accurate time would be a natural desideratum. Certain other centres 
of importance, such as Simla (the summer head-quarters of the Govern- 
ment of India) and Mussoorie and Dehra Dun, also exemplify the same 
thing, and make it abundantly clear that uniformity in the times recorded 
is primarily dependent on the places being of such importance in the 
official or commercial world that regular time-keepiog may be presumed 
to have begun to be more or less a reality. 

For instance : — 



Locality. 


Details of time. 


Simla 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 


H. 
6- 

6- 

6- 

6- 


M. 

-10 
-10 

-10 

-91 


by watch corrected every day by tele- 
graph office. 

the mean of times shown by 10 pendulum 
clocks, which all stopped, and 4 
watches. 

watch regulated by telegraph office. 

time as given by meteorological observer* 



Although it may be that the last value is the most correct, we see 
from the above only a variation of half a minute in all times that have 
been substantiated by reference to a fixed standard. 

1 The Fame fact is very noticeable in the case oi the severe aftershock of 
28th February 1906 where such times could be compared with those of the seis- 
mographs which were Ihen installed at Simla. 'See page 366.) 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 
Compare also the following : — 



287 



Locality-. 



Details of time. 



Lahore 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Mian Mir (Lahore 

Cantonment). 
Jullundur 

Amritsar 
Do. 

Do. 

Dehra Dun 



Do. 
Do. 



Mussoorie 
Landour. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Saharanpur 



and 



H. M. 

6 — 10 by railway station clock in telegraph 
office, stopped. It was corrected 
every day by signal from Madras. 

6 — 10 by 2 platform drum clocks in railway 
station, which are put right every 
Monday with the telegraph clock. 

6 — 7 by watch compared with Nor th-W es tern - 
Railway station time. 

6 — 12 by Government watch keeping accurate 
time and often compared with obser- 
vatory clock. 

6 — 10 by watch in accordance with telegraph 
time. 

6 — 10 by railway station telegraph clock, 
corrected by daily signal from Madras. 

6 — 10 by watch timed at railway station. 

6—8 by railway station platform clock 
stopped (not certified correct). 

6—11 by 2 pendulum clocks stopped, regularly 
checked by railway time. 

6 — 10| by turret clock in Survey of India Office, 
stopped. (See also page 90.) A cor- 
rection of + 34 seconds is stated to be 
required. 

6 — 10 by watch correct with turret clock. 

6 — 12 by excellent clock in time with turret 
clock. 

6 — 11 Government telegraph clock stopped* 
said to be correct. 

6 — 10 by new watch correct with telegraph 
time. 

6 — 10 by watch constantly corrected by tele- 
graph time. 

6 — 14 by watch compared on same day with 
telegraph time. 

6 — 11 by chronometer watch checked at the 
time on railway platform. 



288 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

If we consider as in the preceding case the extreme time differences 
for all individual towns where more than one observation is recorded, 
we have as follows J, 5, 3, 2, 4 minutes respectively, which give an 
average of 3 as against 9 in the preceding cases. And this method of 
comparison neglects the fact that very many recorded times are in 
absolute agreement. 

Summing up the evidence for the time as given in the earthquake 
forms by observations said to be substantiated by 
nof^onfir'med^ 6017 refe *ence to the standard then in vogue, we find that 
it in no way confirms Harboe's theory of a complex 
ramifying "spider's web " centrum, from which the felt waves spread 
slowly into the intervening areas. It certainly gives evidence for a 
condition of a somewhat similar nature as regards the times, but one 
whose complex ramifying lines are in reality those coinciding with im- 
portant towns or railway communication, along which more' accurate 
time-keeping has become customary ; whilst the intervening areas, instead 
of being those where the felt waves spread slowly, become merely those 
where irregularity of quite another sort occurred, namely, in that of the 
sending, registering or correct referring of the daily time signal. The 
unequal transmitting power that operated was not inherent in the rocKS 
but rather in the machinery of time registration. 

From information kindly supplied me by Mr. G. T. W. Olver, 
Superintendent, Indian Telegraphs, I am able to give the following 
details of the stations where the daily time signal is repeated on its way 
to the towns mentioned in the preceding lists. It will be seen that a 
loss of 4 or 5 seconds is the utmost that should occur in transmitting the 
signal if ordinary attention is observed. The following abbreviations 
are used: Ms.=Madras, By.=Bombay, Lh.=Lahore, Sk.=Srinagar, 
Ag.=Agra, Rp =Rawal Pindi, Dhi.= Delhi, Lkw.=Lucknow. 



Locality. 


Repeating stations. 


Dras .... 
Srinagar .... 


Ms., By., Lh., Sk. 
Ms., By., Lh. 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE: RATE OF PROPAGATION. 



289 



Locality 


Repeating stations. 


Poonch 


JMs, By., Lh., Sk. 


Astor-Gilgit road 


Ludhiana 




Ms., By., Ag., Amballa. 


Jagraon 




Ms., By., Ag., Ainballa, Ludhiana. 


Gujrat 




Ms., By., Lh. 


Bareilly 




Ms., By., Ag. 


Haripur 




Ms., By., Ag., Rp., Abbottabad. 


Mansehra 




Ms., By., Ag, Rp. 


Murree 
Rawal Pindi 




} Ms., By., Lh. 


Hansi 




*) 


Hissar 




\ Ms., By., Dhi. 


Sirsi 




) 


Delhi 




Ms., By., Lkw. 


Jaipur 
Jhunjlimu 




| Ms. By,, Ag. 


Kotputli 




Ms, By., Lh. 


Etawah 
Simla 




}Ms,By, Ag. 


Lahore 




Ms., By. 


Mian Mir 




Ms., By., Lh. 


Jullundnr 




Ms, By., Ag., Amballa. 


Amritsar 




Ms., By, Lh. 


Dehra Dun 




) 


Mussoorie 




[ Ms, By, Ag. 


Landour 




J 


Saharanpur 




Ms., By., Ag., Rp. 



Caution. 



It should be understood that the results arrived at in this examina- 
tion of the times are only negative as regards 
Harboe's theory : they simply do not support it. 
On the other hand, that some delay in transmission at the very surface 
is effective in the mountainous parts seems likely (see p. 306). It is 
conjectured, however, that these slow moving surface waves are 
propagated only a very small distance before they become smothered 
by free movement, and it seems to the author doubtful whether they 
could have any noticeable effect on the great plains of India. 

u 



290 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

With the above exception, it becomes evident that the earthquake- 

Regnlar radial form tim °- records , though untrustworthy in detail 
progression of the (especially in the more outlying towns and districts) 

° lk ' when considered as a whole, and when special 

credence is given to important centres where many substantiated obser- 
vations agree with each other, contain nothing to discredit the regular 
radial progression outwards of the shock from the epicentral region 
towards the circumference of the felt area. And these finally are in 
agreement with the few specially trustworthy automatically recorded 
times provided by the seismographs (see p. 291). 

(2) Special Instrumental Records. 
These are derived primarily from the seismographs of the Milne 
Seismo 1 d ^ e * n ^ e meteorological observatories of Bombay 
maguetograph re- (Colaba), Kodaikanal in the Palni Hills and Calcutta 
oords * (Alipur), and secondarily from magnetographs in the 

observatcries at Bombay (Colaba), Dehra Dun, Barrackpore and 
Toungoo. 

If recent criticisms of seismographic records is to be trusted (as to 
which specialists in this branch of science can alone speak with parti- 
cular knowledge), the Milne seismograph trace, which is very small and 
often blurred 1 cannot be trusted to show all those minute sub-divisions 
of regularly recurring period and amplitude which the larger forms 
working with a large natural period of swing, register b}' means of a 
needle point on smoked paper, and which give an open or large time- 
scale diagram. 2 

The so-called preliminary tremors as seen in long-distance seismo- 
grams written by th,e Milne instrument, are, however, fairly well 
differentiated from the large movement which follows. The splitting 
of the preliminary tremors into two groups, first and second, is also 

1 It depends on a reflected spot of light impinging on sensitised paper, and this it 
appears may not always bo bright and sharp. 

2 See " Publications of the Earthquake Investigation Committee in Foreigu 
Languages " No. 24, p. 26, also " La Science Seismologique," by Le Comto de Mon- 
tessus de Ballore, p. 40. 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 



291 



believed by many to be sufficiently recognisable. However that may 
be, the beginning of the large movement is the only definite point that 
can be reasonably correlated with the sensible earthquake wave or shock 
as felt in its progression from place to place over the surface of the 
affected area. 

The times of commencement of the large movement in the Indian 
Time of com- seisinographic records of the Kangra earthquake 

meneement of large , 

movement on seis- are as follows : — 
mograms. 

H. M. S. 

Bombay (Colaba) 1 .. 6 — 17 — 29 mean of two measurements 

Kodaikanal .. 6—21—48 

Calcutta (Alipur) . . 6—17—5-2 

and if for the present we take 6h. 9m. as a probable time for the 

beginning of the shock in the centre of the larger and more important 

Kangra epicentre, we have — 





Distance in miles from 
centre of large epicentre. 


Seconds dur- 
ing transit. 


Deduced rate in miles 
per second. 


Bombay (Colaba) 
Kodaikanal 
Calcutta (Alipur) 


950 

1,497 

950 


509 
768 

485 


1-87 
1'95 
1-96 




Mean.. 1*92 

' ... . 



Since Bombay and Calcutta are the same distance from the epi- 
centre, we can by taking a mean of the two times of arrival at those 
places and subtracting it from the time of arrival at Kodaikanal, obtain 
a fresh rate of transmission which is independent of the more or less 
guessed time at the epicentre. Thus 547 miles in 271 seconds gives a 
rate of 2 02. Or working out the two rates independently according 
to the time values at each of the places Bombay and Calcutta, we get 

8 of 211 and 1*93 respectively. The former rate, if continuously 

l The values given here differ slightly from those giveu in my preliminary report 
being the final determinations as printed in the Monthly Weather fteview for April 
1905. 



292 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

maintained from the epicentre, would give a time of commencement of 
6h. 9m. 59s. and the latter Gh. 8m. 52s. 

The latter very closely agrees with the time provisionally taken 
as correct at the epicentre, namely, Cm. 9m. being based on the time 
given as 6h. 9£m. at the Simla Meteorological Office and on the large 
amount of evidence for 6h. 10m. in the cities lying about isoseismal 
VII between Lahore and Saharanpur. 

Besides the above time of 6h. 17m. 52s. recorded at Calcutta, we 

have further corroborative times afforded by Mud 

Clocks stopped in Point and Saugor Island, which agree in giving 

6h. 17m. 0s. Other time evidence in Calcutta that 

may be mentioned here has been derived from the stoppage of clocks. 

At St. Xavier's College the electric clock stopped at 6h. 20m. 0s. ; 

at Alipur Observatory the astronomical' clock stopped at 6h. 19m. 0s. ; 

but it is important to remember that so far from the centre as Calcutta, 

where the shock was necessarily very weak, it is probable that these 

clocks did not stop all at once, and therefore that they considerably 

overstate the time 

Evidence derived from the examination of the magnetograms 
at Dehra Dun, Bombay, Barrackpore and Toungoo 

Magnetograms. ° 

by the Survey of India Officers in collaboration with 
Prof. Omori show, however, a possible modification of this which would 
fix the time at the epicentre as 6h. 10m. 43s. 

The following is a report by Captain R. H. R. Thomas, R.E., on the 

subject : — 

On the ttme of the principal Earthquake shock on the 4th April 1905 as 

registered on Magnetograph Curves.— By R. H. R. Thomas, Captain, 

r.e. 

For the purposes of the magnetic records no minute accuracy in time is re- 

The accuracy oi mea- quired. The shortness of the time scales, viz., about 0-6 

surements. inch for one hour precludes accurate measurements to more 

than one minute, -01 inch being equivalent to that amount. 

The process of measuring the exact moment of time of a particular point on 
the trace is burdened with several sources of error in the measurement of small 
quantities. These are as follows :— 

(1) Error of zero of measurement — the verticals on the glass scale being 
lines of a certain thickness, it is difficult to place the vertical line 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 293 

immediately over the point of measurement. It was subsequently 
found to be better to place the zero line to one or other side and 
measure the departure. 

(2) Errors in measuring quantities smaller than 10 minutes, this being the 

smallest division of the glass scale. 

(3) Error in determining the corrections to glass scale. 

(4) Error in measuring the parallax of the curve, being the small quantity 

by which the time scale overlaps the curve or vice versd. 

(5) Error in estimating the number of seconds before or after the hour at 

which the cut off falls, the driving clock being unprovided with a 
second hand. 

Considering all these sources of error, which in the most unfavourable 
case are cumulative, it would not be excessive to regard the probable error of a 
single measurement as ±2 minutes, though in many cases fortuitous cancellings 
would operate to produce results far closer to the truth. 

The accordance however of many of the results in the following pages, when 
independent measures were taken by two or more observers, is such that there 
should be no hesitation in accepting some groups as correct at least to 1 minute 
time. 

There is moreover a check on the times found for each observatory by 
comparing the intervals derived from the time of shock at each observatory with 
the intervals obtained by measuring the interval between the shocks and the well 
marked apices of disturbances on the same date. This method assumes that the 
times of disturbance are simultaneous but, in view of the measurements of the 
disturbances and the fact that such disturbances are proved to be simultaneous over 
large areas, the assumption is not unwarranted. Two apices of disturbance have 
been utilized and the measurement has been made in two ways. 

An additional advantage applies to these methods in that error of cut off 
parallax and error of clock are not involved. 

In the first the absolute time of the apex of disturbance is found and the 
time interval derived by applying the absolute time of the shock already deter- 
mined. 

In the second the interval is measured direct and the only sources of error 
are in the measurement of the small quantity by which the time is in excess of or 
defect of a 10-minute division of the glass scale and in the correction to the length 
of the glass scale itself. 

This method probably gives the closest approximation to the interval of time 
betvy-een the registration of the shock at different observatories and hence the 
velocity of transmission. 

If then 2 and .'J give results fairly in accordance, it will probably be best to 
accept the time intervals given by 3 as being correct and then compare these with 
the measurements of the time intervals obtained by the direct measurements of 
the times of shocks. 



294 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

This should give an indication of the correctness or otherwise of the assumed 
chronometer errors. 

(2) Before tabulating the results of the measurements of the magnetograms 
and comparing them as above suggested, it would be well to 

etnods 01 b r j e fly indicate the methods of obtaining correct time at the 
obtaining tune J ° 

at the various various observatories, 
observatories. 

At Dehra Dun time is obtained by comparison of the observer's chronometer 
with the sidereal clock at least twice a week, errors on the days being interpolat- 
ed by the rates thus obtained. 

At Barrackporc and Toungoo time is obtained by observations to E: and 
W. stars. 

At Kodaikanal time is obtained by telegraphic signal from Madras daily 
and the observer's chronometer is compared daily with the Solar Physics observa- 
tory clock. At all observatories the driving clock of the magnetographs is 
compared daily with the standard chronometer by means of a pocket chronome- 
ter, but as before stated in the absence of a second hand on the driving clock this 
determination is likely to be in error some seconds. 

Times of Principal shock measured from magnetographs. 

i.— Direct measurement of time of shock corrected for errors of clock, 'parallax 

and cut off. 

[All in Madras time. H from H.F. curve 8 from declination curve.] 

Thomas. Mazumdar. Omori, 

Dehra Dun. (H) 6-11-43 -) 6-11-29*) 6-11-27 



L) 6-11-43 ) 6-11-29*) 6-11-27-) 

[6-11-46 [ 6-11-37 V6-11 

) 6-11-48J 6-11-46J 6-11-33) 



30 



Mean. 6-11-38. 



(H) 6-1 6-12 -) 6-16-26) 646-29) 

> 6-16-39 > 6-16-38 £ 6-16-43 

(^ 6-17-5 J 6-16-50 ) 6-16-55 J 

Mean. 6-16-41. 

Kodaikanal. (Hi 6-21 -40 i 6-21-37") 6-21-30") 

U-21-52 [ 6-22-7 [ 6-22-0 

(o) 6-22-4 ) 0-22-36 ) 6-22-30 ) 

Mean. 6-22-0. The Kodaikanal H.F. trace is very faint and diffi- 
cult to measure. 
Toungoo. (H) 6-20-3. 6-19-45 6-19-58 

(S) Very faint not measured. 
Mean. 0-19-55. 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 295 

M.S. 

These give intervals— Dehra Dun to Barrackpur 5-3 

Do. Kodaikanal 10-22 

Do. Toungoo 8-17 

or separately for the three observers ; 

H. S. Mean of h and 8 

Dehra Dun— Barrackpur. T. 4-29 5-17 4-48 

M. 4-57 5-4 5-0 

0. 5-2 5-22 5-12 

Do. —Kodaikanal T. 9-57 10-10 10-7 

M. 10-8 10-50 10-29 

O. 9-57 10-57 10-27 

Do. —Toungoo. T. 8-17 

M. 8-8 

O. 8-28 

II. — Measurement of time interval between apex (a) of dicturbance and time ci 

shock. 

(1) Absolute time of apex of disturbance (a) — 

Dehra Dun. Barrackpur. Kodaikanal. Toungoo 

Thomas . 9-12-27 9-12-22 9-12-5 9-11-7 

Mozumdar . 9-12-17 9-11-55 9-12-36 9-11-15 

Substracting the values of each" observer for the time of principal shock we get 

Dehra Dun. Barrackpur. Kadaikanal. Toungoo. 

Thomas . 3-0-41. 2-55-43. 2-50-13. 2-51-4. 

Mozumdar . 3-0-40. 2-55-27. 2-50-29. 2-51-30. 

This gives times for interval. — 

M. S. 

r T. 4-58. 
Dehra Dun — Barrackpur < 

(.M. 5-13. 

f T. 10-28. 
Do. — Kodaikanal -\ 

Cm. lo.ii. 

T. 9-37. 



Do. — Toungoo 



fT. 9-37. 
CM. 9-10. 



(2) Direct measurement of time interval — 

Dehra Dun. Barrackpur. Kodaikanai. Toungoo. 

Thomas 3-0-32 2-55-18 2-50-10 2-51-0 

Mozumdar 3-0-28 2-55-25 2-50-24 2-51-5 



096 MJDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

f 

r 



M. S 

5-14 

Giving times for Dehra Dun — Barraclspur 

~.M. 5-3 

. T. 10-12 
Do. — Kodaikanal 



10*4 

9-32 

9-23 
///. — Absolute time of apex of disturbance (b).. 



Do. — Toungoo 



(1). Dehra Dun. Barrackpur. kodaikanal Toungoo. 

Thomas . 2-31-46 2-31-40 2-31-45 2-30-35 
Subtracting time of principal shock we get — 

Dehra Dun. Barrackpur. Kodaikanal. Toungoo. 

3-40-0 3-44-59 3-50-15 3-49-38 
giving— 

M. s. 

Dehra Dun — Barrackpur , 4-59 

Do. —Kodaikanal . 10-15 

Do. —Toungoo . 9-38" 

(2) Direct measurement of interval from apex (&) to principal shock — 
Dehra Dun. Barrackpur. Kodaikanal. Toungoo. 

Thomas 3-39-51 3-44-54 3-49-55 3-49-16. 

giving differences 

m. s. 

Dehra Dun — Barrackpur . . 5-3 

Do. — Kodaikanal . . 10-4 

Do. —Toungoo. . . 9-25 

IV. — Absolute times of disturbances. 
As found these are — 

Distance (a). Distance (b). Difference (b—a). 

Dehra Dun . . 2-31-46 ") Mean 9-12-22 6-4036 

Barrackpur . . 2-31-40 [ 2-31-44 9-12-9 Mean 6-40-29 

Kodaikanal . . 2-31-45 ) 9-12-209-12-7 6-40-35 

Toungoo . . 2-30-35 9-11-11 <U0-36 

M. S. ") 

Difference Mean . . . 1-9 >M. s. 

Toungoo . . . . 1-6 J 1,8 

This proves that the disturbances are simultaneous at all observatories within 
the limits of measurement and that Toungoo time is slow, 1m. 8s., while, the 
time at the other three observatories is very good. 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 297 

This conclusion is further borne out by consideration of the intervals Dehra 
Dun — Toungoo by the two methods of measurement. 

Dehra Dun — Toungoo. 

M. s. 

(1) By direct measurement of time of shock . . 8-17) Mean 

8-8 \ 8-18 
8-28 ) 

(2) By measurement frQm disturbances (which elimi- 9-37^1 

nates error of clock). 

9-10 I Mean 
9-32 f 9-27 
9-23 
9-38 ! 
9-25 j 

or Toungoo time slow 1m. 9s. and mean correction to Toungoo = +1m. 8s. 

y t — Comparisons of the intervals of time found from Dehra Dun to the other obser- 
vatories. 
Dehra Dun— Barrackpur — 

m. s. 
(a) Direct measurement . . . . . 4-48 \ Mean 



5-0 5-0 ^ 
512 ) 



r5-5 



By measurement from disturbances . . 4-58 

5-13 
5-14 
5-3 
4-59 
5-3 J 
Dehra Dun — Kodaikanal — 

(a) By direct measurement .... 10-7 ") Mean 

10-29 [ 10-21 
10-27 ) 



J- 5-3 



] 



(6.) By measurement from disturbances . . 10-281 L 10-1 7 

10-11 I [ 

ft? Mo- 12 J 

10-15 
10-4 J 

This shows that the clock times at Dehra Dun, Barrackpur and Kodaikanal are 
correct. 

VI. — Final values of lime of principal shock. 

For the reasons shown Ijy the tables in V there is no good reason for not 
accepting the times given for Dehra Dun, Kodaikanal and Barrackpur, the only 
correction is then to add Im. 8s. to the Toungoo time. 

The times then become — H. M. s. 

Dehra Dun 6-11-38' 

Barrackpur ..... 

Kodaikanal ..... 

Toungoo .. . . . 



6-11-38^ 

6-16-41 Uladra 
6-22-0 \ time. 
6-21-3 J 



298 MIDDLEM1SS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

giving times from 
Dehra Dun to : 

M. S. 

Barrackpur ...... 5-3 

Kodaikanal 10.22 

Toungoo 9-25 

VII. — On the time of transmission derived from the times given in the preceding 

pages. 
Assuming that the origin of the seismic wave was in latitude 32-0-0, longitude 
77-0-0, the distances on the arc are — 
Origin to ; 

Dehra Dun . . . 131 miles = 211 kilom. 

Barrackpur . . . 944 „ =1,519 

Kodaikanal . . . 1,498 „ =2,411 

Toungoo . . . 1,512 „ =2,433 

and Dehra Dun being close to the origin, the differences between distances Dehra 
Dun and the other observatories will closely approximate to the correct distances 
along the great circles from the origin to those observatories. 
The velocities of transmission found are — 
M. s. ' 2*7 miles per sec. 



(5-3) Dehra Dun — Barrackpur 
(10-22) Dehra Dun— Kodaikanal 
(U-25) Dehra Dun — Toungoo . 
or a mean velocity of 



) 

4-3 kilom. 
2-2 miles 



.r 

C3-9 

.r 

C3-! 



•5 kilom. 
2-4 miles 

kilom. 
2-4 miles 



•9 kilom. „ „ 

It follows from this that magnetographs do. not register preliminary tremors 
error so close as 200 miles to the origin. 

This velocity is intermediate between Prof. Omori's v 3 (4-6) and Vf> the sur- 
face velocity 3-3 kilometres per second derived from the observation of a number 
of earthquakes. 

Applying this velocity to the distances Dehra Dun to assumed origin we get — 
Time of earthquake at origin 6h. 11m . 38s. — 55s. 

= oh. 10m. 43s. 

With reference to this Prof. Omori 1 writes : — 

" Thus the time of earthquake disturbance as registered by the magnetograph 
at Dehra Dun was Oh. 50m. 38s. G. M. T., the approximate distance of that place 

1 Publications or Earthquake Investigation Committee in Foreign Languages, No. 24. 



TIME OF EARTHQUAKE : RATE OF PROPAGATION. 299 

from the most central part of the epifocal zone being 1°45 / , or 195 kilometres. 
Within such an epicentral distance the velocity of propagation of the first prelimi- 
nary tremor is probably 5 or 6 kilometres per seconds. If we assume the velocity 
to be 6 kilometres per second the time taken by the seismic waves in travelling 
the distance of 195 kilometres would be about 32 seconds. Now, as the magneto- 
graph is not so sensitive as a seismograph, the time moment recorded at Dehra 
Dun might correspond to the commencement of the principal portion, the dura- 
tion of the total preliminary tremor being probably some 20 seconds. Thus the 
time of earthquake occurrence at the epicentre may approximately be taken as 
Oh. 50m. 38s minus about 50 seconds, or Oh. 49m. 48s. G. M. T. [which is 
6h. 10m. 48s. Madras time]." 

With reference to Captain Thomas' note, however, I pointed out. 
that with regard to his deduced times if we neglect 

Criticism oi Cap- . . 

tain Thomas' note! tne -Dehra Dun time as being disputed we have by 
difference of time and space (using his own figures): — 

Difference of time, Kodai and Barrackpore . 319 sees. 

Do Toungoo and Barrackpore . 262 „ 

Difference of radial distance from centre : — 

Kodai and Barrackpore . . . 554 miles. 

Toungoo and Barrackpore . . 568 „ 

Rate in first case 554 -f 319 which is . . 1*74 miles per sec. 

2nd case 554-262 . . . 2*17 ,, 

Now these radial distances and times should at that distance from 
the epicentre give a uniform rate (approximately) which they do not, 
the difference amounting to nearly J mile per second. Also buth are 
too low according to his own estimate. So that if from them we cal- 
culate backwards to the point of origin, namely, 1,498 and 1,512 miles 
respectively, we get 6h. 7m. 39s. and 6h. 9m. 26s. respectively for the 
time at the epicentre. 

The above reasons make me hesitate to accept the results of the 
magnetogram readings as in any way contributing to our knowledge of 
the true time of the sensible shock. 

In reply to this criticism Captain Thomas quite agreed to the prin- 
ciple of deducing rates by the difference method leaving Dehra Dun 



300 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

time out, and he therefore had to admit the Dehra time inexpli- 
cable. 1 

On the other hand the rates deduced from the times of arrival of 
the large movement in the seismographic records at 
Calcutta, Bombay and Kodaikanal are as we have 
already seen far more in agreement among themselves, the extreme 
difference of rate being only about -j* mile per second instead of nearly 
$ mile per second. It seems, therefore, more logical to accept the mean 
of them, namely, 1*92 miles per second, as being the best rate obtainable. 
Whether the co-seismal lines (curves of equal time), especially near the 
epicentre, are irregular or not in their courses round the central region 
cannot be actually known : the number of absolutely accurate time 
observations have been shown to be too few for such fine distinctions. 
But it is probable that such irregularity is not great, and that the curves, 
therefore, approximate to regular concentric circles round the epicentre. 
It has certainly been shown that any argument against this conclusion 
based on the markedly irregular times as recorded locally in up-country 
stations, can have no weight because of the untrustworthy character of 
the latter. 

II.— THE ISOSEISTS : INTENSITY AND CHARACTER OF 
THE SHOCK. 

Following on the time and speed of the shock, the next aspect 

of the earthquake that will be considered here is 

Varying surface j£ g areas f varying surface intensity. Of these 

intensity. . 

it may be said that, whilst a systematic delineation 
of them on the map is one of the main functions of a survey, a correct 
appreciation of what they imply will perhaps lead us nearer to a satis- 
factory understanding of the earthquake than may be obtained along 
any other lines of enquiry. 

This is so because the intensity of an earthquake shock is a very 
real .and effective quality, and in studying its effects we are led 

1 Demi-official letter to me, dated 29th September 1905. 



THE ISOSEISTS. 301 

through zones of greater and greater destruction to the pleistoseismic 
area which must lie above the place of origin. 

No one doubts that the surface during an earthquake is in a com* 
plicated state of molecular strain and movement, the earth particle 
(as revealed by seismographs) swinging in ever-changing paths that 
yield, as factors, the period, velocity, amplitude and acceleration of 
that particle. These vary in amount at different places, generally 
increasing as regards the energy involved and the damage caused to 
buildings, etc., up to some point, line, plane or other epicentral surface 
feature, from which also the time records frequently show that the 
movement sprung and spread. 

But, beyond this, if we try to analyse directions of shock as felt 
by observers, as evinced by swaying and fallen objects, or as deduced 
from strains resulting in fissures that have been set up in all solid 
objects resting on the earth, and even the surface of the ground itself; 
and if we try to square that analysis with theoretical speculations as 
to what the nature of the wave or waves started by the seismic im- 
pulse ought to be — then do we find ourselves entangled in a hopeless 
mass of irreconcilable data. At least such seems to be the prevailing 
experience among many students of earthquakes, and it is certainly 
borne out by the study of the present earthquake. 

Whether, then, the original impulse is condensational and in the 
direction of propagation of the shock, or distortional and transverse 
to it, or both ; whether such wave or waves reach the surface by this 
or by that path, and with varying speeds or not — current explanations 
regarding which the writer thinks do not yet thoroughly accord with 
facts — need not be considered for the purposes of this descriptive 
memoir. Assuming a below-the-surface origin for the shock, the first 
news we really have of it is as expressed at the surface of the ground 
in damage which varies in character and intensity. To the general 
description and summarising of this, accompanied by a few remarks on 
the character of the wave motion as so expressed or recorded in the 
various isoseismal compartments I now propose to turn. 



302 MIDDLEMEN : KAXORA EARTHQUAKE. 

Compared with that of the co-seismal lines our knowledge of the 
isoseismal lines (or curves of equal intensity) is suffi- 

Isosoismnl linrs. 

ciently complete, at least in the more central areas, 
for them to be mapped in fair detail . This is so because of the less 
evanescent character of the evidence as expressed in the ruined towns, 
and because the principal areas in question were examined by the 
Geological Survey. 

One of the special tasks undertaken by the officers' of that depart- 
ment was this mapping of the areas of varying inten- 
sity in accordance with a standard intensity scale. 
The scale originally adopted was the Rossi-Forel, which is detailed 
below — 

Rossi-Forel Intensity Scale. 

(I) Recorded by a single seismograph, or by some seismographs of 
the same pattern, but not by several seismographs of different 
kinds ; the shock felt by an experienced observer. [This 
number of the scale is now obsolete owing to improvements 
in seismographs.] 
(II) Recorded by seismographs of different kinds ; felt by a small 
number of persons at rest. 

(III) Felt by several persons at rest ; strong enough for the duration 
or the direction to be appreciable. 

(IV) Felt by persons in motion ; disturbance of movable objects, 
doors, windows ; cracking of ceilings. 

(V) Felt generally by every one ; disturbance of furniture and 

beds ; ringing of some bells. 
(VI) General awaking of those asleep ; general ringing of bells ; 
oscillation of chandeliers, stopping of clocks ; visible disturb- 
ance of trees and shrubs. Some startled persons leave their 
dwellings. 
(VII) Overthrow of movable objects, fall of plaster, ringing of 
church bells, general panic, without damage to buildings. 
[Owing to poor material and construction in India damage to 
buildings is considered to begin here.] 



THE ISOSEISTS. 



303 



(VIII) Fall of chimneys, cracks in walls of buildings. 
(IX) Partial or total destruction of some buildings. 
(X) Great disasters, ruins, disturbance of strata, fissures in the 
earth's crust, rock-falls from mountains. 

So far as the higher intensities of .VII, VIII, IX and X are con- 
HHier and lower ce ™ e( l> this mapping, it is believed, has been success- 
intensities different- fully accomplished. It was, however, hoped that 
ly determined. a cr itical examination of the effects as detailed in 

the earthquake forms would have enabled the lower intensities, VI, 
V, IV, III and II to be similarly inserted on the map over the unvisited 
areas. With this object the individual forms were all separately valued, 
each on its own internal evidence*, and the numbers assigned were 
afterwards entered on the map. It was then found that not only were 
there great gaps in the more circumferential regions, but also that the 
figures covering the well-reported area showed a considerable inter- 
mingling. 1 The lower isoseists therefore and with them isoseist VII 
have been finally grouped together as follows : — 



Grouped members of the Rossi- 
Forel scale. 


Definition taken here. 


II and III . 

IV and V 

VI and VII . 


Felt by a few sensitive people lying down 
or favourably situated. 

Generally noticed, no damage. Shaking of 
beds, etc. 

Universally felt. Upsetting of small, loose 
objects. No damage, except in rare in- 
stances, to burnt brick structures. Small 
cracks and damage to sun-dried brick and 
mud buildings which are so common in 
India. 



l It must also be confessed that the figures allotted were in many eases rather arbitrary 
on account of the difficulty in rural districts of correlating such purely European 
standards as ringing of church and house bells, swinging of chandeliers and cracking 
of ceilings. 



304 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The resulting lines are shown on the map (pi. 28). This is in 

effect the grouping adopted by Oldham in his ac- 

ham's Grouping for count °f the Assam earthquake of 1897, except that 

the 1897 earthquake, that author numbers the isoseismals from the centre 

outwards as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, instead of in the reverse direction. 

The various isoseists will now be described according to their lie-, 
the areas enclosed by them and the energy and character of the wave 

within them. 

Isoseist No. X. 

(i) Description and general Intensity. 

The innermost isoseismal line, No. X, of the Rossi-Fore! scale 
t encloses an area of about 200 square miles. Its curve 

Areas and bound- ^ 

aries. roughly cuts Dharmsala, Rehlu, Daulatpur, Bawarna 

and Palampur, but its E. S. E. edge was found to be ill-defined. We 
have seen that it includes much of the Kangra valley and portions of 
the lower slopes of the Dhauladhar range. 

With the exception of this rather vague E. S. E. edge, no one who 
Nature of evi- was familiar with the effects of the earthquake would 
dence * have much doubt about the limits of the rest of this 

area. In all the outlying areas, destruction to life and property, though 
it might be great, was never so sweeping as within isoseist X. What 
were merely destroyed or ruined 1 villages within the IXth isoseist 
become, within the Xth, flattened and levelled heaps of debris. In the 
former one might wander amongst the ruins, in the latter one could walk 
over the prostrate remains : in the former the better built bungalows, 
constructed on European lines, could occasionally be partially utilised — 
a room here' or a verandah there remaining standing, whilst in the latter 
at Dharmsala, Kangra and Palampur, etc., all the surviving inhabitants 
were forced into tents or temporarily erected shelters. 

Within isoseismal X also, only the strongest structures survived 
intact, such as the Dharmsala magazine and treasury ; whilst all build- 
ings of ordinary great strength, such as the European barracks at 

1 For def niticn of teim seep. 8. 



THE ISOSEISTS. 305 

Dharmsala, Rehlu Fort, well-built court-houses, travellers' bungalows, 
police stations, jails, tea factories, mission houses, churches and massive 
temples alike were destroyed. 

In the case of the ordinary sun-dried brick and slate roofed bazar 
the total destruction which occurred may be said to have been a fore- 
gone conclusion, as it was also a characteristic of the region. 1 

The experiences of survivors within this area agree in recording the 
terrific nature of the shock and that it was accom- 
v , ors panied by the loudest sounds. It was above all 

o'thers the area most fatal to human life, the area - 
whence issued nearly all the tragic stories of sudden death, of entomb- 
ments and gallant rescues. The Kangra and Palampur Tehsils alone 
had 10,000 and 3,000 deaths respectively, which is about -^ the whole 
population. 

But perhaps the most concrete evidence is afforded by the many 
„ ., , overturned or partially overturned stumpy spires, or 

Evidence of over- r j rj r 

turned Sikras. SiJcras, belonging to early Hindu temple art. As 

described and illustrated (p. 37 and elsewhere), these 
rather uniform, stoutly built, stone structures, so common in this part 
of India, have only been overthrown within isoseismal X. 

It is, in short, believed that the evidence recorded in the descriptive 
portion of this report is sufficient to allow the 

Intensities greater , . 

than X not observed delineation Of isoseismal X in terms of the Kossi- 
in this earthquake. Forel scale. The intensity there displayed, as 
interpreted by the destruction, seems to be the maximum for ordinary 
world- shaking earthquakes of presumed deep-seated origin, excepting 
only those like the Assam quake of 1897 and the Japan quake of 1891 
which were accompanied by surface displacements on level ground, and 
which carried in their train fault-scarps, destruction of railway tracks 
and iron girder bridges, the bending and snapping of trees and other 
destructive effects on vegetation — in all of which cataclysmic effects the 
Kangra earthquake fell short of those just mentioned. 

1 Prof. Omori mentions a similar result in the case of the Formosa earthquake. 17th 
March 1906. See Bull. Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee, Volume I, 
No. 2, p. 5.1, 



306 MIDDLEMJSS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The map will show the general position of isoseist No. X and the 
~ .. _. _ following list of chief towns within that boundary 

ideographical Index. 

arranged alphabetically will further explain its 
range :— 

Places within Isoseist No. X. 











Distance in miles - 


Name of town or village. 


District. 


Lat. 


N.— Long E. 


from nearest point 
of main epicentre. 


Bawarna .... 


Kangra . 


32° 


3'_ 76° 33' 


1 


Chari 






Do. 




32° 


22'— 76° 19' 




Daulatpur 






Do. 




32° 


3'_ 76° 19' 




Dharmsala 






Do. 




32° 


13'— 76° 24' 


}»A11 within a few 


Kaugra 






Do. 




32° 


6'— 76° 19' 


miles. 


Nagrota 






Do. 




32° 


7'— 76° 26' 


1 


Palampur . 






Do. 




32° 


7'— 76° 36' 


J 


Rehlu 






Do. 




32 u 


13'— 76° 16' 





At Dharmsala. 



(2) Character of the Shock within Isoseist X. 

It seems likely from a general consideration of damage done and 
reports furnished, that the earthquake motion which 
destroyed the most of Dharmsala was a very complex 
one. The inequalities of the surface, and the great damage on ridges, 
spurs, steep slopes and convexities, seem to show that the motion at 
these actual surfaces was a compound of molecular and molar motion : 
that the waves belonged to that large, slow- travelling, semi-gravita- 
tional class which become manifest when traversing loose superficial 
material that has a low modulus of elasticity and numerous free 
surfaces. Through such rocks, near the surface, the amplitude would 
be gradually increased and with it the period, owing to the inferior 
powers of resistance and recoil among the particles of these more or 
less disintegrated and soil-cap covered localities. 

Being of this character it is evident that the sensible shock On 
every spur and ridge and elevated plateau lost way by visible displace- 
ment, disruption, crumbling, loosening and spreading out of the 
superficial rock and soil-cap — for which there is considerable evidence 
in the fissures in the hillsides and the special damage there done ; 



THE ISOSEISTS. 307 

whilst, on the other hand, in the hollows and bays in the hills, together 
with some valley bottoms having support all round, no such visible 
movement has occurred and they may be considered as areas of relief 
or " shadows," or places where the shock had either spent or neutralised 
itself by interference. 

The same thing is borne out by the upsetting of the barracks and 
other buildings in a down-hill direction round the long and winding hill 
spurs, no matter what point of the compass was indicated — a fact 
which incidentally shows how hopeless is the task of using directions 
of fall of buildings, even of such symmetrical structures as the magazine 
and Lord Elgin's tomb in looking for evidence pointi g to the central 
line of the disturbance. 

The case of the other tomb and gate pillars in the church-yard 
that had rotated on their bases is interesting as possibly indicating a 
twisting movement of the ground, although it does not appear that such 
effects are necessarily produced in that way. 1 

The projection of the cross from the east gable-end of the church, a 
horizontal distance of 37J feet from a height of only 32 feet, testifies to 
the great swing the latter must have acquired before it and the upper 

10 feet of the gable-end were shot away. From the formula v= / ~jj 

where a is the horizontal distance and b is the vertical distance, we 

obtain the value r= 26J feet per second, as the horizontal velocity 

with which theee objects started, as they were flicked or slung off their 

supports. Such velocity is of course a greatly magnified representation 

of that of even the surface wave- motion at this place. 

Coining now to testimony supplied by eye-witnesses as recorded in 

„ t the earthquake forms and newspapers, we find a 

Statements oi eye- * r r * "««* «* 

witnesses. comparatively small number of observations on 

which to work. From those at Dharmsala we seem 
warranted in believing that there were 1 or 2 gen tie, or preliminary 
tremors followed by a roar, and then by 2 or :i severe shocks, the 
second of which was the most disastrous. People were thrown to the 



1 Sec Oldham. Mem. G. S. of I.. Vol. XXIX. Chap. XIV. 

x2 



308 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

ground, most buildings fell at once, but, as some think, at the second 
shock. The recorded directions of shock are, as was to be expected, 
extremely various ; whilst from some statements the shocks can only 
be interpreted as a mass movement in a horizontal direction and back 
again — not so much a fierce shaking as a drag of the ground in one 
direction and then in another like the wash and back- wash of a water 
wave on shore. The very heavy mortality in the bazars, barracks and 
houses seems to imply the same thing, from the fact that only those 
who were warned by the preliminary tremors and by the sound had 
time to escape. All who waited for the shock itself were unable to get 
away. Consider the statements — "the houses lurched forward with 
violence and came down as if made of cards," and " in a moment, with 
two fearful lurches, every house collapsed " and the still more laconic 
"our houses fell down" and "the saheb had been thrown into a 
corner and killed " (see p. 27). 

The absence in all this written evidence of any reference to shaking 
or vibration, and the insistence on the instantaneous character of the 
phenomenon confirms the conclusion drawn from the examination of the 
ruins and hillsides, that the principal shock was so severe that the 
complex of ridges and spurs were only able to take it up as one or two 
vigorous and largely horizontal lashes (after the first tremors were 
done) and that these horizontal lashes or rapid swayings were at once 
damped on all slopes by free movement and spreading out of soil-cap 
with surface fissures as already explained. 

From one eye-witness at Dharmsala (see p. 17), there is some 
reason to believe that the necessarily slow translation of such surface 
movements was actually observed, and that "the waves surged about 
the variously curved slopes of the hills upsetting bazars and buildings 
thereon, not simultaneously, but one after the other at intervals 
appreciable to the eye. 1 



1 Mallet in his description of the great Neapolitan Earthquake found that the 
rocking of towns perched on the summits and flanks of hills, especially the lower spurs 
that skirt the great mountain range, greatly aggravated the natural effects of the shock, 



THE ISOSEISTS. 309 

Attention has just been drawn to the different effects of the 
shock on the spurs, ridges and hollows. But the 
comparative effects on different classes of buildings 
are also worthy of note. That the prevailing type of bazars built 
of sun-dried bricks and mud mortar "would be severely damaged by 
any earthquake of considerable magnitude may be said to be almost 
a foregone conclusion, but there are other considerations which render 
such frail structures particularly unstable — 

First. — The usually open verandahs. 

Second. — The open fronts of the shops behind the verandahs, and 
only partially boarded in. 

Third. — The floors of the second story resting on beams let into the 
mud walls. 

Fourth. — The heavy slate roof. 

Fifth, — The irregular mode of building shops of all sorts and sizes 
without plan or arrangement : a condition which made it impossible for 
any two neighbouring shops to swing together with like periods. Hence 
they mutually charged into and destroyed each other in their efforts to 
make independent swings. 

It is doubtful whether many of the older private houses in Dharm- 
sala were much superior to the bazars in their earthquake resisting 
powers. Certainly all having two stories and the consequent inter- 
mediate floor were equally ineffectual, because of the battering-ram like 
action of the beams and joists directly any rocking motion began. 
Even the strong stone buildings such as the Gurkha mess-house and old 
British barracks suffered inevitably from this horizontal line of cleavage 
at the upper floor. 

On the other hand equally strongly built single-storied buildings 
such as the magazine, quarter-guard and treasury, without any lines of 
great weakness, and with a strong domed roof binding the walls to- 
gether instead of lying loosely on them, successfully resisted the shocks 
by rocking as single masses. 



310 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

It would have been interesting to compare with these the effects on 
pliable wooden or entirely bamboo structures with thatch roofs, but so 
far as I know there were none of this type in the station. 

Until, and unless, earthquakes become a common occurrence instead 
of an isolated, hardly remembered catastrophe, it would, in the 
writer's opinion, be useless to urge the construction of earthquake-proof 
buildings. It would also be useless to discountenance building on ridges 
and spurs for the same reason. There are too many immediate advan- 
tages of economy and convenience to be derived from using the mate- 
rial that is close at hand, from following the styles of building familiar 
instead of strange, and from adopting any building site that is available 
and conveniently placed, to make it reasonable to use legislative action 
in restricting private enterprise to certain forms of structure and to 
certain localities. Whether the Government itself will think it wise to 
set an example by building its own offices on some earthquake-proof 
model or not, remains so far as I know, to be as yet decided. If this 
should be determined on, the easily available supply of rounded river 
boulders from the neighbouring stream -beds should be utilized for found- 
ations, on which a strongly keyed and framed house could move as it 
were on ball bearings. 

Although we have no accounts of eye-witnesses from Kangra, there 
are certain observations of overturned objects (describ- 

Kangra. 

ed at p. 35) which give us some details regarding the 
other wave elements of the shock at that place in addition to its mere 
intensity. The gate pillars and simple rectangular tombs in the 
Bhawan cemetery were found to yield the following values for the wave 
elements : — 

Acceleration . =13 feet per second per second 

Amplitude . = 9 J inches 
Velocity . =3^ feet per second 

Period. . = 1-J seconds 

and it is probable thai the Hindu temple sihrts which were either 
overturned or in a leaning condition would give us much the same 
figures if their more complicated shape could be reduced to a simplified 



THE ISOSEISTS. 3^ 

form. The very large amplitude of 9 I inches testifies to a highly 
destructive slow moving wave similar to that which must have obtained 
at Dharmsala, and having as its physical reason the loosely aggregated 
sub -recent gravels, sands and clays and their numerous steep and high 
free edges at the river gorges. The acceleration of 13 feet per second 
per second is equal to 3,900 mm., which according to Omori is above 
scale X, coming near his own number 6. The overturned objects at 
Kangra yielded a more or less definite direction of overthrow within a 
limited area, namely, between N.45°E. and N.93°E. 

At ClachnacucTdin Tea Estate three shocks are reported, the second 
longer and more violent than the first and from 
bourhood. N.E. or E., whilst the third is described as a sudden 

jerk from N.E. and back again. We have also data 
from the projection of the crosses from the gable-ends of the Palampur 
Church to distances of 21 feet 10 inches and 24 feet 3 inches from 
vertical heights of 37 and 46 feet respectively, which testify to the high 
swing acquired by the building during the shock. 

In the two cases v^^/ 206 feet and y ' 204 feet per second, respective- 
ly, *. e., about 14 feet per second, as the greatly magnified horizontal 
velocity with which they were jerked off their high positions. 

Isoseist No. IX. 
(1) Description and general intensity. 

This isoseismal line is not so well delineated as either VIII or X. It 
D , . would indeed be sufficient if it were regarded merely 

Boundaries less ° J 

well defined than as an interpolation between VIII and X. Still 

VIII or X. ^ l ,i.',i i 

it encloses an area m the greatly disturbed tract that 
has many characteristics of its own. An attempt will now be made to 
summarise these. In extent it embraces an area of about 1,600 square 
miles, surrounding No, X in a rough ellipse. The greater part of this 
area lies to the east- south-east of the X area with only a comparatively 
narrow band continuing round its north-west part. On the west and south 
this isoseismal can be located with considerable accuracy as it cuts 



312 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Shahpur, Ranital and Sujanpur ; but further east-south-east by Mandi 
and Manglaur it is less well defined, the destructive effects within it dying 
away very gradually in that direction just as was the case within 
isoseist X. Its northern course also is somewhat vague where it cuts 
the uninhabited and little- trodden snowy ridge of the Dhauladhar 
passing thence to the Beas valley between Sultanpur and Naggar. 

As a whole it may be said to be the area of moderate 'destruction. 
An area of mod- But inasmuch as it includes a great variety of 
crate destruction. country ranging from the gently lying Kangra valley 

to the rugged mountains of Kulu which comprise varied styles of village 
architecture, the results show a similar diversity that is not easy to 
summarise in a word or two. Temple silcras as mentioned under the 
last sub-heading were not overthrown, as shown by many examples at 
Mandi, Bajaura and Sultanpur, damage to them being entirely confined 
to the downthrow of the amalaka, or top ornamental stone (see pp. 50, 
56, 58) or to small horizontal shiftings of the courses of masonry. 

Great diversity in the styles of village architecture in this area has 
Variety of village ne lp e d *° complicate deductions concerning the 
architecture. apparent intensity. Only in the area of the Kangra 

valley was one able to compare effects within this isoseist on sun-dried 
brick and slate roofed bazars with those in the same class within isoseist 
No.X. 

In the more eastern and hilly parts of this area a great feature in 
promoting the destruction of many buildings was the free use of river 
boulders in the construction of walls. At Mandi, Sultanpur and 
generally along the large river valleys, such material nad been frequent- 
ly employed by native builders, and it even found its way into the 
construction of the piers of the Buin suspension bridge, which was totally 
wrecked. 

Another feature was the mixed and debased styles of building used 
in the bazars of Sultanpur and other parts of the valley, styles which 
involved the use of much wood in the construction of the walls,- but 
without the advantage of a -properly keyed and pegged wooden frame as 
in the old hill models. The latter in the form of drv stone and wood- 



THE ISOSEISTS. 313 

bonded towers, often built kat-ki-kuni, seemed to have generally stood 
well both in the IX and VIII areas, damage only appearing where the 
timbers had manifestly rotted. 

Large numbers of cattle are said to have perished in parts of this 
area, e.g., Mandi and.Suket, owing to the custom of sheltering them in 
the lowest stories of the houses. In other parts many perished in caves 
and by being overwhelmed in rock avalanches. The heavier Mandi 
slates, which are much thicker than those got near Dharmsala, would 
have contributed no doubt to the destruction of houses more than they 
did had it not been for the freer use of better and stouter timbers in 
the roof. 

Of the bungalows set apart for travellers nearly all showed fairly 
Bungalows. well the average and moderate damage of this area, 

which fell far short of complete destruction except in the case of one or 
two of ancient and poor construction, e.g., Jhatingri and Kataula. The 
majority were being repaired as they stood by partial renewal of 
portions of the walls, roofs, etc. In rare cases, such as at Shahpur, one 
could still use a room or verandah, at a pinch, whilst well-built private 
bungalows and native houses at Bajaura, Mandi and Jhatingri still 
remained quite habitable though much rent and fissured. 

Although the travellers' bungalows differ among themselves a good 
deal, they are perhaps the most uniform of any buildings for comparison. 
It will be remembered that all such were ruined within area X. Within 
the present isoseist No. IX we may tabulate the results as follows : — 



Travellers' bungalow at 


Summary of damage done. 


Shahpur 

Ranital 

Jawalamukhi 
Baijnath 

Dhelu 


Single storied, partly of dressed stone and brick set in 
mud mortar. Slate roof on iron rafters. It was. badly 
rent, chimneys fell, end walls just did not fall. 

Double storied building. Badly rent, portions of 
upper walls ruined. 

Equal to Shahpur or Ranital. 

Badly rent and fissured, worse than Shahpur, not so 
bad as Ranital. 

Chimneys fell, bungalow still standing, rent and 
fissured. 



314 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Travellers' bungalow at 



Summary of damage done. 



Jhatingri 
Urla . ' 

Mandi 
Kataula 

Kandi . 
Bajaura 
Sultanpur 
Larji . 



Old and very badly built of fragments of undressed 
slate and mud mortar. Ruined, outhouses destroyed. 
Built of rough stone slabs, etc., fitted together with- 
out any mortar or mud cement and with wooden 
beams laid horizon tally among the stones at 
intervals Chimney fell, damage equals Shah pur. 

Chimney standing though much damaged. Roof buokled 
in places. 

Old and badly built of slate fragments roughly fitted 
together without any mortar. Destroyed all but 
one corner. 

Equal to Shahpur. Cross walls fractured and plaster 
had fallen. 

Partly built . of sun-dried bricks and flat blocks of 
stone. Half ruined, was being repaired as it stocd. 

Partly ruined but not t-o much as Bajaura, was being 
repaired as it stood. 

Seriously damaged and not weather proof. Verandah 
could be used. 



The area includes much high ground such as the culminating ridge 
Landslides and °^ ^ ne jD nau ladhar lying to the north of the Kan- 
dust clouds. g ra valley which were characterised, especially near 
the snow line, by many terrific landslides with occasional dust cloud 
phenomena as detailed at page 42. The steep slopes in the Parbati R. 
and those near Larji in the valley of the Beas also fall within this 
isoseist and were localities that were also the scene of landslips of great 
size and occasional dust clouds. They also included the temporary 
formation of two lakes in the Tirthan and Sainj gorges *by landslip 
dams. Considering the magnitude of these surface displacements of rock 
and soilcap within isoseist IX, one may freely conjecture how disastrous 
the results might have been to those colossal slopes (many of which 
approach or even exceed the limiting angle of stability in such rocks) 
had they fallen within the next highest isoseist, No. X, instead of only 
within that of IX. 

The area also includes the Guma and Drang salt mines and the 
much smashed and powdered rocks in the vicinity of the main boundary 
fault from which many landslips descended choking the open workings. 



THE 1S0SEISTS. 



315 



It also includes the Bubu and Dulchi passes, the former of which was 
seriously blocked for months, and the latter considerably injured by 
falls of the bridle track. It has been noticed that many springs were 
affected in this area, such as those near Jawalamukhi, although this is 
not a character particularly appertaining to this isoseist. Damage to 
hill roads within this isoseist was frequently very severe, especially in 
the case of the new cart road north of Mandi and the bridle roads along 
the Beas, at steep places such as Larji. In connection with roads two 
important bridges at least were demolished, one by landslips at Barwar 
lake, and the other by disintegration (Buin). 

As before, the general direction taken by isoseist IX can be seen by 
Geographical Index. tne ma P- The principal towns included within it are 
given below : — 



Places between Isoseists Nos. IX and X. 





Distan 


ce in miles 


Name oi town or village. District. 


Lat. N. — Long. E. from 


nearest point 






of ms 


tin epicentre. 


Baijnath . 


Kangra 


32°3 / — 76°42 / Ab 


out 4 


Bajaura 




Do. 






31°51'— 77°13' 


, 10 


Barwar (lake) . 




Mandi 






31°42'— 77°19' 


, 17 


Bhuin 




Kangra 






31°53'— 77 c 13' 


, 9 


Bubu (pass) 




Do. 






31 c 57'— 77°3' 


, 6 


Dhelu 




Mandi 






32°0'— 76°51 / 


, 4 


Drang 




Do. 






31°49— 77°1' 


, 4 


Dulchi (pass) 




Do. 






31°5"— 77°9' 


, 5 


Guma 




Do. 






31°58'— 76°55' 


, 4 


Jhatingri . 




Mandi 






31°57'— 76°57' 


, 3 


Kohad 




Kangra 






32°5'— 76°52 / 


, 9 


Larji 




Do. 






31°44 / — 77°17' 


, 14 


Man di 




Mandi 






31°42 / — 77°0 / 


, 10 


Paprola 




Kangra 




32°3'— 76°42 / 


, 4 


Ranital 




Do. 




1 32°1'-— 76°18' 


, 10 


Shahpur 




Do. 




32°12'— 76°15 


, 8 


Sujanpur . 




Do. 




31°50'— 76°33' 


, 14 


Sultanpur . 




Do. 


! 31°57'— 77°10' 


, 10 


Swar 




Do. . 1 32°5'— 76°55 " 


, 11 



(2) Character of the Shock. 

The following are all the facts and impressions I have been able to 
gather concering the character of the shock within area IX. 



316 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

From Baijnath the shock is described by one observer as lasting 3 
R .. n to 5 seconds and without any preliminary tremors, 

whilst by another it is described as all one huge 
vibration, increasing gradually in intensity until he was nearly thrown 
off his feet. The ground is stated to have been apparently moving in 
waves and that trees swayed with terrific force to within a few feet of 
the ground, whilst puffs of dust, marking falling villages, progressed from 
south to north. The sound, which was a roar like a gale approaching, 
occurred 5 seconds before the shock began. The last description seems 
to bear the stamp of careful analysis, whilst both agree that there was 
but one movement. The same point is brought out in the evidence 
furnished from Drang and Mandi, but from the last place the quake is 
represented as 3 almost successive shocks, the direction being N.W.- — 
S.E. and preceded by a booming noise. 

From Bajaura the evidence of one observer familiar with earth- 
quakes testifies to there being but one single accele- 

Bajaura. . ...... 

rating motion increasing in violence to a maximum 
and then dying down, the duration being 1 J minutes taken by a stop 
watch. The direction is doubtful, for whilst one observer gives it as 
N. — 3. another equally credible gives it as E. — W. (from which it is 
probable that the direction changed during the progress of the shock). 
One observer states that the quivering motion of the ground was so 
irregular that objects not only shook sideways but also danced up and 
down like a bubble of water on a hot plate. It was very difficult to 
stand during the more violent phase. The sound, which was a dull 
rolling becoming like a cannonade, began 10 seconds before the 
shock. 

The above practically concludes the statements and deductions for 
Conclusion for the ^e Kangra-Kulu epicentral area between the X and 
Kangra-Kulu area. ix isoseists, and from them one or two points seem 
to emerge which seem reasonable and congruous with other conclusions 
regarding the earthquake. It seems clear that as we proceed from 
Dharmsala in an E.S.E. direction the character of the earthquake 



THE ISOSEISTS. 3 17 

changes from one characterised by a preliminary tremor or tremors 
followed by a sudden thrust or thrusts backward and forward that 
instantly destroyed all buildings, as at Dharmsala to one that was a 
regularly increasing single-movement vibration and much less destruc- 
tive. The line of change corresponds to the passage from the Upper 
Siwalik conglomerates and soft sandstones to harder and firmer forma- 
tions until at Bajaura we are on the much more compacted old Hima- 
layan series, and it also corresponds, as we shall see later, to what is de- 
duced as the direction in which the axial centrum " pitches " or 
increases in depth. 

Isoseist No. VIII. 

The VHIth isoseist is relatively a very well-marked one. It forms 
two separate closed curves, one in the Kangra-Kulu 
marked in two closed area and the other, a smaller one, in the Dehra Dun- 
Mussoorie area. In both areas, but especially in 
the main Kangra-Kulu area, the VHIth isoseismal is the boundary 
where sensible damage to buildings begins to be plainly visible. On 
entering that area the least observant of human beings would very soon 
have seen that a disaster had occurred, whereas, avoiding the larger towns, 
he might have wandered over the surrounding isoseismal zones for days 
without encountering anything more noticeable than a few tiny cracks 
in walls. 

(i) Kangra-Kulu area. 

Like the other isoseists, thi3 isoseist is more definite in position in a 
Position and in- W.N. W. than in an E.S.E. direction. The curve 
eluded area. cuts Telokenath (Mangla Devi) near Kotla, a point 

between Dera Gopipur and Jawalamukhi, Suket and Rampur ; whilst in 
its northern curve it cuts less definitely a point between Naggar and 
Manali, another a little east of Manikarn and a third at Gaora near 
Rampur. The included area is about 2,150 sq. miles, and it forms an 
elliptical belt round the IXth isoseist. To the north of the Dhauladhar 



318 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

ridge this belt is somewhat vaguely known, but a few observations on the 
villages in that neighbourhood were made by Colonel Hayes, 1st Lancers 
(see p. 75). On the west and south-west I have myself in the pre 
vious chapters described the area in the vicinity of Haripur and Dera 
Gopipur (see p. 38) and similarly with regard to the neighbourhood 
of Naggar ; whilst higher up the valley, at Manali, notes by Captain 
Banon furnish us with sufficient data. Among other things the latter 
drew attention to a peculiar effect in this area, namely, the snow mist 
that resulted from the vast number of avalanches of snow detached 
from the steeper slopes by the earthquake (p. 75). The Malana glen 
and the upper reaches of the Parbati between Jari and Manikarn give 
instances of the extension into this VIII area of damage to the hillsides 
due to their precipitous nature and to the splintery condition of the 
rocks, In like manner both here and near Manali springs of water were 
affected. The area lying south-east of the Barwar lake as far as Kot on 
the south side of the Jalori pass has been described (p. 72), whilst 
that near Suket was reported on by Mr. Bur kill (see p. 76). From 
the above with the aid of a map it will be seen that this rather large 
isoseist, which sometimes passes into out-of-the-way valleys has been 
fairly examined along 6 or 7 cross-sections, sufficient to delineate it 
with all necessary accuracy. 

The damage to the villages in this area was what one may generally 
Damage to vil- call slight. It took the form of a roof gone here, 
lages * the end house of a row there, a hill tower bulged or 

partially shattered and so on, the damage being everywhere easily 
appreciable by the eye, but generally mild enough for the inhabitants 
to still retain possession of their homes after a little patching had been 
done. 

Of travellers' bungalows within this isoseismal nearly all were habit- 
Damage to bunga- • ame m parts, and many private bunga ows such as 
lows - some of the more better built modern ones at Naggar 

were scarcely damaged at all, or only in their upper stories. Others 
more heavily built and of greater age had been badly shaken and fis- 



THE ISOSEISTS. 



319 



sured, but none were in ruins. Summarising the damage to travellers' 
bungalows within this VHIth isoseist we have : — 



Travellers' bungalow at 


Summary of damage done. 


Jari .... 

Manikarn 

Manglaur 

Jibhi .... 

Kot .... 


Intact and habitable. 

Ditto. 
Not much damaged, some rooms habitable. 
Built kat-U-Jcuni. Intact save roof near chimney 

and verandah of heavy slate out of plumb. 
Timber bonded but not kat-ki-toini Walls bulged, 

heavy slat* roDf damaged and had been removed 

since the shock. 



For the purpose of the better circumscribing the VIII area we may 

D- „ tobn k ere give for comparison a summary of damage done 

lows just outside to travellers' bungalows in the parts of the VII area 

VIII area. . & F 

immediately surrounding the VIII area in these hilly 
tracts : — 



Travellers' bungalow at 


Summary of damage done. 


Pathankot . 
Nurpur 
Dera Gopipur 
Chawai 
Dalash 

Luri .... 
Luri to Simla 


Uninjured. 

Just visible racks at joints of walls. 

A few minute cracks in plaster of corners, etc. 

Habitable, only chimneys fell. 

Intact, even chimneys in position : a few tiles loosened 

and fine cracks in plaster of walls. 
A well-built modern bungalow. No cracks at all. 
All bungalows intact. 



If we were to consider only the evidence supplied by the travellers' 
bungalows for the areas circumscribed by the Xth, JXth, and VITlth 
isoseists together with that in the VII area just outside VIII, I think 
such data alone would be sufficient for drawing the isoseists as they 
have been drawn in conformity with the Rossi-Forel scale of intensity 
(see p. 302) 



320 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



(2) The Dehra Dun-Mussoorie area. 
The smaller closed curve of the VHIth isoseist is not perhaps so 
No doubt about snar P lv marked off as that in the Kangra-Kulu area 
tion detached posi " But tnere is no doubt from Messrs. Simpson and Hal- 
lo wes' work and from the numerous earthquake forms 
relating to that part that such an area exists round about Dehra Dun and 
Mussoorie, and that it is entirely detached from the larger Kangra-Kulu 
curve. In my preliminary report I regarded the above as a nearly es- 
tablished fact, but had to admit that the hilly tract directly in line 
between Rampur on the Sutlej River and Mussoorie or Chakrata had not 
been personally visited. Since then, however, my colleague Mr. Hayden 
traversed across this line east from Kotgarh and was able to confirm 
the absence of visible earthquake effects along that line. See also 
Mr. Tendall's earthquake form from Rohru, Simla District (p. 184). 

We are now therefore certain as to the complete separation of the 
Dehra Dun-Mussoorie VHIth isoseist from the same iso3eist in the Kangra- 
Kulu area. Also, from Messrs. Simpson and Hallowes' work we may be 
equally certain that in spite of many visible records of the shock in the 
form of cracks and displacements in masonry buildings in the important 
towns of Saharanpur, Rurki and Hardwar, these towns have suffered much 
less than Dehra Dun, Mussoorie or Landour, and therefore that the VIII 
area is equally bounded in the opposite direction towards the plains. 
All that remains slightly problematical is the precise position of the 
curve — the line as drawn may be perhaps a few miles out on either side. 
The following index shows the places within the VTIIth isoseist in 
the two areas. 

Places between Iscseists Nos. VIII and IX. 

(1) Kangra-Kulu area. 



Name of town or village. 


District. 


Lat. N.— Long. E. 


Distance in miles 
from nearest point 
of main epicentre. 


Banjar .... 

Hamirpur 

Jalori (pass) 


Kangra 
Do. 
Do. 


31°38'_77°24' 
31°4l'— 76°35' 
31°32'— 77°27' 


About 24 
„ 22 
„ 30 



THE ISOSEISTS. 



321 



Places between Isoseists Nos. VIII and IX — concld. 
(1 ) Kangra Kvlu area— concld. 









Distance in miles 


Name of town or village. 


District. 


Lat. N.— Long. E. 


from nearest point 
of main epioentre. 


Jari .... 


Kangra 


32° 0'— 77°18 : 


About 18 


Jawalamukhi . 


Do. 




31°52 / — 76°23' 


16 


Jibhi . 


Do. 




31°36'— 77° 5' 


„ 26 


Kot 


Do. 




31°31'— 77°29' 


,, 33 


Manglaur 


Do. 




31°40'— 77°22' 


„ 21 


Manikarn 


Do. 




32° 2'— 77°25 / 


o 24 


Nadaun .... 


Do. 




31°47'— 76°24' 


*. 21 


Naggar .... 


Do. 




32° 7'_77°14' 


„ 20 


Plach .... 


Do. 




31°39'— 77°24' 


„ 23 


Suket .... 


Suket 




31°32'— 76°58' 


„ 22 


Telokenath 


Kangra 




32°14'— 76° 8' 


» 14 



(2) 


In Dehra Dun-Mussoorie area. 




Name of town or village. 


District. 


Lat. N. — Long. E. 


Distance in miles 
from epicentre. 


Chakrata 

Dehra Dun . . 
Iiandour .... 
Mussoorie . . 
Rajpur .... 


Dehra Dun 
Do. . 
Do. . 
Do. . 
Do. . 


30°43 / — 77°54 / 
30* 19'— 78°5 / 
30°27'— 78°7' 
30°27 / — 78°2 / 
30°24'— 78°5' 


-All within a few 
miles. 
J 



Character of the Shock. 
(1) Kangra-Kulu area. 
No accounts have come in from the VIII area in the Kangra-Kulu 
tract, nor were there any other special facts observed .from which any 
deductions regarding the character of the shock might be drawn >* 
there being no large towns to furnish any data regarding the wave 
elements other than the general intensity of the shock. 

(2) Dehra Dun-Mussoorie Epicentral area. 
In spite of a certain amount of contradiction in the descriptions of 
the shock from this area, we gain a very fairly complete idea of its 

Y 



322 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

character from the many excellent reports sent in from this well popu- 
lated region. The distinctly vibratory character of the shock is every- 
where admitted. 

That there were mild preliminary vibrations is testified to by a 
Preliminary vibra- lar & e numDer of observers, and such have been' 
tions - characteristically described as quiverings, like pal- 

pitation of the heart or like a dog scratching himself under the bed 
(the latter simile re-appears constantly in the descriptions). They appear 
to have lasted for from 3 to 15 seconds. 

There was then a pause, some say of 2 seconds (but others place it 
as longer) and then followed 2 or 3 violent oscilla- 

Principal shocks. . . - , , . t 

tions or groups of stronger and larger vibrations. 
Some put these as in very rapid succession, others give 2 or 3 seconds 
interval between them, the whole lasting 1 or 2 minutes. Where the 
principal shocks are mentioned as 2 in number, sometimes the first and 
sometimes the second is regarded as the more severe. The general opinion 
is that they came from N. to S. or vice versa. The following are 
among the more characteristic descriptions of the main shock or shocks. 

(1) All sleepers were awakened. 

(2) Motion like a machine sieve worked by an engine. 

(3) Like a steamer dropping anchor. 

(4) Complete period of each vibration i to \ second. 

(5) Violent lateral vibrations at 4 to the second. 

(6) Like strokes of a piston, 150-180 to the minute, as tested by 

watch afterwards. 

(7) An irregular motion, the observer being jerked from side to 

side and then all round for 1 minute. 

(8) As if taken by the shoulders and shaken violently* 

(9) Many were unable to stand or walk properly. Enormous 

trees swayed. Tents lashed as in a gale 
(10) A large number of small objects, e.g., bottles, glasses, vases, 
chimney-pots, Indian clubs, a few ornaments and crosses 
from tombs upset, pendulum clocks stopped, lamps and 
pictures swung. 



THE ISOSEISTS. 323 

The accompanying sounds were generally heard before and during 
the shock and were of the nature of rushing wind or a railway train in 
motion. Many agree that the shocks died away gradually as they had 
begun. 

It is clear from the above that either a continuous series of vibra- 
„ . tions with distinct maxima and minima, or a 

Conclusion. 

preliminary set of milder, followed by 2 or 3 separate 
sets of stronger vibrations which died away, represent the case for this 
area. The variations recorded in detail may be either subjective, or 
have resulted from the diverse surface conditions. 

A few overturned objects noted by Mr. Simpson give us certain in- 
formation regarding the wave elements at this place. 

Overturned objects. m -, r _. _. 

Iney are as follows : — In Dehra Dun cantonment 
3 chimneys of the Imperial Cadet Corps new quarters, measuring 3 feet 
by 3 feet by 10 feet were not overturned though cracked at the base. 

From West's formula f=g- already used (see p. 35) the acceleration 

y 

of the wave particle cannot have been as great as 9 feet per second. 
But at Raj pur (a short distance away) one of two gate pillars, 22 inches 
by 22 inches by 8 feet was overturned. Using the above .formula again 
we get /=7 feet per second per second, and as one was overturned and 
the other not, it is likely that the value 7 is about correct. In millime- 
tres this gives 2,100 which according to Omori, is equivalent to Rossi 
Forel scale IX. 

At Landour in No. 7 Barracks 20 chimneys 20 inches square by 7 feet 
high were fractured at the base and one was leaning. This gives /=less 
than 11 feet per second. At Prospect Point a looking-glass at a height 
of 4 feet 6 inches on a wall was projected 3 feet 6 inches horizontally, 
which gives v = 6J feet per second as the horizontal velocity with which 
it left the wall. 

ISOSEISTS NOS. VI- VII, IV-V AND II-III. 

The area circumscribed within the two grouped isoseists" VI -VII and 

Only shown on those of all that follow are only shown on the west , 

south and east of the epicentral tracts, inasmuch as 

y2 



324 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

the region to the north is generally inaccessible and uninhabited. These 
areas (although for the above reason they cannot be fully computed) 
are of immense and increasing size — the length of the VI- VII area 
along its longest axis being somewhat over 500 miles and spreading 
away from the hills into the great plains of the Indo-Gangetic drainage 
system. 

On one of the maps (pi. 29) the Vllth isoseist is marked separa- 
tely, and it is shown as taking a somewhat uneven course. This course 
is chiefly dependent on the relative values of the intensities as given by 
Mr. Pascoe in his descriptive part of this volume, the intensity at Lahore 
being taken as VII. 

Outside of this area, with only the earthquake forms to depend on 
Drawn with smooth * or evidence, the curves of the grouped isoseists have 
curves - had to be made smooth, as representing a mean of 

many somewhat conflicting data. The, data alluded to are of course 
the values of the intensities estimated for any particular locality on the 
evidence of the earthquake forms (see p. 303). Any other mode of 
drawing these lower isoseists would have led to extremely complicated 
curves, frequently approaching or even cutting one another, whose ir- 
regularities one would have known were far more the result of varying 
standards of observation than of any real surface difference. 

With the map before one it is hardly necessary to describe the 
position of these curves in terms of the towns cut by them, or to give 
any further detailed lists of towns included within them. All the 
particular evidence for individual places is summarised in the previous 
parts of this volume, namely in the chapters devoted to Mr. Pascoe's 
survey and in that given in the earthquake forms. To these one must 
turn for all special information, which also has much of individual 
interest. 

But it is felt that only a very brief summarised description of those 
tj . t . isoseismals as definite unit areas will be advisable 

Brief treatment 

here. here, seeing that their boundaries and contained 

areas, except in one case, were never personally surveyed, and are 



THE ISOSEISTS. 325 

therefore mere simple transcriptions of the intensity values allotted to 
the accounts in the earthquake forms. 

In the area circumscribed by isoseist VI — VII, much of which was 

VI _ VII . geH _ examined by Mr. Pascoe, the damage to buildings 

apparent great dam- as has already been stated would at first sight ap- 

age. ... 

pear to warrant a somewhat higher intensity .number 
than has been allotted to it. It may be that some individual cases, 
such as the Town Hall, Lahore, are explained by the top-heavy con- 
struction of the building, others by some other peculiarity dependent 
on the diverse architectural styles found in a large city. But mostly 
it may be said that the large number of injured buildings in the big 
cities and towns of this region extending from Sialkote to Meerut are the 
direct result of the large size of many of them compared with those 
met with in the epicentral tracts. Where there are many buildings to 
damage, the laws of chance provide naturally a larger number so 
damaged. 

Thus, commensurate with the vast areas embraced within isoseist s 
VI — VII there is a high total of damage and pecuniary loss to the com- 
munity as a whole, although the loss per unit house would probably be 
the same as in those other parts of the VI — VII area which I have de- 
scribed as being practically free from damage. In the case of some ap- 
parently well-built structures that have partly come to grief, we have 
also to balance against them, the large number of absolutely undam- 
aged ones, in spite of the fact that (as in the case o*f the New Law 
Courts, Lahore) they presented fragile and delicate parts that seemingly 
might well have been shattered by the shock. ( See pi. 19.) 

The character of the shock within this large area is difficult to 
Character f the summarise. The greater the area the greater the 
shock, VI— \n area. c h ance f variations and anomalies not only of fact 
but of description by the contributors to the earthquake forms. But, 
we may note that the shock has now lost very much of its fierceness. 
After generally noted preliminary tremors we have it described as sharp 
and jerky in a few places, or as a " prolonged steady reciprocating motion 
of horizontal jerks." But by far the larger number of description are 



326 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

content with speaking of it as 1, 2 or 3 strong sets of vibrations, whilst 
the sound, no longer a roar or like a gale of wind, is far more commonly 
described as a rumble like thunder or surf, or a rattling noise like a 
railway train. One noticeable feature with regard to the sound is that 
none at all is recorded from Lahore, and a large number of observers 
state that there was no sound. I am unable to explain this except by 
the suggestion that the sound was mistaken for the ordinary rumble of 
street traffic. 

Another peculiarity is that in addition to the quicker vibrations 
TT , , which one observer puts at 200 a minute, we have a 

Undulose waves. 

great deal of evidence from many towns such as 
Pathankot, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar, Sialkot, Jamu, Ludhiana, Rurki and 
Meerut of a slow rolling or undulating motion described as " like being 
on board a steamer in a moderate sea,"" " like an open boat at sea," 
" the whole ground heaved like the sea and houses rocked," " caused 
tress to rock and dance as in a high wind." This motion made it diffi- 
cult for the observers to keep their balance without legs wide apart 
and in some cases produced nausea and giddiness, and made animals 
restless and restive. These waves were accompanied also by fissures in 
the alluvium through which sand and water in fountains spurted, as at 
Rurki and Karnal. 

The Himalayan areas of Kashmir and Garhwal and Kumaun, with 
the exception of Islamabad which is in a flat plain, generally did not 
experience these long slow undulations, which seem to have been more 
typical of places on the thick Indo-Gangetic alluvium. But Simla ac- 
cording to a correspondent of the Statesman experienced a similar 
but somewhat quicker type of undulation (see page 75). 

The above appear largely to have been characteristic gravitational 
waves, and entirely without the strong lateral thrusts as experienced at 
Dharmsala and elsewhere within area X, and spoken of as " fearful 
lurches." One observer at Ludhiana, however, speaks of a "push of 
thrust ' ' in a westerly direction with intermediate violent vibrations too 
rapid to count, as if the house were a " box shaken by giant hands." 
But this is a very exceptional description for this area. 



THE ISOSEISTS. 327 

Of overthrown bodies recorded by Mr. Pascoe we have a certain 

number from which a limiting high value for v may- 
Projected bodies. IT! • -.1-111 

be deduced Jbrom projected brick globes on the 
Town Hall, Lahore, in its higher part, we have a horizontal distance of 
32 feet and a vertical one of 67 feet which gives i<=16 feet per second. 
From those on the lower part of the same building we have horizonta 1 
projections of 17 and 15 feet respectively, from a height of 56 feet which 
gives values for v = 9 and 8 feet per second respectively. Other calcula- 
tions made by Mr. Pascoe are, for Lahore — iron flag on railway station 
roof v = 6% feet per second, cupolas of Golden Mosque v=6'91 and 535 
feet per second, and for Sialkot, cross from steeple of church 169 feet 
high »== 12*7 feet per second, v representing in all these cases the maxi- 
mum horizontal velocity with which they were projected from their high 
positions. Mr. Pascoe comments on the fact that of several tall factory 
chimneys near the railway line at Lahore none had fallen. The same 
immunity was also remarked by me with respect to the Dhariwal mill 
chimneys. 

With the IV — V area we arrive in the region of no damage at all, 
Character of the not even cracks, except in a few cases of particularly 
, — aiea. dilapidated and ancient edifices. There is small 
wonder at this when we consider the enormously extended front of the 
surface wave over which all the energy of the original seismic distur- 
bance has now to be distributed. That known surface front at the IV — 
V isoseist is about 1,200 miles, and there must have been a front equally 
long on the Tibetan side of the seismic area. It is also the region of no 
overturned objects, and also where panic in the case of the able-bodied 
is almost conspicuous by its absence. It is primarily the area 
of tremulous vibrations which nevertheless in many cases are btill differ- 
entiated into preliminary tremors, main shock and end tremors. It is 
the area of rocking beds—" like a dog under the bed " and swinging 
punkahs, and rattling doors and windows. Occasionally trees are stated 
still to rock and a rolling motion of the ground is still felt but not so 
markedly as in the VI — VII area. One observer has described the sen- 
sation as that oi a swing going dead slow. The sound is of the usual 



328 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

rumbling kind when heard, but it is very frequently not heard at all. 
As affexception to the above, from one hilly area, namely, Abbottabad in 
Hazara, the motion is described as much rougher, being like a springless 
cart with loose axles : a succession of bumps and jars, and a hanging 
lamp is said to have shown evidence of much vertical motion. This 
is somewhat difficult to understand so far away from the seismic 
centre. 

The vast region embraced by the outermost isoseist II — III is also 
• ttt somewhat difficult to summarise. In the earthquake 

J.SOS618t 11— —III, 

want of details in forms one may read that the shock was not felt or 
that it wa3 almost imperceptible, side by side with 
descriptions of it as a big shock. Of far more importance, however, in 
gauging the intensity of an earthquake from written statements, is the 
amount of detail in them. Now one characteristic of most of the forms 
from this area is the want of details, or when such do occur they have 
reference to movements of water in tanks or the gentle swaying of 
suspended objects, occasionally also of beds, doors, creaking of rafters 
and «uch like. The following are of some interest : — As far away 
as False Point in Bengal the look-out man above in the lighthouse 
felt the shock and the lightning conductor swayed. In Midnapur (also 
in Bengal) the nature of the shock was at once understood from the 
movements of tank water, and the people blew conches. The shock is 
also described from Chapra as frightening birds in aviaries. The bubble 
movements in level tubes reported from Tando Masti Khan in the 
Khairpur State, Sind (see p. 252) and also from Thedaw in the Meiktila 
District, Burma (see p. 270) are of great interest, and may be referred 
to here, although the latter place is altogether out of the felt area. 

We may, I think, be certain that there was no violent shock in this 

area, that there was no savage shaking ouch as has 
Character of the , j •« j . .■ ** . . , .* 

shock been described m the Mussoone area, no rapid vibra- 

tions, or visible undulations such as are commonly 
cported from the VI— VIE area, no disturbances of furniture and loose 
objects, no general awakening, no panic, no stopping of clocks, except 
one electric clock in Calcutta, nor was it even generally felt by everyone 



NATURE OF FOCUS, DEPTH, ETC. 329 

as in the IV — V area. No sound has been generally recorded except 
from certain localities in Assam and Eastern Bengal where it is probable 
the shocks were of local origin and had nothing to do with the Kangra 
earthquake. In spite of local variety in estimating this shock I think 
we may say as a whole that the shock was hardly felt and not generally 
felt except by people in favourable situations, and that it was fre- 
quently only deduced from movements of bodies of water and other de- 
licately poised or suspended articles. 

Notwithstanding its feeble character and its still more extended 
front which must have reached four times the value given in the last area 
before it was utterly lost to human sensibility, it is worth noting that 
it became violently destructive at one place, namely, Ahmedabad, where 
three 13^ inch masonry partitions in water-supply tanks fell to the 
south owing to the height of the water being raised on the north side 
first as the wave passed under them. (See p 250.) 

III.— NATURE OF FOCUS : DEPTH, ETC. 

On account of the tendency recently exhibited in the writings of 
certain authors to view tectonic quakes of great 

\ a G VlQPilPG TOT fL 

complex near-the- violen.ce as due to a net- work or branch- work of 
surface origin as a faults, not necessarily very deep in origin, and fre- 
net-work to branch- quently attested and indicated bv actual surface 

work of faults. i j .' 

fissures, 1 it* may come as a surprise to many to be 
assured that the Kangra earthquake presents no evidence at all in sup- 
port of this view : not a single railway has recorded any damage to the 
track, not a single road or path has been deflected, raised or lowered, 
no rivers or streams have changed their courses or been temporarily 
dammed up — except as due directly to landslips from slopes of such 
great steepness that they might as easily have occurred after a heavy 
torrential rain-storm. It is true there are no railways in the main 



1 Harboe — Erdbeben Linien (Beitage zur Geophysik, V. p. 20G.) See also : — 
Hobbs — On some principles of Seismic Geology (Beitrage zur Geophysik, VIII, 2, 
1907,\ 



330 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

epicentral area, although numerous enough between isoseismals VII 
and VIII, but the excellent cart roads that permeate the Kangra valley 
and Dehra Dun are so common that it is inconceivable that any real 
fault scarp or fissure with appreciable movement along vertical lines 
could have remained unnoticed and unreported on, even if such had 
perchance escaped the observation of the special officers who personally 
examined the areas. 

There can be no doubt, I think, that the surface fissures in alluvium 
.__ . , and soil cap which have been recorded in the de- 

All fissures in this 

earthquake secon- scriptive chapters of this memoir, are without excep- 
dar y- tion a simple result of the shaking which such a 

mountainous area received by the earthquake, and no more point to 
deep-seated fissures than do house cracks. 

In illustration of the same conclusion it may be further insisted 

on that the most intensely disturbed area lying within 

Surface intensity isoseismal X} as also that within isoseismals VIII and 

evenly distributed. 

IX, everywhere show a full and uniform measure 
of damage spread evenly over the areas in question. They are 
entirely without any tendency to lineally arranged series, at right angles 
to which damage rapidly diminishes. Besides my own personal 
investigation, the reports of the Punjab Government are quite clear 
on this point, a point also which is the more convincing when 
it is remembered that the Kangra valley villages are not con- 
centrated centres of grouped streets, but widely diffused hamlets and 
homesteads whose outskirts mingle. The descriptive -accounts in 
the preceding chapter devoted to the isoseismals can only be understood 
in this sense. 

From this point of view therefore the area of maximum inten- 
sity cannot be regarded as a net-work or branching 
Conclusion against system of near- the- surface* fractures, and much less 

the complex, near ^ ^^ ^^ q{ ^ intense destruction be 

the surface origin. 

similarly regarded as due to extended branches 
from any central net-work or branch cluster. As already explained 



NATURE OF FOCUS, DEPTH, ETC. 331 

the time evidence which might have yielded data in this connection 
is too unreliable in the more central region to afford any basis for 
argument whilst outside that area it is distinctly at variance with the 

theory. 

It is therefore probable that the origin of the Kangra earthquake 
^ , was at some considerable depth, and of compara- 

Depth of origin < m *■ 

probably consider- tively simple shape, a conclusion reached also by 
able, and shape other reasonings from the area of most rapidly 

diminishing surface intensity as illustrated by the 
isoseists. 1 This line of argument was given in my preliminary report 

in the " Records, " and, after carefully considering 

Further considera- . ....*' 

tions based on dis- ** agwn, I am stl U of opinion that it represents as 
position of the iso- nearly as possible the actual state of affairs and 
requires no modification owing to more complete 
knowledge. It therefore may be repeated here. 

We may note the following already established peculiarities about 
the isoseismal lines : — 

(1) The elongated epicentral tract enclosed within the last 3 iso- 

seismals of highest intensity in the Kangra- Kulu area. 

(2) The close approximation of their curves at the west-north- 

west end of that tract. 

(3) Their widely-separated positions in an opposite direction, viz., 

east-south-east. 

(4) The small, isolated ellipse forming the southern part of iso- 

seismal No. 8 in its course round the Mussoorie area. 

With regard to (1) the elongated form of the Kangra-Kulu epicen- 
tral tract, it seems certainly to indicate that the original earthquake 
impulse proceeded from a centrum of thi nature of a line or plane 
following beneath this longitudinally extended tract. 



1 The earthquake shadows and other minor irregularities Manifestly due to 
the hills do not affect this conclusion. 



■ 
330 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

With regard to (2), it should be remarked that in travelling from 
Nurpur to Kangra, and from Haripur or Dera-Gopipur to Kangra, we 
c:ross in each instance through the grades of intensities from such as 
are marked by trivial cracks in the plaster and corners of walls to those 
of complete destruction to buildings, and all within the short radial 
distance of 8 or 9 miles. In other words, the surface intensity increases 
extremely rapidly in these directions and indicates a proportionately 
shallow depth for the position of the centrum in the vicinity. 

With regard to (3) — which briefly expresses the fact that in travel- 
ling from the Kangra neighbourhood across the same isoseismals but in 
an east- south-east direction we must cover about 100 miles of conti- 
nuous and slightly diminishing intensity — an exactly opposite conclu- 
sion is .indicated, namely, the increasing depth of the centrum in that 
direction* 

With regard to (4), the conditions imply a smaller separate centrum 
following an axis parallel to that of the Kangra-Kulu area, once more 
rather nearer the surface, and of an actual intensity at the focus much 
less than that at the Kangra-Kulu centrum. 

For the present we must be content to regard these two axial lines 
lying within p'anes (probably of faulting), as being the main and sub- 
sidiary loci either of one universal and contemporaneous shock, or of 
two, or even a series, of separate but almost instantaneous shocks, 
following one another sympathetically along lines of great tension. 

To calculate approximately the depth of the focus, the method 
Df-pth of centrum: adopted by Major C. E. Button 1 recommends itself 

approximate quanti- , , ,, , , "*. 

tative determina- ^ere b ? lts reasonableness and general apph- 

tion: Dutton's me- cability 
thod. 

On the assumption of a uniform medium, and that the intensity 
varied inversely as the square of the distance from the origin, Dutton 
shows that ihe variation of surface intensity along a horizontal line 

1 " EarthquakevS in the light of the New Seismology," Chap. IX (1904). 



NATURE OF FOCUS, DEPTH, ETC. 



333 



drawn from the epicentre, is most rapid at a particular point which 
depends on the depth of the focus only, a point also where the intensity 
must be f of the maximum intensity at the epicentre. The relation 
between the two is exhibited by the formula x~q tan 30°, where x is 
the horizontal distance of the place from the epicentre, and q the depth 
of the focus. If x is known, then q-=*x v 3. In the diagram, fig. 45, 
A B represents the surface of the ground, the centrum, and the 
vertical lines are proportional to the intensities at the several points on 
A B. The resulting curve is steepest at the point where it touches the 
I intensity line. 




Fig 45. 



Now, it seems that we may apply this formula to the present earth- 
quake by making sections across the epicentral tract at right angles to its 



334 MIDDLEMISS KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

long axis. The only difficulty is the recognising of that portion of 
the cross -section where the intensity declines or varies most rapidly. 
With regard to the Kangra end of the northern epicentral tract, there 
is no difficulty, as has already been shown, in making a selection of 
points situated near its W.N.W. end which must be correct within a 
few miles. From those points the distance to the ep'icentral line cannot 
be less than 7 or more than 12 miles. The centre, therefore, between 
Kangra and Dharmsala must lie at some depth greater than 7^/3 and 
less than 12^3 miles, i.e., between about 12 and 21 miles. Taking 
another cross-section over the tract from Naggar through Sultanpur, 
Mandi, and Suket, the horizontal measurements, though less exact, 
cannot be less than 12 or greater than 24 miles, and therefore the 
depth must lie between 12\/3 and 24^3, or between 21 and 40 miles. 

The centrum thus deduced for this part of the earthquake-area can, 
therefore, be represented by a line or axis running 

Pitch ot centrum. . . 

from a point about midway between Kangra and 
Dharmsala in an E.S.E. direction towards Bajaura, a distance horizontally 
of 50 miles and at a depth of from>12<21 to >21<40 miles, the average 
being from 16 to about 20 miles, with a dip or pitch of 13 J degrees 
with the horizontal. 

It will no doubt be thought bv many that the above depths are pos- 
sibly exaggerated, and in any case there is no doubt about their vague- 
ness. Whilst freely admitting the possibility of serious refraction caused 
by change of rock -formation through which the shock must have been 
propagated, there are two general facts which point to at least a 
considerable depth for the part of the centrum below the Kulu area. 
One is the extremely large area over which the shock has undoubtedly 
been felt, and the other the only moderate violence at the surface. 
In other words, a shock of intensity 8 at the surface at Kulu, if of 
shallow origin, would not have been so powerful at that origin as 
to have been felt in such remote parts as the Bombay Presidency and 
Assam, nor would one of intensity 10 at Kangra unless it also were 
proportionately deep-seated. 



CAUSE OF EARTHQUAKE. 335 

With regard to the smaller subsidiary focus for the isolated Dehra- 
Mussoorie area, the fact that the latter is delineated by only one 
isoseismal, which has only been crossed by my colleagues at one point of 
its southern limb, and at a time when its isolation from the Kangra- 
Kulu epicentral tract was not suspected, renders impossible the applica- 
tion of Dutton's method of estimating the depth, inasmuch as there are 
no data for approximately determining the points of most rapid 
decline of intensity. On general grounds one would expect the depth 
of the centrum to be consideiably less than at the Kulu end of the 
northern area. 

IV.— CAUSE OF THE EARTHQUAKE. 

In touching on an obscure question of this kind in a publication that 

. , is more properly concerned with observed facts, it 

problem ; geological, seems to the writer that all he can do without 

structural and oroge- De mg too speculative is to show now the whole sur- 

nic features. . 

roundmgs of the case, geological, structural and 
orographical, bear on some standard theory having an a priori prob- 
ability. It will therefore be my endeavour in the following paragraphs to 
briefly review those surroundings, and attempt to bring out any leading 
features they may possess, and to show in which way they point. The 
indications will be seen to be largely circumstantial but at the same 
time suggestive. 

The geology of the area was roughly but comprehensively worked out 
Geology of the by Mr. Medlicott as long ago as the year 1864. 1 No 
area - fresh detailed geological survey of it has since then 

been made, except in isolated portions near Dehra Dun and further 
south-east along the foot of the Himalaya ; although enough has been 
done to illustrate the type of geological conditions that prevail along 
that line of country, 2 whilst a few additional notes collected during 
my present tour have been incorporated here and there in Part I. From 
the above we can easily construct a bird's-eye view of the geology 

1 Mem. Geol. Surv. of India, Vol. III. 

2 For summary, see Manual Geol. of India, stratigraphical and structural, 2nd 
Edition, Chapter XVIII. 



336 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



sufficient for our purpose, which, as it appears in plan, is represented 
in the sketch map, fig. 46. 




Fig. 46. 

That plan shows a striking surface peculiarity at the two points 
where the epicentres are situated, namely, the great inbaying of the 
younger Tertiary formation of the Sub-Himalaya towards the higher cen- 
tral regions of the mountains. The line of the " main boundary " fault 
separating these Tertiaries from the very old Himalayan rocks of that re- 
gion, may be observed to take a huge sweep inwards and eastwards from 
the Ravi River to Drang, and then to return almost in a N.— S. sweep 
by Mandi, Suket and Sabathu, and round the foot of the Simla 
mountain spurs. The Tertiaries then pursue a normal direction until 
the Dehra Dun area is reached, when there occurs another but much 
smaller, inbaying of them towards the central area. Nowhere else 



CAUSE OF EARTHQUAKE. 337 

along the Himalayan mountain-foot, as we know it, is there such excep- 
tional irregularity, un evenness one might say, in the disposition of 
these bordering bands of Tertiary strata. 

Coincident with these two inbayings are the two rather similar 
upland valleys —the Kangra valley and the Pehra Dun — which have 
come into existence as a joint product of earth movements and rock 
sculpture. 

We may also notice several other striking facts of structure and 
Structure of the relief bound up with those just given, facts which 
Sub-Himalayan zone- although not evident from the sketch map (fig. 46) 
are well known from other published descriptions and maps. The 
whole of the Sub-Himalayan Tertiary zone is at a lower general eleva- 
tion than the older Himalayan tract behind, a feature which obtains 
throughout the length of the whole range, whilst the valleys also are 
gentler and the slopes less steep. Furthermore the Sub-Himalayan 
rocks themselves may be divided up into an older set of harder sand- 
stones which occupy most of the area including the strip of country 
next the main boundary fault, and a younger set of softer sandstones 
and shales overlain by thick beds of coarse conglomerate, which only 
become specially prominent in the flatter parts of the Kangra valley 
and Dehra Dun. In each case also these younger sets which dip 
somewhat gently to the north-east under the Kangra valley and Dehra 
Dun are suddenly reversed on their N.E. edge and separated from the 
older sandstones by a reversed fault or faults similar in nature to that 
of the main boundary fault which in turn separates the latter from the 
older Himalayan series. 

Such inversions complicated by fold -faults, which characterise the 
behaviour of the younger to the older series, have been well studied 
in the case of the Dehra Dun and the other stretches of country between 
the Ganges and Sarda river. They were so familiar to the author that 
there was no difficulty in recognising the similarity on a larger scale 
that the structure of the Kangra valley bore to them ; and it was soon 
seen that the position of the actual axial centrum, as derived from the 

z 



338 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE 

isoseists, in the case of the Kangra area, was more nearly coincident 
with that of the reversed fault between the younger Siwalik conglome- 
rate and the older sandstones than with the main-boundary itself. The 
evidence for the case at Dehra Dun was not, however, sufficiently con- 
clusive, inasmuch as the two boundary faults run very near together 
at that place. 

Another feature of •importance is the arc-like curve, convex to the 
S. W., which the Himalayan range presents to the 
Gangetic plain. It may undoubtedly be regarded 
as having gradually resulted from the constant reshaping of that margin 
by overfolding and faulting. The more marginal the rocks that are 
involved, the more perfect is the alignment of that curve in all its sim- 
plicity : whilst all the areas like the inner side of the Kangra valley and 
Dehra Dun which are farthest away from that margin are those, which 
show variations from that curve, and must have been places where special 
local conditions have offered a temporary resistance to the normal onward 
march of those regular waves of flexure. So long as no exceptional 
local resistance of this kind interfered, one might be justified in conceiv- 
ing the regular progression of these folds as happening smoothly and 
without serious shock, but elsewhere at such centres of complexity we 
might very well see cause for a struggle of opposing local and general 
forces which might end in something catastrophic. 

These centres of complexity are the places signalised by thick depo- 
sits of Upper Siwalik conglomerate. Their presumed deposition from 
torrential rivers of commensurate magnitude with their similarly situated 
descendants, the Beas and Ganges of to-day, and the fact of their 
great thickness and rapid accumulation suggest a disturbing feature of 
no small magnitude. On the principle of isostasy their continued 
deposition must have been accompanied by a downward sinking of the 
Dun areas which would tend to deflect arid upset the orderly southerly 
march of the Himalayan arc folds. 

Summarising, we may say that the following features appertaining 
to the geological, structural and orographic surroundings strike one as 



CAUSE OF EARTHQUAKE. 339 

being important from the point of view of the cause of the earth- 
quake : — 

(1) The two epicentres lie in the Sub-Himalayan belt, approxi- 

mately but not exactly along the line of the main bound- 
ary fault. 

(2) They are located near where that belt widens and shows 

inbayings towards the older Himalayan mass. 
^3) The main epicentre accords with the larger inbaying and the 
subsidiary epicentre with the smaller. 

(4) They are both regions of marked and general change of 

average level of the country and average steepness of the 
valleys and ridges. 

(5) They are also regions of reversed faulting, where a packing 

of the strata and an overriding of the younger by the 
older rock series is specially prominent. 

(6) They coincide with parts of those regions where there is 

irregularity in that packing, and where the regular mar- 
ginal arc of the mountain, as expressed in the parallel 
earth folds and faults, is interrupted. 

It is now only necessary to recognise and give full value to the 
Isoptasy. principle of isostasy of the earth's crust, as is clearly 

demonstrated by all the later work on the fringing ranges of the 
Himalaya, in order to see the one direction in which all the features 
enumerated above point. With reference to that principle it must also 
be remarked that it appears to be not without probability that such 
an area during the packing process incident on lateral compression of 
the crust might at certain places temporarily lose its condition of isos- 
tasy as regards the subjacent more mobile layers, and become support- 
ed for in part supported) after the manner of an arch, a condition 
which sooner or later must become unstable and a grand fracture (not 
a net- work of surface fractures), or even a simple sudden readjustment 
of strain, take place. 

Whilst non-mountainous continental areas of no lateral compression 
may be supposed to hold together only so long as shrinkage of the 

z2 



340 M1DDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

8ub-ciustal layers cannot overcome the molecular cohesion of the rock 
particles, and whilst we may suppose in that case that when failure 
occurs a large or small area splits up into disjointed masses like an ice- 
floe in a storm, the case must be otherwise with areas of great orogenic 
magnitude and relief such as the great mountain ranges of the earth. 
In these cases lateral compression is the cement which holds the crustal 
elements together (at the same time that their surface layers are being 
slowly and continuously sheared and overthrusted) and this is more 
likely to find relief when isostasy is lost by simple grand fractures at 
depths proportional to the magnitude of the orogenic features concerned. 
What is therefore known as the " tectonic " origin for an earthquake is 
Tectonic theory tne one which seems to be favoured by the whole 
of the earthquake surroundings of the case, and to which the circum- 
stantial evidence enumerated under headings (1) to (6) 
seem to specially point. Until very good evidence of some other kind 
can be produced it, therefore, is the theory adopted by the author. It 
implies that the shock was due to a sudden rupture or release of strain 
occurring among or below the folded sub-Himalayan formations at two 
places where the strain was specially 1 great owing to resistances to the 
well established forward march of the overthrusting foot of the 
Himalayan range and where packing, with consequent arching, may 
ha^e brought about a certain loss of isostasy. 

V.— EXTRA-INDIAN SEISMOGRAPHIC RECORDS. 

The extra- Indian seism ographic records of the Kangra earthquake 
although of great interest to students of seismology, would take us 
too far afield from what properly belongs to India to describe in de- 
tail. Moreover an admirably full account of them has already been 
prepared by Prof. F. Omori, Sc. D., 1 with full illustrations of the dia- 
grams. 

It is sufficient here to say that the shock affected all long-distance 
seismographs in the world and that Prof. Omori was enabled to col- 

1 Publications of the Earthquake Investigation Committee in Foreign Languages, 
No*. 23 and 24 Tokyo, 1907. 



EARTHQUAKE SOUND. 341 

lect either seismographic or niagnetcgraphic diagrams from the follow- 
ing places : — Japan, Formosa, India, China, Philippines, Java, Austria- 
Hungary, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Great Britain, Spain, Mauritius, 
Cape of Good Hope, Canada, The United States, Mexico, Brazil, New 
Zealand, and to publish results of seismographic observations from 
Russia, Samoa, Porto Rico, Hawaii, Syria, Azores and Servia. 

The discussion of the mass of detailed figures thereby collected 
shows it to be a specialist's work in the domain of geophysics, and to 
be quite independent of the particular point of the earth's surface 
where the earthquake was sensibly felt. It is a world problem of too 
general a nature to find a place in these Memoirs. 

VI.-THE EARTHQUAKE SOUND. 
No sound at all was recorded from the following localities : — 

(1) Afghanistan. 

(2) Assam. 

[N. B. — It is not absolutely certain that the shook was even felt by many in Assam. 
Several records of a shock on the day of the earthquake acoompanied by a sound were 
probably local in origin, or should be considered as aftershocks of the 1897 earthquake. 
The same remarks probably apply to the sounds reported at Daloo Tea Estate, Cachar, 
on the evening preceding and half an hour after the shock.] 

(3) Baluchistan. 

(4) Burma. 

(5) Madras. 

(6) Nepal. 

Of these 6 areas Burma and Madras did not feel the shock, with one 
doubtful exception in the latter area, and it would be unreasonable 
to expect the sound to have been heard there. From the other areas 
only a few records were received, hence the negative evidence in their 
case is not very strong, especially as regards Nepal and Afghanistan. 

In Bengal accounts from 122 places (which include many where the 
shock was also not felt) record or mention no sound. Of the few 
places whence a sound is recorded mention may be made* of Balasore 
where it is described as being like " a railway train," Suri (Birbhum 



342 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

District) where it was like an underground rumbling, and Pusa (Dar- 
bhanga District) where it was described as resembling " falling of trees 
and stones." 

In the Central Provinces accounts from 20 places record or mention 
no sound, whilst only one account from Pendra Road (Bilaspur Dis- 
trict) records a rumbling lasting 10 seconds. 

In the Bombay Presidency accounts from 23 places (including 
those from which it was not felt) record no sound, whilst only at 
Gandevi (Barojla State) was "some little sound" heard. 

In Central India and Raj pu tana at 108 places (including those 
where no shock was felt) no sound was heard, whilst dull or low- 
pitched sounds were heard at 28 places. These are variously described 
as rumbling, thunderings, "like a gun afar off," a railway faain, 
rushing wind; whilst a few are picturesquely defined as "gurr-r-rh, 
"like a grinding stone," " a thrilling sound ," "blow of wind of low 
degree," or they are mentioned as being "felt." 

In Kashmir 45 reports record no sound whilst the rest — 8 in num- 
ber —mention dull rumblings like distant thunder, big guns or heavy 
carts. 

In the United Provinces 256 earthquake forms mention no sound, 
whilst 77 describe it in the usual way as a sound sufficiently low to 
be near the limit of audibility, or as "whistling wind through a hollow 
tube," "rustling like dry leaves," like "echoes of blasting," " moaning" 
like "top spinning," "rattling as of cannon discharged, " "strong bust- 
ling " and so on. Some of these peculiar descriptions probably depend 
rather on the writers' unfamiliarity with the English language than on 
a really correct diagnosis. 

In the Panjab and North-West Frontier Province- 290 accounts 
mention no sound, whilst 85 record deep sounds as varied as those 
before described, and including near the epicentral tract " roarings, " 
"booming noises," "hammerings," "roarings and gurglings." A few 
descriptions are very cryptic, e.g., "sound like clouds", "calm storm," 
' rackety windy sort of noise," " growling," like "shau-shau," " dog's 
tail on the ground," etc. 



EARTHQUAKE SOUND. 343 

A large number of accounts make no reference as to whether the 
sound was heard before, during or after the shock, 

d t th sh k ^ ^ e rema u i( i er ^ de larger part record the sound 
as beginning or occurring just before or a few 
seconds before the main shock ; a fair number record it as occurring 
during the shock, and a very few as subsequent to the shock. From 
this evidence it is clear that the shock was in a great number 
of cases heard some little time (measurable in seconds) before the 
shock (or the main shock) was sensibly felt. It is also* clear that it 
continued during the shock ; whilst the evidence that the sound was 
sometimes not heard until after the shock may be variously interpreted, 
but most naturally en the assumption that it was simply not noticed till 
afterwards. The human ear being unable to record very low-pitched 
sounds, it is more probable that the varying evidence is due to the 
imperfect receiver than that there was any real difrerence at different 
localities in the order of the phenomena. My own personal experience 
of the sounds accompanying such of the aftershocks as were observed by 
me is entirely in favour of this conclusion : the sound was never 
heard after the felt shock, but generally sufficiently before it to arouse 
expectation for the latter. 

In consideration of the low rate of transmission of sound waves in 
air, about i mile per second, and in consideration also of the only 
moderate intensity of the sound even in the epicentral regions (insufficient 
to break glass windows, as we have seen), there is no other possible 
conclusion than that the more rapid vibrations capable of creating a 
sound were transmitted to the air from the ground in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the observer. Assuming then that then* is sufficient 
testimony in support of the sound having begun to be h« trd slightly 
befcre the appearance of the felt shock, we must conclude that these 
more rapid audible vibrations were communicated to the air from the 
surrounding ground, being borne as subordinate partial vibrations 
superposed on the not yet felt preliminary tremors of the direct shock. 
Wherever the sound was not noticed until during the main shock 
must suppose that they were not of sufficient intensity, or of sufficiently 



344 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

high pitch to affect the observer's particular tympanum until the direct 
condensational wave that carried them along had itself developed its 
full swing. 

Although the large number of records rendered available by 
nreans of the earthquake forms have, as we have seen, given many 
discordant results concerning the nature of the sound and its relation to 
the shock, one valuable and certain conclusion seems to have been 
established which could not have been obtained in any other way than 
by such diverse written testimony. We may in fact be quite certain from 
the general coalescence of the time of sound and felt shock that the two 
came together transmitted through the same medium. The sound as 
heard in any given locality could not have been an intense sound 
emanating from certain definite lines or points on the earth's surface, 
at a distance from the observer and transmitted through the air, and 
consequently weakened and dissipated by distance. Otherwise these 
sounds would have followed the shock at ever-varying periods after it, 
rolling in like distant thunder does many seconds after a flash of light- 
ning. The evidence unmistakeably points to the fact that the aerial 
vibrations that have their immediate effects on the auditory nerves are 
purely locally derived from the ground beneath each observer. This 
fact, coupled with the known varying and defective impressions due to 
the limited registering powers of the individual ear, render the great 
variety in the precise time, nature, and progress of the described sound 
perfectly natural and understandable. 

VII.— MISCELLANEOUS PHENOMENA OF THE 
EARTHQUAKE. 



Effects on Canals, Rivers and Streams. 

Tn the Bari Doab Canal between Bhimpur (10 miles south of 
Pathankot in the Gurdaspur District) and Sathiali 

Ban Doab Canal. ,„_ ., , ,~, v *•- -m *-i -wr *i i 

(10 miles south of Gurdaspur) Mr, F. F. Kanthack, 
,xecutive Engineer, 1st Division, Bari Doab Canal, from personal inspec- 



MISCELLANEOUS PHENOMENA. 345 

tion and enquiry found that the water rose to a height of as much as 6 
feet at various places within a distance of 30 miles (see map, pi. 29). 
He felt the shock in the Bhimpur bungalow, which rocked so much that 
he could hardly make his way to the opposite end of it, where his wifc 
and child were sleeping, although no damage was done to the bungolov . 
"Immediately after the earthquake," he writes, "my attention was 
called to a loud noise coming from the main line of the Bari 1 
Ganal which, at the point of observation, runs in a 40 feet cutting about 
20 yds. from the bungalow. I found the canal which was here 150 feet 
wide, in violent agitation and swamping ground 6 feet above the usiia; 
water level ." He also found the points of greatest intensity to be 
those where the canal ran N.N.E. — S.S.W., and the water, accord- 
ing to a reliable witness, first went over the bank to the E.S.E. and 
afterwards to the opposite bank, reaching a slightly lower level 
there. On the other hand the Kasur Upper Branch, which takes ofr 
at Tibri (near Gurdaspur) and which runs in a direction N.W. — 3.E. 
had no movement of water observed at all. In another case at Sathiflli 
two branches take off at right angles to one. another in the directions 
N. by W. and W. by S., and here the height to which the water rose 
was 5 feet in each case. Mr. Kanthack concludes from these observa- 
tions that the tilting of the ground which produced the rise must have 
had a direction about E.S.E. — W.N.W. He notes it as peculiar that 
from the head of the canal at Madhopur down to mile 12, at Bhimpur, 
although the canal runs generally N. — S., the water only rose 1 ft. 
or less on the east bank. The velocity, however, in this upper part is 
. much greater and may account for this. 

At Khanki in the Gujranwala District (see p. 204) the water has been 

Lower Chenab described as rising in the river and in many of the 
CaDa1 ' canal branches to a height of 0*20 to 0'40 [ ? feet]. 

Mr. R. R. Simpson (p. 116) has referred to the breaking of the 

Other canals, etc. Bhim g oda " bund " near Hardwar on the Ganges. 
He has also described (p. 124) the case of the Solani , 
aqueduct on the Ganges Canal. At Raya, Amritsar district (see p. 192), 
water from the canal spread over the canal bank. At Dadupur on the 



346 WIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

west Jumna Canal, the canal water waved and small boats were thrown 
out by the serious beat of the first shock (see p. 196). At Dhatfaura 
Kama! District in the W. Jheium Canal (see p. 208) the water waved 
about 3 feet higher on left bank than the original surface. 

Lieut.- Colonel S. Burrard, Superintendent, Trigonometrical Sur- 
vey, made some enquiries regarding the effect of 
the earthquake on the water supply drawn from 
certain streams, in the Dehra Dun. Mr. P. Denehy, 
Assistant Engineer, Irrigation. Branch, Dun Canals Division, in reply 
said that he only knew of two authentic cases where the volume had 
been increased, namely, the Tons-Nalota and Rispana torrents. These 
streams were completely closed, and all their water was being taken into 
the canals on the 3rd April (the day before the earthquake). On the 
morning of the 4th immediately after the earthquake, the gauge of the 
Bijapur canal which was taking in the Tons-Nalota waters, went up from 
2'0 feet to 2 5 feet, which is equivalent to an increase of discharge of 12 
cubic feet per second. The gauge of the Rajpur canal, which was taking 
in the whole of the Rispana water, went up from 0*40 feet to 0*70 feet 
which is equivalent to an increase of discharge of 12 feet per second. 

The above was immediately after the earthquake. But at the time 
of writing (1st June 1905) two months after the shock the increase in the 
case of the two canals above normal for that time of the year was 17 
cubic feet in the Bijapur canal and 4 cubic feet in the Rajpur. It should 
be noted, however, that all the streams in the Dun had been running 
very high during the year on account of the abnormally heavy winter 
rains, and Mr. Denehy felt it impossible to say how much, if any, of this 
should be attributed to the earthquake. 

The following note by Forest Ranger, M. S. Rawat, in the Indian 
Forester for September 1905, referring to the Kumaun 

Kumaun Division Divisi ig of interest . in this connection :— " At 

streams. 

Chaunsila, 12 miles from Naini Tal,the general scarcity 
of the stream water sets in yearly, and by May not a drop is to be found 
for 2 miles in each direction. But from the date of the earthquake a 
large amount of water has been Mowing throughout the whole of the dry 



MISCELLANEOUS PHENOMENA. 347 

season. Owing to the same cause the volume of water in the three 
streams : Deigaon Sot (Dechauri Range), Tilaur Sot and Nehal N. (Fateh- 
pur Range) has been increased by about three limes." 

The Postmaster at Srinagar (Garhwal) (seep. 186) reported the 

Ganges " stopped during the earthquake." At Sri- 

Ganges, Jhelum Kashmir, Mr. B.Thornhill, Chief Engineer, 

and Indus. 8 ' ' . 

Kashmir Railway Survey, noticed a wave or swirl of 
water coming down the river from his house-boat (see p. 191). At 
Kalabagh the waters of the Indus were "disturbed and ran up the 
banks." 

At Gorakpur on the Kapti river a tidal wave was observed and it left- 
its marks on the river banks. Also at the Ami river 
Kapti an 1 ^ e water in bridge-foundation wells was much agt- 

rivers. ° ° 

tated, spilling the water over the tops. 

Among all these effects on canals and large rivers, the first at Bhimpur 
on the Bari Doab stands out as the most significant, as should be the 
case considering its proximity to the epicentre and to the point where 
thick alluvium, capable of generating long undulose movements., first 
makes its appearance. 

Effects on Springs. 

In the descriptive part of this memoir a number of instances of the 
effects of the earthquake on springs have been adduced. Among them 
may be mentioned those of Jawalamukhi (p. 4.0), Mariikarh 
(p. 63) and Manali (p. 76). It is not easy to draw any hard- 
and-fast line between springs and torrential streams, as regards the 
effects of the quake upon them, inasmuch as the former supply the 
latter, but it is natural that anything that tends to Open up, seal, or 
alter the flow of underground percolation will also have a very similar 
effect on the streams which are fed by such springs. Generally, as 
would be expected, the effect is to open up by shaking, with the result 
that there is a greater supply for the time being. 



S MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

The springs at Mackinnon's brewery, Mussoorie, increased their dis- 
cbarge by from 20 to 30 percent., a result accurately 

erv Mussoorie determined by Mr. P. W. Mackinnon. After 20th 

May the increase showed a gradual falling off until 

the end of June when the streams resumed their normal flow. 

Variation of levels between Saharanpur", Dehra-Dun and Mussoorie. 

The following details, kindly furnished me by Lieutenant- Colonel S.. 
Burrard, seem to show that Dehra Dun and the Siwalik range to the 
south have been elevated relatively to Saharanpur and Mussoorie since 
the earthquake. The amounts of the elevation being so slight (only 
a matter of a few inches) in such a long and steep course, the state- 
ments are given with all reserve. 

The facts are that in 1862 the line between Sahranpur and 
jVlussoorie was first levelled. This was repeated in 1904 (the year before 
the earthquake) so far as the portion between Dehra Dun and 
Mussoorie is concerned. Again in 1905 after the earthquake the latter 
portion was again levelled with the object of seeing if any change 
could be detected, and a diminution of about 4 inches was found in 
the difference of height between the two places with proportionate dimi- 
nutions at points on the way. These last two experiments were carried 
out in May of their years, but the results were ambiguous inasmuch 
as they might be interpreted as either a rise of Dehra or a sinking of 
Mussoorie. To settle this point, and also to verify the whole thing 
sanction was obtained, and the whole line relevelled from Saharanpur, 
to Mussoorie in the cold weather of 1906-07. The results corrobo- 
rated the 1905 levellings and established the fact that it was Dehra 
Dun and the Siwaliks which had risen and not Mussoorie which had 
sunk. As it must have taken place between May 1904 and May 1905 
it is conjectured that it happened during the earthquake. 

It may be mentioned that the greatest care was taken in levelling 
over such a long and mountainous tract, the reliability of the staves 
and the comparison of them with a standard steel unit kept at Dehra 
Dun being duly attended to. It is also necessary to emphasise the 



MISCELLANEOUS PHENOMENA. 



349 



fact that in the last levelling along the whole line the results agree so 
closely over much of it. 

The following is the tabular statement of these measurements and 
a section is shown at pi." 27: — 

Table shaving the results of levelling between Saharanpur, Behra Dun 

and Mussoorie. 





Heights 


Heights 






Names of points. 


determined 


determined 


Difference. 


Remarks. 




in 1862. 


in 1906-07. 






G. T. S. Embedded B. M. at Saha- 


907'25 


907-25* 




* Accepted 


ranpur. 








as origin. 


Standard B. If. at Saharaupur 




902-728 


. . 


. # 


G. T. S. Embedded B. M. at Mohan 


1,48940 


1,489-730 


+ 0330 


. 


G. T. S. Embedded B. M. at Moha- 


2,096-56 


2,096*925 


+ 0-365 


.. 


bawala . 










E. End of Dehra Dun -Base Line . 


1,95907 


1.959-464 


+ 0*^94 




Iron Plug at Trigl. Branch Survey 


2,229132 


2,229-576 


+ 444 


_ 


Office at Dehra Dun. 











Height of Bench Mark at Vincent's Hill, Mussoorie, determined in May 

1904, accepting Dehra as correct . . . . 7,129*315 

Height cf Bench Mark at Vincent's Hill, Mussoorie, determined after 
the earthquake in May and October 1905, accepting Dehra as 
correct ...... 7,128*897 

Height of Bench Mark at Vincent's Hill, Mussoorie, taking the new 
value of Dehra determined in 1906-07, accepting Saharanpur as 
correct ...... 7,129-341 



Earth Fissures. 

It has already been insisted on that not one, or "scarcely one of 
the earth fissures, whether occurring in rock, soil-cap or alluvium, 
have originated from anything except the severe shaking to which, 
as the result of the earthquake, the slopes and alluvial flats near free 
edges have been subjected. Great numbers of these have been 
described and referred to in my description of the more precipitous 
part of the Dhauladhar and the higher ranges of Kulu. Others in 
alluvium have also been mentioned by myself and my colleagues in 
the neighbourhood of Kangra, Dharmsala, Mussoorie and Rurki. 



|50 MIDDLEMISB : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

Several other cases have also been recorded in the earthquake forms, 
Such as those at Amballa (see p. 194) and Dhanaura (see p. 208). 
A rather mote interesting case than usual is described from Khanki in 

Gujranwala District (see p. 205). There earth fissures in all 
directions are found in the soft ground 2 miles long on the right bank 
of the Chenab. There were also 2 holes (craterlefcs) 30 feet in diameter 

I feet deep* from which fissures radiated, the largest being 2 feet 
wide. Water in great volumes is said to have issued from these 
fissures. 

The only case of a true rock fissure that seemed to penetrate into 
the rock and to be connected with and a part of the rock folding of 
the region was one which I saw at Barwar lake near" Larji. It is 
among folded limestones and strikes N.W. — S.E. It lay along a line 
of faulting and had perfectly fresh surfaces. Inasmuch as it dipped 
or haded into the hillside and not down the slope it was not. (directly 
at least) connected with any downward sliding with gravity. On the 
whole it suggested fresh movement along an old fault. 

The shock at Cochin. 

The following account from the Pioneer of 14th April 1905 at 
first sight would seem to show that the earthquake of the 4th was 
really felt in the Madras Presidency, and at a considerable distance 
away from what has been marked as the outermost limits of the 
felt shock :-••■ 

Earthquake shock at Cochin. — A Cochin correspondent writes under date the 
6th instant: — A distinct shock of earthquake was felt here on the morning -of 
Tuesday last, 4th April, at 6-30, the occurrence being of a very extraordinary 
nature. While the Bishop's Secretary was preparing for his morning service in the 
Cathedra], he felt a tremor in his room in the Bishop's residence. While going 
into the Chapel he saw the lamp that was burning there, suspended from the 
ceiling, moving to and fro. All the inmates of the Bishop's house felt the shock, 
ft lasted for a few seconds, the wave travelling from east to west, What was 
most extraordinary in this connection was that the shock was felt in that building 
only, and nowhere else in Cochin., as I learnt from enquiries. The Bishop's resi- 
dence is situated on an eminence which was once the part of a Portuguese rampart 
and it is unaccountable how I Ling alone experienced the shock. 



MISCELLANEOUS PHENOMENA. 351 

On the other hand it should be remembered that on the 2nd April 
there was a very smart shock of earthquake at Ongole and other places 
in the Madras Presidency which also was followed by aftershocks. It 
is therefore quite possible that the time of the Cochin shock, so near 
the right time for the Kangra earthquake, is only a coincidence. The 
following are cuttings from the Englishman of 7th and 10th April 
referring to this- earth quake : — 

Ongole, April 2nd. — A severe shock of earthquake was felt at Ongole at 848 
a.m., lasting ten seconds. Buildings and men were rudely shaken. The walls 
have cracked and tiles were swept off. The hospital buildings have been damaged 
and the people are panic-stricken. Though earthquakes are frequent here, none 
has ever been so severe. There were no accidents and no loss of life. There werp 
slight repetitions at intervals and the school -children were terror-stricken. 

Another correspondent telegraphs: — A serious shock of earthquake was feit 
here this morning a little before 9 o'clock. The college boj^s and orphan children 
were gathered in the College Hall upstairs in the American Baptist Mission, and 
the Rev. J. David was just about to end his sermon when the building began to 
shake terribly and the plaster from the roof dropped on the people. A panic 
almost ensued as the children ran pell-mell down the narrow stairway. One little 
girl got hurt and bruised, lut not seriously. The college buildings as well as the 
Principal's bungalow are considerably damaged. The walls are badly cracked and 
the tiles have slipped off from parts of the roof. The shock was felt all over the 
town and several small houses were damaged. 

A slight shock was felt about 8-4 a.m. on the 2nd instant, in Madras, the 
direction being from east to west and the duration about 15 seconds. The Obser- 
vatory, having no seismograph, is unable to give further particulars as to the in- 
tensity of the shock. 

A Markapur (Kurnool) correspondent writes: — Yesterday (2nd April), a little 
before 9 a.m., there was a shock of earthquake here which lasted for several 
seconds and was severe enough to cause the dishes on the sideboard and dinner 
wagon to rattle quite loudly. The bungalow trembled and groaned while it 
lasted, but there was no damage done. The sound accompanying the shock 
resembled the rumbling of distant thunder or the sound caused by a train passing 
over a large iron or steel bridge. 

Ongole. — An Indian correspondent wires on the 6th : Since Sunday there have 
been several earthquake shocks daily. Parents are alarmed for their children's 
safety. Yesterday the Mission College students and "teachers refused entering the 
college. The Missionary Professor- expect averting the danger through prayers 
immediately. At 11a.m., severe shock, ths boys jumped out of the windows. 
strength 350. Fifty attended in the afternoon. Again a shock at 7-37 p.m. shook 
the building. On Sunday a memorable shock shook the college building up aid 



352 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

down. Fearing volcanic- eruption. Ongole notorious, three shocks annually 
Oldest men never experienced so many so severe. In the morning at 3-50 a.m., 
another shock, total 15 till now. Town abandonment absolutely necessary, must 
remove offices, Sub- Collect or inspected the buildings which were condemned. 
The people panic-stricken, not sleeping. 

Damage to the Telegraph. 

Of damage to the telegraph in Kangra andKulu, 190 miles of line, 
239 poles, including a few terminals, were either broken, knocked down 
or tilted over. 13 J miles of wiie in the aggregate were lying on the 
ground broken in several places. Telegraph buildings and instruments 
shared in the general destruction, but fortunately only one postmaster 
in charge of a combined office was killed. 

Effects on Animals. 

Scattered about in the pages of the descriptive part will be found 
numerous allusions to the way. animals comported themselves during 
the earthquake. It seems in many cases to have made horses restive- 
On birds it had a very immediate effect in consequence of the shaking 
of the tree3. Dogs and cats were also affected (p. 45). The animals 
in the Lahore Zoo were highly alarmed and " created a great uproar, 
the piercing shrieks of peafowl being predominant. "— (Englishman, 
6th April). 

The Kashmir Seismograph Trace. 

Although I have been unable to reproduce and discuss the long- 
distance seismograph records of this earthquake from other parts of 
India and in other -lands (work which has, however, been done far 
better than I could hope to do by Prof. Omori) there is one seismo- 
gram which is of interest because it was traced within the seismic area 

rinagar in Kashmir, and has not been mentioned by Prof. Omori. 
I have received through Dr. Walker, Meteorological Reporter to the 
Government of India, copies of this seismograph trace, and I have also 
had some correspondence with Dr. A. Mitra, Meteorological Reporter to 
the Kashmir State, with reference to the same. 



MISCELLANEOUS PHENOMENA. 353 

The instrument there installed is of the pattern known as the 
Milne -Casella. It is not intended for long-distance quakes but for 
those of ordinary intensity in the neighbourhood of the station. The 
recording part of the instrument does not travel constantly but is 
automatically started by the shock. It gives a large open trace on 
smoked paper. 

Unfortunately the trace has overlapped itself 3 times, and in the 
photographic reproduction kindly sent me by Dr. Mitra, it is impossible 
or very difficult to sort the 3 traces. A few results seem clear. 

(1) The time of commencement by the stoppage of the clock in. 
connection with the instrument is given as 6h. 10m. 

(2) The time taken for the whole traces was 3 minutes 50 seconds* 

(3) The vertical component of the shock was extremely slight, 
showing only about Jth to T T ^th inch movement. 

(4) The N. — S. and E. — W. traces are about equal in amplitude, the 
greatest sweep being over 4 inches range. The natural magni- 
fication appears to have been about twice, but the position of the 
instrument on a table in a closed verandah is not good. 

(5) Other points are not certain, but if one reading of the trace is 
taken as correct, there appear to have been two phases of large amplitude 
waves, the second being of longer duration, more rapid and greater 
amplitude. If this is so, it would confirm the frequently repeated state- 
ments that the second shock was the more intense and long continued. 

In addition to the above details from the seismogram, the follow- 
ing notes by Dr. Mitra may be added : — 

(1) Almost all pendulum clocks were stopped. In one the fine 

spring of the pendulum broke and it dropped down. 

(2) Some bottles in the chemical laboratory were overturned, 

chiefly those made of thin Bohemian glass. A flask which 
was boiling over a spirit lamp fell towards west and was 
smashed completely, similarly also a wash bottle. No 
bottle in the dispensary room of the State Hospital was 
overturned. 



354 



MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



(3) Hanging lamps were found swaying vigorously from S.E. to 

N.W. 

(4) Trees, both large and small, were swaying in the same direc- 

tion. 

(5) No sound was heard. In 1885, booming sound as of a 

distant thunder or gun was heard. 

(6) There was a swell on the river Jhelum, the direction was 

from E. to W. 

(7) In Hazaribag there is a circular masonry tank with a foun 

tain in its centre. It was full of water. After the earth- 
quake it was found 6 inches empty, the water being 
splashed all round but not more in any particular direc- 
tion than others. 

(8) In the main water-supply 12-inch pipes from Nishatbag to 

Kainawari there were 25 leakages caused by disjointing. 
The following is the list of houses which partially suffered : — 
Cracks in chimneys in houses occupied by Mrs. Losack, Mr. 
Talbot, Rai Bhawni Dass and 2 houses in the city. Crack 
in walls of new Memorial Ward State Hospital, and a few 
other houses. Nine houses in the city suffered more or 
less, but in none anything serious happened. 

(9) From the examination of the Barograph, no definite pressure 

variation was observed except a slight depression com- 
mencing at 3 a.m. lasting till 8 a.m., but that is a part of 
the usual diurnal variation. The records being as fol- 
low : — 



3 A. M. . 


. 24-917 


4 „ . 


. 24-910 


5 „ 


. 24-912 


6 „ . 


. 24-920 


7 „ 


. 24-940 



(10) Half -an -hour after the earthquake another very mild tremor 
was felt, moving the needle '5 cm. 



FORESHOCKS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 355 

Chapter VI. 
FORESHOCKS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 



1. — Foreshocks. 



"When writing my preliminary report of this earthquake I had no 
evidence at my disposal in favour of any foreshocks having been .felt in 
the disturbed area. Since then, the detailed sifting of the earthquake 
forms has revealed distinct evidences for a few premonitory shocks 
that may be considered to be of the nature of foreshocks or warnings 
of the big event. It is according to common knowledge that many 
destructive earthquakes are preceded by a few such premonitory 
shocks. Mr. Davidson writes : * " For a few hours or days before- 
hand weak shocks and tremors are felt or a rumbling is heard within 
the future meizoseismal area. In the 1891 earthquake in Japan the 
previous two years was characterised by a greater frequency of earth- 
quakes in this area. Even the future fault-scarp was mapped out by 
them." 

So far as is at present known, there is no means, of distinguishing 
such foreshocks from ordinary small shocks which may visit an area 
without being succeeded by a great shock. Consequently their value 
as actual warnings of a coming catastrophe is at present nil. This 
may, however, be merely owing to our imperfect analysis of such 
shocks. With a more perfect system of registration it may be that 
in the future it will be possible to distinguish these warning tremors 
from mere small local disturbances. This would be the more likely to 
come about when seismographs are more plentifully distributed than 
they are at present over known earthquake regions. 

In the brief list which follows it will be seen that the foreshocks 
recorded (probably only a fraction of those which actually occurred) 



1 Hecent earthquakes by C. Davidson. 

2 a 



356 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



are 1 limited to the day before, and the early morning of the actual day 
of the earthquake. The evidence for one about 2 a.m. on the latter 
date is the most substantiated. The list is arranged chronologically. 



Date and time. 


Place and authority. 


Remarks. 


3rd April 1905 between 


Amritsar, Lieutenant J. G. Skene, 


He thought he felt a 


8 and 12 noon. 




5th Gurkha Rifles. 


shock. 


3rd April, il p.m. 


* 


Nagina, U. P.,* Meteorological 
Signaller. 


Two seconds' duration. 


ith », 1-30 a.m. 


, 


Simla, M. S. D'Cruz 


Very slight shock felt 


. 






on 3rd floor. 


, n 2 a.m. 




Nagina, U. P., Meteorological 
Signaller. 


Two seconds' duration. 


it t* >' 


# 


Meerut, U. P., R. Bruce Spils- 


One and-a-half minutes' 






bury, , Assistant Engineer, 


duration, slight, rat- 






P. W. D. 


tled crockery and 
woke him up. 


»» »> 


. 


Simla, Statesman of 9th April . 


Awoke many people. 


4th April between 


3 


Mussoorie, Miss Hope of " Clair- 


She heard creaks and 


and 4 a.m. 




ville." 


dogs barked. 


4th April, 4 a.m. 


# 


Amritsar, F. W. Schonemann, 


His wife heard a door 






Executive Engineer t Bari Doab 


rattle, and Mr. 






Canal. 


Roberts in the same 
house thought it was 
thieves. 


>» »> » 


. 


Kandi Travellers' Bungalow, 


Heard boards rattling 






Kulu, Rev. J. Tunbridge, 


which his wife de- 






C. M. S. 


clared to be an earth- 
quake. 


„ „ about 5-30 


Sardhana, Meerut District, Hira 




A.M. 




Lai, Sub-Postmaster. 





In addition to the above Mr. R, L. Bormaud, Panjab Educational 
Department (retired), in his earthquake form mentions that subter- 
ranean sounds of the nature of Barisal Guns (see p. 177) which have 
been common in Ludhiana for long ages, were heard with peculiar 
loudness a few days before the earthquake, whilst since the shock there 

has been a lull. 

2. — Aftershocks. 



In contradistinction to foreshocks, the occurrence of aftershocks 
succeeding any big earthquake is a matter of uni- 
versal experience. Immediately after the big shock 



General remarks. 



FORESHOCKS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 357 

they are numerous and of an order that would entitle many of them 
by themselves to be ranked as violent earthquakes. They may conti- 
nue for days, weeks and months after the parent shock ; whilst, in the 
case of earthquakes of the magnitude of the Kangra earthquake, they 
persist for years — often with recurring periods of maxima and minima. 
Very frequently they affect various parts of the epicentral area at diff- 
erent times, as if one portion after another of the originally disturbed 
crust felt the need of further relief. Frequently also a more than 
usually violent aftershock, originating at one locus of the first-affected 
area, is succeeded by a set of aftershocks that are evidently secondary in 
origin, and belong more properly to that aftershock than to the* first 
grand seismic disturbance. 

Most of the above points are clearly illustrated in the list of after- 
shocks that followed the earthquake of 4th April 
imperfections of! S 1905. In that list, in spite of its size, the prevail- 
ing character is its imperfections. It is imperfect 
for many obvious reasons and along many lines, but principally for 
the reason that, with the exception of the larger aftershocks that were 
noticed in the newspapers, no record was commonly kept or submitted 
by observers when once the earthquake-forms had been filled in and 
finally despatched to the Geological Survey Office. The dates when 
this was done varied considerably according to circumstances, and as a 
consequence the records break off suddenly and irregularly here and 
there over the enormous area reported on, without there having been 
any corresponding real cessation of the shocks. 

There were, however, a few other sources from which the list was 

Other sources from com P^ e <i- Such were the seismoscopes and seismo- 

which the list has graphs in ordinary use in the meteorological obser- 

een comp ed. vatories, 1 the newspapers, and letters from many 

private persons who interested themselves in the matter. A large 

number of aftershocks were also collected by Lady Holland at **Kenil- 



1 Early manuscript copies of the monthly list of earthquake shocks at Simla were sup- 
plied me by the courtesy of Dr. Gilbert T. Walker, M.A., F.R.S., Meteorological Reporter 
fcu Government of India and Director-General of Indian Observatories. 



358 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

worth," Simla, with the assistance of an Agamennone instrument, which 

observations were continued later with the same instrument by Mrs. 

W. Henry at " Kelvin Grove." A few aftershocks were collected by 

myself during my tour in the epicentral tracts. 

But besides the immediate successors of the great shock it became 

desirable to institute a regular system of recording 
A systematic regis- . 

tration of after- the fainter, as well as the more violent, aftershocks ; 

by a band of ama- so long as they continued to be felt at all in the 
regions surrounding the main seismic centre. For 
that: purpose a number of gentlemen and ladies very kindly undertook 
the task of noting such on specially prepared forms, giving such de- 
tails as to time, date and approximate intensity as could be furnished 
without specially installed apparatus. Among these may be men- 
tioned : — 

Alston, Lieutenant R. C. W., Chakrata. 

Anderson, Captain A., District Engineer, Dehra Dun. 

Ballard, Mr. W., Holta Tea Estate, Palampur. 

Burrattd, Lieutenant-Colonel 'S., F.R.S., Superintendent, Tri- 
gonometrical Survey of India, Dehra Dun. 

Hatch, Major A. V., 2nd Battalion, 1st Gurkha Rifles, Dharmsala. 

Holland, Lady, "KenilWorth, " Simla. 

Henry, Mrs. W., "Kelvin Grove,'' Simla. 

Keatinge, Mr. J. A., Municipal Office, Mussoorie. 

Kiugh, Rev. L., Chaplain, Mussoorie. 

Mackinnon, Mr. P., rt Lyndalc, " Mussoorie. 

Osboni, General W.. Naggar, Kulu. 

PJayne, Miss A. E., B.A., Caineville School, Mussoorie. 

Pope, Miss M. B., S. P. G. Mission. Rurki. 

Renniek, Colonel R. F. H., Bajaura, Kulu. 

It does not appear that any of the aftershocks, with the exception 

.. ft , of one, were recorded so far awav as at Calcutta by 

no aftershocks re 
porded o far away the Milne seismograph of the Alipore Observatory. 

Out of a list of 38 earthquakes appearing in the 

rd of fcha* instrument from 4th April to 8th November, and kindly 



FORESHOCKS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 359 

furnished by Mr. J. A. Cunningham, Acting Meteorological Reporter to 
the Government of India, it is not possible to correlate any one with 
those recorded from Upper India. The big shock itself was, of course, 
registered, but it was apparently not followed by any others capable 
of influencing the far distant instrument at Calcutta until the 28th 
February 1906. The register of the big shock stood absolutely alono 
even on the dav of the shock itself when severe and numerous after- 
shocks shook the meizoseismal area. 

A few shocks from neighbouring regions such as the Murree Hills, 

Doubtful after- Rajputana, and even Baluchistan will be found in- 

shocks from neigh- eluded in the list of aftershocks, not in the belief 

bouring regions, 

that they are simple aftershocks proceeding from 
the main centrum or from subsidiary more superficial local centra con* 
nected with the main centrum, but because it may be convenient to 
have these outside local shocks handy for comparison, in ca,3e it may 
be shown that the responsivity of outside unstable regions is in any 
way sympathetically aroused by the near presence of an area where 
aftershocks are in the chronic stage — a supposition that might well be 
maintained. Some notable foreign shocks are added. 

To be ideally complete, an account of the aftershocks should not 
only supply us with the exact time, but should also tell us something 
about 'the areas over which each was felt, and more particularly the 
place of the epicentrum — as to whether it showed any tendency to 
wander to more outlying portions of meizoseismal area. It should 
also give us certain measures of intensity just as in the case of the 
parent shock. In what follows it will be seen that we are very far 
from being able to compile such an ideally complete account. 

Brief analysis of the list of Aftershocks, 

During the day of the earthquake and the next few succeeding 
days the evidence points clearly to a very large 

Great frequency r j j o 

of the early after- number of shocks, but it should not be forgotten 

rent than ied. apP& " that ma ny recorded as separated in time by only a 

short interval were probably synchronous, depend- 



360 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



ing for their apparent separation merely on defective time observa- 
tion. The truth of this will be apparent if we for a moment consider 
the big shock of the 4th itself. We know that this was a single 
phenomenon whose time of occurrence could not have varied more than 
about 7 minutes at most. But, if this shock had not been recognisable 
by its predominating features, and we had merely regarded the 
successive times at which any shocks have been recorded in the lists, 
this one shock would have the appearance of being a series extending 
from long before 6 a.m. to long after 6-30. It follows from this that 
the extremely large assemblage of aftershocks, which in the list appear 
t j follow the big shock, are not really so many actually distinct shocks. 
On the contrary they must represent a much smaller number of 
actual occurrences that have become, so to speak, spread out by 
accidental misrepresentation of the noted times. 

We fortunately possess a means of checking any gross form of 
A check on the mistake due to this unnatural fullness of the list, 
above misconception- inasmuch as some of the first statements in that list 
are of a general kind — so many aftershocks being recorded as having 
occurred within so many hours after the main shock. And it is very 
noticeable that these individual statements from typical localities re- 
garding the frequency of the aftershocks during the first day fall far 
below what w uld be surmised Lorn a glance at the list. For instance 
we have :— 

Hosbiarpur . . .1 aftershock every 1 hour. 

Naggar 

Simla 

Sialkot 

Ludhiana 

Feiozepore 

Mussoorie 

Average 

or an average of 1 every 30 minutes instead of 1 every 2 or 3 minutes 
as shown in the chronological list. Let us, however, but assume that 
the actual sensible. aftershocks did really occur not more frequently than 



2 aftershocks 


i> 


1 „ 


1 aftershock 


it 


l „ 


7 aftershocks 


JJ 


4 hours. 


9 


it 


4 „ 


V 


if 


4 „ 


3 



i> 
•i 


1 hour. 
16 hours. 



FORESHOCKS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 361 

1 every half-hour, and it is clear that records for one every 2 or 3 minutes 
would certainly appear in the earthquake forms if we allow that the 
average clock was not accurate to within half-an-hour (a perfectly 
reasonable supposition in outlying stations in India). 

In support of the above assumption may be mentioned here the 

Frequency of records of the H. F. magnetograph at Dehra Dun. 

aftershocks as shown That instniment reco rded 15 aftershocks between 

by the magneto - 

graphs at Dehra 6-21 a.m. and midnight, the several times being : — 
^ un - 6-21, 6-29, 6-31, 6-46, 7-39, 7-51, 8-56, 9-4, 13-41, 

13-59, 15-50, 17-55, 18-30, 21-59, 23-59. The average here exhibited 
is about 1 every hour, although 4 are recorded in the first hour, and 
there are some notable gaps, as between 9-4 and 13-41. Dehra Dun is, 
however, rather far away from the larger centre, although on the other 
hand the magnetograph probably recorded shocks that were not 
sensible to men. 

Having then just cause to believe that the severally recorded shocks 
in that crowded early part of the list are by reason of imperfect timing 
inextricably mixed up with one another, it becomes manifestly impos- 
s ble to do anything more with the data than to conclude that over 
such and such a general area including such and such big towns, after- 
shocks occurred about 1 every 30 minutes during the day of the big 
event. 

With the date April 11th the list begins to thin so considerably, as 
regards frequency, that aftershocks in widely separated localities can 
now be reasonably correlated. For instance the shocks reported at 
Gurdaspur, Simla, Mussoorie and Landour, Dehra Dan, Manglaur and 
Mandi between the reported times 10-30 a.m. and 12. midday are 
probably one and the same shock. We may therefore conclude that it 
was felt over the area including those places, but negative evidence 
that it was not felt elsewhere has not much value. 

On April 15th again, there is the same sort of evidence for a shock 
about 6 a.m. felt at Mussoorie and Landour, Rurki, Kulu and Muzaf- 
farnagar. At Rurki it was distinctly felt and doors rattled, whilst in 
Kulu it is reported as the worst since the shock of the 4th. 



362 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE 

From the 15th to the 23rd it would seem that the aftershock area 
shifted towards the east and south-east into Kulu and the Mussoorie 
region. A few shocks noted from Baluchistan and Chitral about the 
same time being obviously not directly related phenomena. 

On May 3rd prominent aftershocks were first noticed by the author 
in the epicentral area near Palampur (I had been on the ground since 
12th April) accompanied by landslides in the Neogal gorge, but none 
of these coincided with shocks reported elsewhere except at Dharmsala. 

For the latter part of May up to the 28th the records available are 
principally from Kulu, after which an Agamennone seismoscope set up in 
Simla by the Director of the Geological Survey begins to record, some- 
times coinciding with the Kulu records, but very frequently only mark- 
ing local aftershocks in the Simla area. Thus we may perhaps correlate 
the shock on May 30th at 2 a.m. in Kulu with that on the same day 
at Simla at 2-1.8. Also the one on June 10th at 1-20 a.m. at Simla 
and 2 am. at Naggar (Kulu) said at the latter place to have been very 
severe. Also the one on June 14th, about 3 a.m. at Mussoorie and 
Naggar. 

On June 27th, we may correlate the 6-15 p.m. smart shock at 
Mussoorie with the 6-17 p.m. one at Sinda, felt generally and by the 
author in the Town Hall which rocked endwise with a slow motion, 
and possibly with the 6-28 p.m. one at Dehra Dun. 

From then on to July 26th there is not much to note in the list 
beyond records from Dras and Skardu (probably local shocks) and the 
general agreement of the Agamennone seismoscope and the Omori 
seismograph (from that time also installed at Simla by the Meteorological 
Department). 

The shock of July 26th was felt at Dehra Dun, Mussoorie, Simla, 
Dharmsala and Ferozepore. At the first place it is described as the 
severest since the big shock, at Mussoorie it roused the station, at 
Simla many people rushed out of their houses, at Dharmsala it was 
smart, whilst at Ferozepore there wat, a rumbling noise from the north- 
east, many people were disturbed and walls and roofs, etc., shook. From 
the absence of any reference from Kulu it would seem that the shock 



FORESHOCKS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 363 

was not felt, or not severely felt there, whilst the account from Feroze- 
pore helps to suggest a more southerly locus for this aftershock. 

During the rest of July and early August a number of small after- 
shocks are recorded, but on August 12th there was a severe shock record- 
ed from several places in the Murree Hills. As this is only nearly 
coincident with one recorded in Kulu it seems probable that it had a 
local origin and was perhaps quite independent of the centrum of the 
big earthquake of April 4th. 

On August 25th the two severe shocks reported from Deesa (North 
Gujrat) stand alone and were probably also of local origin. 

During this month, as also in previous ones since seismographs were 
set up in Simla, there are some noticeable agreements between the 
shocks reported from Naggar or Bajaura in Kulu and those recorded by 
the seismographs, as also between other points in the great earthquake 
area. In the case of the former the agreement most likely indicates a 
single deep origin. But besides these there undoubtedly have been 
recorded from Kulu a large number of shocks which gave no trace in 
the Omori seismograph and did not affect the Agamennone seismoscope. 
These must, therefore, have proceeded from origins less deep, and have 
had only a local effect round about Kulu. There is no reason, however, 
to doubt that they were somehow and distantly connected with the 
original centrum possibly by means of lines of fracture which are un- 
known to us. 

In many cases, as the records show, shocks in the Kulu area have 
been followed or preceded by shocks in the Dharmsala or Simla areas — 
the records are sandwiched in fact — a state of things which seems to 
indicate that a superficial (or near the surface) readjustment in the one 
place called for an early re-adjustment in the others, so as to balance 
results on each side of the deep main centrum. 

Nevertheless, taken as a whole, the Kulu valley seems to have been 
richer in aftershocks than any other part of the meizoseismal area. 
This cannot altogether be apparent only and due to the more conscien- 
tious recording done by our fellow worker, Colonel Rennick (admirable 
as that was). It must have been in large measure real, and a probable 



364 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

explanation may lurk in the larger scale on which the mountain and 
valley features are represented in Kulu. The steeper and longer slopes, 
the more profound gorges and precipitous crags, as has already been 
shown in the narrative part of this book, were much riven by surface 
slips during and for long after the earthquake. Now, although it is not 
to be supposed that a rock slide, even on a grand scale, would cause a 
tremor that could be felt even a few miles away — it being far too super- 
ficial for that — it is quite likely that the ragged surface of Kulu as 
represented by its mountain and valley features is to a large extent 
reflected in the immediate under crust, and that a vast number of 
thrust and shear planes splitting up the old rocks of that area descend 
into that crust and are linked up with others which ultimately combine 
with the one or more that was the seat of the original earthquake. On 
that supposition the larger number of recorded shocks in Kulu becomes 
a normal and intelligible phenomenon. 

Continuing our scrutiny of the list, we find that the severe or smart 
shock (accompanied by a rumbling; of October 7th at Bajaura in Kulu 
given as 8 p.m. was picked up by both the instruments in Simla. The 
same happened with the shock of October 14th, given as 5-40 a.m. at 
Bajaura, and 5-55 a.m. at Simla on the one instrument, and 6-13 a.m. 
on the Omori seismograph. Again on October 17th we have the 
same thing, the shock being also recorded from Mussoorie. On Octo- 
ber 20th a shock felt in Simla and recorded by the two seismographs 
was also felt at Naggar. On the 23rd another, not felt, was similarly 
recorded at Simla and Naggar. In this way the records go on with 
occasional agreements between the distant stations to the end of the 
year, and with an occasional sharper one such as that of November 
23rd felt between 3 and 4 a.m. at Bajaura, and also recorded at Simla, 
Dehra Dun and Rurki. 

Looking back as far as April 11th, where, as already explained, the 
records first begin to be sufficiently clear for the 

Frequency indi- ° * 

oated since April identification of individual shocks, we find that in 
Uth - early April the average was about 7 separate shocks 

per day and that this gradually diminished until by the end of the year 
rather less than 1 shock per day is recorded. 



FORESHOCKS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 365 

On January 24th, 1906, the ordinary record of aftershocks from the 
Kulu and Simla areas was interrupted by a sharp shock felt at Lahore, 
which made many people rush out of their houses, and was preceded 
by a prolonged rumble. This shock was not recorded elsewhere and 
must have been local. On January 29th, Shahpur (Kangra District), 
Simla, and Holta (Palampur) recorded a shock about the same time. 
February 2nd is remarkable for the 3 or 4 shocks recorded by the two 
seismographs in Simla, but on February 28th we are introduced to an 
aftershock with its probable centre in the Simla Hill Tracts or Kulu 
that by itself would rank as a very respectable earthquake. 

It was felt strongly over most of the meizoseismal area of the earth- 
quake of 4th April, and was even recorded from 
Bashahr aftershock, .. , __ . ^ 

or secondary earth- Jai P ur as wel1 as from Montgomery, Agra, Dera 
quake, of February Ismail Khan and Cherat. I am indebted to Mr. 
28th, 1906. Calvert, Assistant Commissioner of Kulu, for details 

experienced by himself in the neighbourhood of »the epicentral area. 
He was at Larji in Kulu at the time, and about 1 a.m. he felt a 
strong prolonged shock lasting about 1 minute. So far as he could 
recollect it was the worst shock since April 4th, though some people 
think the shock of 28th June was as bad. The great shock was 
followed by several smaller ones which he noticed until he fell asleep. 
Later in the day he went to Banjar (midway between Manglaur and 
Jibhi) and found there that the shocks were occurring on an average 
of 5 an hour, and continued throughout the 28th. Some were mere 
rumbles and others sharp shocks. Next day, 1st March, they occurred 
at the rate of about 2 per hour. At Bajaura on the same day he 
found these shocks were not noticeable, but on returning on the 2nd 
March to Banjar he found them still continuing at the average rate of 
about 1 per hour, and they were still continuing on the 3rd. 

From the above, and from numerous telegrams appearing in the 
newspapers, all of which together with other information officially 
supplied are summarised in the list under the date 28th February, it 
is clear that this destructive aftershock was the worst that had occur- 
red up to date, and in a restricted sense might be regarded as a separ- 



3G6 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 

ate, earthquake. Besides the accounts of damage done to buildings 
and the loss of life over a large area, the shock was of sufficient severity 
and individual character to be followed by a set of its own after- 
shocks. The seismographs of Simla alone were kept very busy for 
hours and days recording these, until in their case and in that of other 
parts of the area these derivative or secondary aftershocks became 
gradually merged and confused with the general series of ordinary 
primary aftershocks. 

As in the case of the earthquake of 4th April, the local times 
accorded to this shock vary enormously. Many of the wilder parts 
of the hills could hardly be expected to furnish very accurate returns ; 
consequently, just as was the case with the big shock of 4th April, the 
recorded times of this which must have been one approximately simul- 
taneous shock are spread out over at least 14 hours, namely, from mid- 
night to 1-30 a.m. Nevertheless it is instructive to see that the 
times recorded at the larger and more important towns such as Lahore, 
Chakrata, Dehra Dun, Simla, Rurki, Sialkot, Palampur and Saharanpur 
are very close to those recorded by the Simla seismographs, none of 
them being more than 2 or 3 minutes out — a fact which confirms our 
speculations on the comparative reliability of the recorded times of 
the original shock of 4th April as received from important and unim- 
portant towns respectively (see p. 285). 

The shock appears to have been certainly recorded by the Milne 
seismograph at Alipore, Calcutta, where the figures given are in stan- 
dard time :— Commencement of preliminary tremors 1h. 15'8m. Maxima 
1e. 19*9m. Duration 1h. 11'2m. and maximum amplitude measured 
from the base line 1400mm. Unfortunately these figures cannot be 
compared with the Simla ones because of the query mark attached to 
those furnished by the Omori-Ewing instrument. 

The intensity- of this shock at the epicentrumin the neighbourhood 
of Rampur in Bashahr and the Saraj tehsil of the Kangra District 
must have been about IX of the Rossi-Forel scale judging by the damage 
done and the loss of life to men and animals. The position is 
noticeably near the E.S.B. end of the meizoseismal area of the big 



FORESHOCJCS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 367 

earthquake where it touches the Sutlej valley, and it may represent 
a more near-the-surface rupture possibly continuous with the axial 
centrum of that earthquake. 

The fact of the secondary aftershocks being so much more pro- 
nounced in this direction than at Bajaura and elsewhere in Kulu and 
Kangra also indicates that the actual centrum of the big aftershock has 
exhibited in this case well-marked migration to the E.S.E. and up- 
wards from the general position of the grand centrum of the disaster of 
4th April. 

After the 3rd March the frequency of the aftershocks sink to about 
1 a day towards the end of the month. In April and May the after- 
shock record returns to its normal state. On May 20th, 1906, occur- 
red a moderately severe aftershock recorded from Mussoorie, Delhi, 
Dehra Dun, Lahore, Bijnor and Rurki. It was pronounced in the 
neighbourhood of Mussoorie, Dehra Dun and Rurki, where it was 
noticed by everyone, and doors and windows rattled and lamps swung* 
Although I have received no reports from the Kangra -Kulu area it is 
stated in the Monthly Weather Report to have been felt over a large 
part of Kashmir and at Skardu, Dras, Sonemarg and Leh. The 
larger waves were recorded at the Simla Observatory by the Omori- 
Ewing seismograph at 16h. 42* 2m., the disturbance lasting 18*8 minutes. 
It does not appear to have affected the Alipur instrument, though a 
doubtful shock is recorded by the latter about an hour before. The 
only record for the latter part of May is a severe shock at Bajaura on 
the 26th followed by 3 milder ones on the 28th. 

On June 13th at 11 15 p.m., as given in the Omori seismograph 
record at Simla, there was a sharp to severe shock lasting 3 or 4 
seconds described from Simla as the worst since the 28th February 
1906. The Imperial Secretariat buildings on Gorton Hill were slightly 
damaged and many natives spent the night in the open. At Bajaura 
it was felt severely, and every one ran out of doors alarmed. At 
Dehra Dun it was smart, rather severe at Seharanpur and felt also 
at Chakrata and Meerut. At Mussoorie a shock about the same 



368 MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 






time of day but given as the 14th (doubtless by mistake) was noticed 
by a great number of people and doors rattled and houses shook. 

On June 18th and 21st occurred shocks felt jointly in Kulu and 
the Simla-Dehra Dun areas. On the latter date at later hours also 
occurred local shocks at Mount Abu (Rajputana). 

On July 21st was the next severe shock at 1*57 a.m. as given by 
the Omori seismograph at Simla ; and felt as a smart shock at Bajau- 
ra, Naggar, Dehra Dun, Kashmir, Rawal Pindi, Lahore, Mussoorie, 
besides being reported from Delhi and Dalhousie and a wide area in 
the Western Himalayas. This shock is remarkable as having been 
severe at Kangra and lasting 5 to 10 seconds. It is seldom that 
aftershocks have been recorded from Kangra. This may be partly 
because of the absence of observers there, but it may also be because 
the original earthquake of 4th April did its work so well that no subse- 
quent settlements at that part of the axial centrum were generally 
necessary. On the other hand the more numerous and severe after- 
shocks that have been recorded from the opposite and deeper end of 
that centrum in Kulu, point it out as being generally unsatisfied by' 
the original quake especially as regards the more near the surface 
layers above it. which took a long time to work of! their secondary 
conditions of irregular strain resulting from the first deep-seated 
discharge. The shock of the 21st was recorded by the Barrackpore 
(near Calcutta) H. F. Magnetograph at 2h. 3m. 45s. standard time* 
according to a note kindly furnished me by Capt. Thomas, R.E., who 
also felt the tremor personally. 

August is not remarkable for many aftershocks from our area, 
but elsewhere seismicity was active : on the 16th, Rajputana was 
shaken about 3-45 a.m. followed by 3 later shocks recorded on the 
same day at Mount Abu. The 17th was the day of the big Valpar- 
aiso world-shake and there was one recorded from Assam on the 31st. 

September and October were equally uneventful, November and 
December provided a more numerous crop of aftershocks recorded in 
Kulu and Simla, but without many of them being synchronous, 



FORESHOCKS AND AFTERSHOCKS. 369 

With the year 1907 comparative quiescence sets in and the few 
shocks recorded more and more lose the aspect of genuine aftershocks. 
We continue to have records from the Simla seismographs and from 
Kulu wh ich occasionally synchronise ; but only very seldom, as the shock 
of 13th April, are there any reports from outside of this region. 

Although it is probable that the hilly region of Kulu and Simla 
will go on yet for some time yielding shocks that may have a connec- 
tion with the big shock of 4th April 1905, yet as time goes on these 
will be confused with local ones common to the region and distant 
ones from other centres. No more reports therefore were asked for 
after December 1907 unless anything out of the common occur- 
red. The Kelvin Grove seismoscope continued recording up to the 
end of April 1908. 



2* 



370 



MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



List of Aftershocks. 

[Note. — The times recorded in the list of aftershocks have all been converted 
into Indian Railway time whenever the standard used by the observer was known. 
For the first part of the list up to July 1905, such railway time was that of the 
longitude of Madras which is 5h. 20m. 59-2s. (for convenience taken as 5h. 21m.) 
east of Greenwich. After that date railway time was officially changed to so 
called "Standard Indian Time" which is taken as 5h. 30m. east of Greenwich.] 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


— 


Place. 


1905, 


April 4th 




4 shocks between 6 and 7 a.m. 


Ranikhet. 


»> 


>> 


. 


Tremors up to 3 p.m. 


. 


Srinagar, Kashmir. 


>, 


>» 


. 


Not less than 13 in 12 hours after 


Hoshiarpur." 








main shock. 






tt 


,» 


. 


3 or 4 during the day 


, 


Kousanie. 


.♦» 


>• 


. 


Between 6 and 10 a.m., 4 shocks 


. 


Simla. 


»» 


»» 


• 


6-5 to 6-35 a.m., 4 shocks each 10 — 20 


Tehri, Garhwal. 


j» 


» 




sees. 
6-8 a.m. (1 min.) . 




Thanesar (Karnal). 


*» 


»» 


. 


6-9^ a.m., main shock 




. 


Meteor. Obsy., Simla. 


>» 


»> 


. 


6-9|— 8-14 a.m., intermittent 




. 


Meteor. Obsy., Simla. 


»» 


»> 


. 


About every | hour 




. 


Nagar. 


>» 


>> 


. 


6 shocks up to 3 p.m., mild 






Panipat, Karnal Dist, 


»> 


»> 


• 


6-10 to 7 a.m., 2-3 slight shocks 




Rurki. 


>» 


»» 


• 


Between 6-10 and 8 a.m., 3 or 
* shocks. 


4 


Sialkot. 


t* 


»» 


. 


Between 6-10 and 9-45, at irregular 


Lahore. 








intervals. 






»» 


» 


. 


From 6-10 to 10-30 a.m., 9 shocks 


, 


Ludhiana. 


»» 


»» 


, 


Between 6-10 and 11-45 a.m. 


. 


Dehra Dun. 


\i 


» 


. 


Few minutes after main shocks 


, 


Ranikhet. 


»> 


>> 


. 


Few minutes after 6-10 a.m. . 


. 


Kaithal (Karnal Dist.) 


»» 


»> 


• 


6-15 A.M. .... 


. 


Srinagar, Garhwal. 


*» 


>» 


. 


6-15 A.M 




Pauri. 


*» 


»» 


. 


6-15 A.M 


. 


Dehra Dun. 


»» 


>» 


. 


Between 6-15 and 7 a.m., 3 smart 


Mussoorie. 








and 1 feeble. 






»» 


»« 


. 


6-15 to 10-30 a.m., 7 shocks . 


. 


Ferozepur. 


» 


>» 


. 


6-1&A.M. 




. 


Lansdowne. 


>» 


»> 


. 


6-19 a.m., severe . 






. 


Lahore. 


»» 


»> 


. 


6-20 a.m. 






. 


Phillour (Jullundur). 


»» 


» 


. 


6-20 a.m. 








Pauri. 


»> 


j> 


. 


6-20 a.m., very slight 






. 


Pathri near Hardour. 


>t 


,? 


, 


6-20 to 6-20-30 a.m. 






. 


Delhi. 


•» 


,, 




6-25 a.m. . 






, 


Ranikhet. 


H 


>, 




6-25 a.m. (about), distinct 




. 


Rurki. 


.. 


»> 


. 


6-20—6-25 a.m. . 




. 


Rosa, Shajahanpur 
















Dist. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



371 



Date. 



1905, April 4th 



Time and details of shocks. 



Between 6-20—7-45 a.m., 4 or 

shocks. 
6-21 Mag. H. F. . 
6-22 (nearest minute) 

6-22 am. 

6-23 a.m. 

6-25 a.m. 

6-25 a.m. (2 sees. ) 

6-25—6-26-15 a.m. 

6-25 to 8-0 a.m., 3 shocks 

6-27 a.m. 

6-28 a.m. 5 sees., rumbling noise and 

shock. 
6-29 Mag. H. F. . 
6-29 a.m. (2 or 3 sees.) 
6-30 a.m. 
6-30 a.m. 

6-30 a.m. 

6-30 a.m. 

6-30 a.m. 

6-30 a.m. (about), very light 

6-30 a.m., hardly felt 

6-30 a.m., very slight 

6-30 a.m. (4 sees.) . 

6-30 a.m. 

6-30 a.m., slight (1 inin.) 



6-30 a.m. 

6-30 a.m. 

Between 6-30 — 7-0 p.m. 

6-31 Mag. H. F., also felt 

6-33 a.m. (nearest minute) 

6-33 a.m. 

6-35 a.m., hardly felt 

6-35 a.m. (2 sees . 

6-35 a.m., slight) . 

6-35 a.m. 

6-35 a .m. 

6-37 Mag. H. F. 

6-38 a.m. (nearest minute 1 ! 

6-4C a.m. " . 

6-40 a.m., severe . 

6-40 a.m. 

6-40 a.m. (about), slight 



Place. 



Mussoorie and Lan- 

dour. 
Dehra Dun. 
Deodhur, Jagdhri 

Tehsil (Umballa). 
Pathri near Hardwar. 
Lansdowne. 
Pauri. 
Karnal. 
Delhi. 

Saharanpur. 
Pathri near Hardwar. 
Naini Tal. 

Dehra Dun. 
Rupar (Amballa). 
Pindri (Karnal Dist). 
Phagwara (Kapur- 

thala). 
Bazpur, Naini Tal 

Dist. 
Phillour. 
Muzaffarnagar. 
Chirawa, Jaipur Dist. 
Aligarh, United Provs. 
Amroha, Moradabad. 
Phagwara (Jullundur 

Dist.). 
Gurdaspur. 
Babugarh, Meerut 

Dist. 
Dehra Dun. 
Jullundar. 
Patiala. 
Dehra Dun. 
Deodhur. 
Landsdowne. 
Meerut. 
Karnal. 
Naini Tal. 
Muzaffarnaear. 
Tanda (Gujrat). 
Dehra Dun. 
Deodhur. 
Kartarphr. 
Amballa. 
Pauri. 
Bharatpur, Rajputana. 

2 B2 



372 




MIDDLEM1SS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 


Date. 




Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, April 4th 




6-40 a.m 


Dehra Dun. 


»» »> 


' 


0-43 a.m., mild .... 


Chor peak, Saram 
Obsy. 


»> » 


t 


6-45 a.m., slight .... 

* 


Moradabad, United 








Provs. 


» >» 


• 


6-45 a.m 


Bhim Tal, Naini Tal 


»» »» 






Dist. 




. 


6-45 a.m 


Jagraon, Ludhiana. 


»> >> 


• 


6-45 a.m., not severe 


Muktesar, Naini Tal 
Dist. 


»» >> 


. 


6-45 a.m. (about), distinct 


Rurki. 


>» »> 


. 


6-46 Mag. H. F. also felt 


Dehra Dun. 


»» »» 


. 


6-47 a.m. (nearest minute) 


Deodhur. 


»» >> 


* 


6-50 a.m., slight .... 


Between Pathri and 
Rurki. 


»» >> 


. 


6-50 a.m. (3 sees.) .... 


Karnal. 


»> » 


' 


6-50 a.m 


Rambagh, Dehra Dun 
Dist., United Provs. 


» »» 


. 


6-55 a.m., distinct .... 


Rurki. 


t> » 


. 


6-55 a.m 


Dehra Dun. 


» >> 


. 


6-55 a.m. (about, 15 sees.) 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


»> >» 


. 


6-55 a.m., rather severe . 


Srinagar, Kashmir. 


?> »> 


* 


6-55 a.m. (duration 30 sees.) . 


Almora, United Pro- 
vinces. 


J» »» 


• 


6-55 a.m. (12 sees.) 


Nalapani Camp. 


f> >5 


. 


6-55 A.M., hardly felt 


Meerut. 


»» »» 


• 


6-58 a.m. . . 


Lansdowne. 


" »> 


. 


6-58 a.m 


Dehra Dun. 


>» >> 


. 


6-58 E.— W 


Dhakauli, Meerut Dist. 


»> »> 


, 


0-59 a.m. (50 sees. N.—S.) 


Rurki. 


» >> 


. 


7 A.M. ...... 


Dhariwal, Gurdaspur. 


J* >> 


. 


7 A.M 


Meerut. 


*> >> 


. 


7 a.m. (3 or 4 sees.) 


Rohtak. 


»> ,» 


. 


7 a.m. (5 sees. ) 


Sardhana, Meerut. 


»> >» 


. 


7 a.m., slight .... 


Khanki (Gujranwala). 


>> » 


' 


7 A.M 


Nakadar (Jiillundur 

Dist.) 


»» »» 


. 


7 a.m., light 


Bijnor. 


» J« 


* 


7 A.M., distinctly felt 


Chamba. 


>> ?» 


. 


7 a.m., slight .... 


Naini Tal 


»» »» 


. 


7 a.m. (25 sees.) .... 


Tehri, Garhwal. 


»» >> 


. 


7 A.M. , 


Kartarpur (Jullundur). 


>» »> 


. 


7 a. ., fairly severe. 


Sialkot. 


»» »» 


( 


7 a.m., slight .... 


Faridkot. 


>J »» 


. 


About 7 A. M. 


Sirsa (Hissar). 


>> J> 


. 


7 A.M 


Chamba (Hazara). 


»> »» 


' 


7 A.M. . . . . 


Jalalpur Jattan (Gujrat 
Dist.) 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



373 



Date. 



Time and details of shocks. 



Place. 



1905, April 4th 



Between 7 a.m. and 2 p.m., 4 or 5 

shocks. 
7-2 A.M., distinctly felt . 
7-3 a.m., not severe 

7-3 A.M. 

7 — 7-5 a.m. 

7-5 a.m. (3 mins.) . 

7-10 A.M. . 
7-10 A.M. 
7-10 A.M. 

7-10 a.m. (nearly) . 

7-10 to 7-15 a.m., hardly felt 



7-15 A.M. 
7-15 A.M. 

7-20 a.m. 
7-28 a.m., 
7-30 a.m., 



mild 

15 sees, duration 



7-30 a.m. (exact) 10 sees. 

7-30 a.m., slight . 

7-30 a.m. (about) . 

7-30 a.m, about 

7-35 A.M., mild 

7-35 a.m. * . 

7-35 a..m. 

7-37 a.m. 

7-39 a.m., Mag. H. F. . 

7-40 a.m. 

7-45 a.m. 

7-51 Mag. H. F., also felt 
7-55 a.m. 1 min. 

8 A.M. 

8 a.m. (about) 

8 a.m. 10 sees. 

8 A.M., slight 

Between 8 and 9 a.m. 

8-10 a.m. 

8-15 A.M. 

8-30 a.m. 10 sees. 

8-30 a.m. 

8-30 a.m. 

8-30—10-10 a.m., 3 shocks, 5-10 sees, 

S-44— 8-54 a.m 



Sangrur (Jhind State). 

Meerut. 

Muktesar, Naini Tal 

Dist. 
Bhim Tal, Naini Tal 

Dist. 
Mashobra. 
Jawalapur, Saharanpur 

Dist. 
Ranikhet. 
Kartarpur. 
Naini Tal 
Gurdaspur. 
Kosi, Muttra Dist. 

United Provs. 
Nakadar. 
Tanda (Gujrat). 
Jagraon. 

Sarain Obsy., Chor. 
Najibabad, United 

Provinces. 
Mussoorie and Landour, 
Moradabad. 
Amritsar. 

Sangrur (Jhind State). 
Sarain Obsy., Chor. 
Pauxi. 
Nakadar. 
Pauri. 
Dehra Dun. 
Nalapani Camp. 
Dwarahath, Kumaun 

Dist. 
Dehra Dun. 
Naini Tal. 

Mussoorie and Landour. 
Amritsar. 
Tehri, Garhwal. 
Khanki (Gujranwala). 
Hissar. 
Amritsar. 
Pimdri. 

Tehri, Garhwal. 
Nagina. 

Kanaud (I atiala State). 
Tehri, Garhwal. 
Mashobra. 



374 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 


Time and details of shooks. 


Place. 


1905, 


April 4th . 


8-50 a.m. 




Phillour. 


»> 




8-56 Mag. H. F. . 


. 


Dehra Dun. 


>» 


>» 


9 a.m., smart 


. 


Mussoorie. 


ii 


»» 


9 A.M. ..... 


• 


Bulandshahr, United 
Provinoes. 


»» 


ii 


9 A.M. . 


. 


Jagraon. 


»» 


»> • 


9 a.m., slight 


. 


Faridkot. 


>» 


»> • 


9 a.m. (about) 


. 


Hardwar, Saharanpur. 


«» 


»» • 


9 A.M. .... 


• 


Barkot, Dehra Dun 
District. 


>» 


»i • 


9 a.m. (about) . , 


, 


Amritsar. 


» 


»► • 


9-4 Mag. H.F. 


. 


Dehra Dun. 


ii 


» • 


9-10 a.m. (1 min., slight) 


* 


Kairana, Muzaff arnagar, 
United Provinces. 


>» 


>» 


9-10 A.M 


. 


Dhariwal. 


ii 


»» • 


9-25 a.m. (J min.) . 


. 


Thanesar. 


>» 


»> 


9-30 a.m. (15 sees.) 


. 


Do. 


»> 


»> • 


9-30 a.m 


. 


Phagwara. 


» 


>» 


9-30 a.m 


. 


Phagwara (Kapurthala) 


» 


>> • 


After 9-30 a.m. (slight) . 


. 


Jullundur 


>> 


>> • 


9-30 a.m 


# 


Amritsar. 


»> 


s* 


9-30 a.m 


. 


Ferozepur. 


»> 


»» • 


9-45 ajk. (last one) 


. 


Almora. 


a 


»» • 


9-50 a.m 


# 


Simla. 


i» 


»# • 


10 A.M 


, 


Dehra Dun. 


»» 


»i 


10 A.M 


. 


Srinagar, Kashmir. 


>» 


»> • 


10 A.M 


. 


Jagraon. 


>» 


»» • 


10 A.M 


. 


Gujranwala. 


>» 


>> • 


10 a.m. (30 sees, duration) 


• 


Ramnagar (Gujran- 
wala). 


>» 


»> • 


10 A.M., slight 


. 


Khanki. 


>» 


»» 


10 A.M. 


# 


Amritsar; 


»• 


»» • 


10 a.m., very slight 


. 


Amballa. 


i> 


»» 


10 A. M. . . 


• 


Garhmuktesar. Meerut 
Dist. 


ii 


>» • 


10 a.m. (2 sees, duration)- , 


• 


Ramnagar (Gujran- 
wala). 


»> 


»> • 


10 A.M. .... 


, 


Meerut. 


ii 


>» 


10 A.M 


. 


Bijnor. 


»» 


»> 


10-10 A.M 


. 


Dagshai. 


»» 


» • 


10-15 a.m., most severe (2 separate 


Bikaner. 


>> 


»» • 


local shocks). 






»j 


» • 


10-15 a.m., slight . 


• 


Nowshera (Sialkot 
District). 


» 


?» ■ 


10-15 a.m about . 


. 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


»» 


>> • 


10-15 a.m., 15 sees. 


. 


Najibabad. 


>> 


»» • 


10-22 a.m. 




Kotla near Ferozebad, 
Agra District. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



375 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, 


April 4th . 


10-30 A.M. . . . . 


Dehra Dun. 


it 


» • 


10-30 a.m. (about) .... 


Amritsar. 


»» 


>> 


10-30 A.M. . 


Do. 


>> 


»> • 


10-30 A.M. .... 


Rurki. 


>, 


>> • 


10-30 a.m. hanging lamp N. — S. 


Naini Tal. 


»» 


»> • 


10-30 a.m. .... 


Simla. 


if 


» 


1 1G-30 a.m., 30 sees 


Rurki. 


» 


>» 


10-30 A.M. .... 


, Gujranwala. 


ft 


>» • 


10-30 A.M., very slight . 


Rurki. 


»> 


»> 


10-30 A.M. . 


Simla. 


»» 


»» 


10-30 a.m 8-9 sees. 


Ferozepur. 


» 


>» 


10-30 A.M. .... 


Kanaud (Patiala State). 


»» 


" { 


10-30 A.M. ") „ . 

10-40 a.m. j 3mms - • 


Rurki. 


>* 


»> • 


10-31 a.m., 4 sees 


Tehri, Garhwal. 


»» 


»> • 


10-35 a.m. .... 


Pauri. 


>» 


»* 


10-37 a.m., 3 sees 


Tehri, Garhwal. 


»> 


>> • 


10-37 a.m. . 


Dehra Dun. 


*» 


>» • 


10-40 a.m 


Srinagar, Garhwal. 


»» 


»» • 


10-40 a.m., felt .... 


Dehra Dun. 


>» 


»» 


10-45 a.m 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


»> 


>» • 


10-45 am. (mild) .... 


Sarain Obsy., Chor. 


» 


>> • 


Between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m., 5 shocks 


Dadupur (Amballa). 


»» 


»> • 


11 a.m. (about) .... 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


M 


>> • 


11 A.M. 


Barkot, Dehra Dun 
Dist. 


» 


>» • 


11 A.M 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


M 


» • 


11 A.M. ..... 


Tanda (Gujarat). 


»> 


>» • 


11 A.M. ..... 


Meerut. 


if 


»• • 


11 a.m. (about) .... 


Amritsar. 


>» 


» 


11 a.m., 1 sec., slight 


K a ir ar a .. MuzafTarnagar , 


M 


»> » 


11 A.M. 


Saharanpur. 


»> 


>» • 


1 11 a.m., smart .... 


Mussoorie. 


>> 


>> • 


11 A.M 


Kartarpur Jullundur) 


>» 


>» • 


11-10 a.m. 5 mins. 


Jawalapur, Saharanpur 






, 


Dist. 


»» 


»> • 


11-15 A.M 


Pindri. 


»> 


>» • 


11-15 A.M. ..... 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


»• 


»» • 


11-30 A.M 


Dehra Dun. 





»» • 


11-30 A.M 


Sardhana, Meerut. 


» 


»» • 


11-30 a.m., slight .... 


Sakandrabad (Buland- 
shahi). 


t* 


» • 


11-40 p.m., mild .... 


Sarain Obsy., Ohor. 


»» 


»» • 


11-45 A.M. 


Simla. 


n 


>» • 


11-50—11-54 a.m 


Mashobra. 


»» 


» • 


11-58 a.m., 45 sees, with great rumbling 


Rurki. 


" 


" 


12 noon, 15 sees. .... 


Kalapani Camp. 



376 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, 


April 4th . 


12 noon ..... 


Gujranwala. 


»> 


>> • 


12 noon ..... 


Kaithal (Karnal Dist.) 


»« 


»» • 


12 noon ..... 


Amritsar. 


a 


»» 


12 noon ..... 


Gurdaspur. 


»» 


»» • 


12 noon (very slight) 


Amballa. 


♦» 


>» • 


12 noon ..... 


Simla. 


M 


»» • 


12 noon ..... 


Rohtak. 


»> 


»> • 


12-30 (afternoon) .... 


Pimdri. 


If 


»» • 


12-30 p.m. (10 sees). 


Najibabad. 


„ 


»* • 


1 P.M. ..... 


Ferozepur. 


11 


»» • 


1 p.m., light 


Bijnor. 


»» 


»» • 


1 p.m. (and others afterwards) 


Chamba (Hazara). 


»» 


»» • 


13 distinctly felt .... 


Chamba. 


♦» 


*> • 


1-30 p.M 


Kartarpur. 


»» 


»» • 


1-30 p.m 


Pegan Chowki, 36 miles 
S. W. by W. of Karnal. 


*> 


» • 


1-30 pm. (about) .... 


Amballa. 


»ff 


»» • 


1-30 p.m. . . 


Sardhana Meenit 


?» 


>> 


1-30 p.m 


Saharanpur. 


»» 


>» 


1-30 p.m., 2 shocks 


Ferozepur. 


%I 


»» • 


Between 1-30 and 2 p.m. rather 
. severe. 


Amballa. 


♦* 


i» • 


13-35, 1£ rnias. .... 


Tehri, Garhwal. 


II 


i» • 


1-40 p.m 


Jalalpur Jattar (Guj~ 
rat Dist.) 


»» 


i» • 


13-41 Mag. H. F. , 


Dehra Dun. 


l» 


»» • 


1-44 p.m., 8-9 sees. 


Ferozepur. 


I* 


»» • 


1-45 p.m. (violent like first) 


Sarain Obsy., Chor. 


>> 


»» • 


13-45 . . . . 


Simla. 


IS 


»» • 


1-50 p.m., slight .... 


Faridkot. 


»» 


!» • 


1-50 p.m. ..... 


Muzaffarnagar. 


H 


!> • 


13-50 (2 sees.) . 


Karnal. 


»» 




13-55 


Pimdri. 


II 


»l • 


1-55 p.m. 


Pauri. 


»t 


• » • 


13-55 


Phillour. 


>l 


»» • 


13-55, slight . . . . 


Jullundur. 


II 


!> • 


1-58 p.m, 


Mussoorie and Landour 


»» 


»» • 


1-58 P.m 


Dehra Dun. 


»• 


»l • 


13-59 Mag. H. F., also felt 


Do. 


Iff 


»> 


J 2 p.m., smart .... 


Mussoorie. 


»» 


»» • 


2 P.M. 


Dehra Dun. 


»* 


l» • 


1 2 P.M. 


Meerut. 


*» 


II • 


2 p.m.i distinctly felt 


Do. 


»v 


II • 


2 p.m. 


Nalapani Camp. 


H 


II • 


14-0 (very slight) .... 


Amballa, 


f» 


II • 


2 p.m., not severe 


Do. 


H 


»3 • 


2 P.M. 


Kartarpur. 


N 


»» • 


' 2 P.M. 


Rurki. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



377 



Date. 



1905, April 4th 



Time and details of shocks. 



2 P.M. 



2 p.m., slight 

2 p.m., 30 sees. N.E.— S.W 

2 p.m. (about) 

2 p.m. fairly severe 

2 p.m., 5 seos 

2 p.m. . 

2 p.m. . 
14-0 . 

2 p.m. mild 
(2—3) p.m. 
14-2 p.m. , 1 sec. 
2-2 p.m. 
14-5 

2-5 p.m., slight, \ min. 
2-5 p.m., 15 sees. 
2-10 p.m. 

14-45, 10 sees. 

3 P.M. 

15-0, 3 



3 p.m. . 
3-15 p.m. 
3-30 p.m. 
3-30 p.m. 
3-30 p.m. 

3-30 p.m., mild 

15-30, 30 sees. 

3-40 p.m., slight 

3-45 P.M.,distinot 

3-50 p.m. 

3-50 p.m. 

15-50 Mag. H.F. 

3-50 p.m., 6 sees. 

3-50 p.m. 

16-0, very slight 

4 p.m. . 

4 p.m. . 

4 P.M. . 

4 p.m. . 

4 p.m., smart 

4 p.m. . 



also felt 



Place. 



Ranipur, 2 miles from 
Jawalapur, Saharan- 
pur Dist. 
Rurki. 

Do. 
Hard war. 

Do. 
Rurki. 
! Phagwara (Kapur- 

thala). 
| Simla. 
! Thanesar. 
J Sarain Obsy., Chor. 
j Shahpur (Kangra Dist.) 
! Muzaffarnagar, 
Dehra Dun. 
I Jagraon. 
I Ranikhet. 
Do. 
Mussoorie and Lan- 

dour. 
| Najibabad 
• Amballa. 
Jawalapur, Saharan- 

pur District. 
Gujranwala. 
Nalapani Camp. 
Patiala. 
i Pegan Chowki. 
Mussoorie and 

dour. 
\ Sarain Obsy, Chor, 

Tehri, Garhwal. 
i Faridkot. 
Rurki. 
: Amballa. 
Dehra Dun. 
Do. 
| Nalapani Camp. 
j Simla. 
I Amballa. 
, ; Amritsar. 

Dadupur (Amballa). 
. Dehra Dun. 
, Ferozepur.. 
. j Mussoorie. 
. | Mussoorie and Lan- 
dour. 



Lan- 



378 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 



Time and details of shocks. 



Place. 



1905. April 4th 



ft 


»» 


»> 


»» 


»» 


»» 


»» 


»> 


»» 


»> 


» 


»» 


»» 


»» 


»» 


99 


>» 


»» 



4 P.M. . 

16-0 . 

4 p.m., slight 

4 P.M. 
4-1 P.M. 
4-5 p.m. 
4-7 p.m. 
16-10, 5 sees. 

4-10 p.m., 2 or 3 sees. 
4-15 p.m. 
16-30, 2 mins. 

5 p.m., slight 
5 p.m. (about) 

5 p.m., very slight 
17-15, 10 sees. 
17-30 . 

5-30 p.m, very slight 

5-38 p.m. 

5-40 p.m., mild 

5-45 p.m. 

17-45 . 

17-50 . 

17-55 Mag. fl.F. . 

18-0, very slight . 

6 P.M. 

6 p.m., 2 shocks 
18-0, 15 sees. 
About 18 (severe) . 

6 P.M. 

6 to 6-5 p.m. 
6-5 p.m. 
18-20, 3 mins. 

9 p.m. . 

18-30 Mag. H. F. . 

18-30, 15 sees. N.-S. 

7-30 p.m. 

20-2 . 

20-15, 3 mins. 

9 P.M. 

21-59 Mag. H. F. 
22-0, 3 mins. 

22-0, slight . 

10 P.M. 



Nagina. 

Pimdri. 

Rurki. 
! Sialkot. 
I Dehra Dun. 
| Dagshai. 
I Dehra Dun. 
I Najibabad. 
I Rupar. 
| Tanda (Gujrat). 

Jawalapur, Saharanpur 
District. 

Faridkot. 

Gurdaspur. 

Poonch, Kashmir. 

Najibabad. 

Jagraon. 

Ludhiana. 

Amballa, 

Sarain Obsy., Chor. 

Chad, near Dharmsala. 

Simla. 

Pimdri. 

Dehra Dun. 

Amballa. 

Dehra Dun. 

Ferozepur. 

Tehri, Garhwal. 

Meteor. Obsy., Simla. 

Simlar. 

Mashobra. 

Dhariwal. 

Jawalapur, Saharanpur 
District. 

Tanda (Gujrat). 

Dehra Dun. 

Najibabad. 

Dehra Dun. 

Thanesar. 

Jawalapur, Saharanpur 
bistrict. 

Tanda (Gujrat). 

Dehra Dun. 

Jawalapur, Saharanpur 
District. 

Jullundur. 

Phagwara (Kapur- 
thala). 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



379 



Date. 


Time and details of shoci 


.Si 




Place. 


1905 


, April 4th 




10-30 p.m. . 






Kapurthala. 


»* 


M 


. 


10-30 p.m., 2 or 3 sees. . 




• 


Bupar. 


»» 


t> 


. 


10-40 A.M 




. 


Amritsar. 


>» 


t» 


. 


10-50 p.m. . 




. 


Solan (Baghat Dist.). 


ft 


t» 




11 p.m., sharp like a downward crash 


Khanki. 


»» 


„ 


. 


1 1 p.m. very slight 




. 


Poonch. Kashmir. 


>» 


»» 


• 


11 P.M 






Ranipur, 2 miles from 
Jawalapur, Saharan- 
pur District. 


>* 


M 


. 


11 p.m.,- slight 




. 


Dalhousie (Gurdaspur). 


»> 


»» 


. 


11 P.M 






Dera Ghazi Khan. 


»» 


M 




11 P.M. .... 




. 


Dhariwal. 


„ 


M 


. , 


11 P.M 






Srinagar, Garhwal 


»» 


ft 


. 


11 p.m., slight 




• 


Hardwar. 


»j 


ft 


. 


11-25 p.m. . . 




. 


Solan (Baghat Dist.). 


it 


»» 


. 


11-30 p.m., slight . 




• 


Bijnor. 


»» 


M 


. 


11-30 p.m. 




. 


Dadupinv 


,, 


ft 


. 


23-3Q, 7 sees. 




. 


Tehri, Garhwal. 


»» 


tt 


. 


11-30 p.m. (about), rather intense 


, 


Hardwar. 


»t 


t» 


. 


23-30, 2 sees. 




. 


Kama!. 


»> 


• * 


. 


11-30 p.m., very slight 




. 


Ludhiana. 


»» 


ft 


. 


11-30 p.m. to 1-15 a.m. on 5tk 


it 




Rurki. 








periodic disturbances of varying 










intensity. 








f> 


tt 


• 


11-40 p.m 




• 


•Phagwara (Kapur- 
thala). 


ft 


»f 


. 


11-45 p.m 




. 


Dadupur. 


tt 


ft 


. 


11-45 p.m 




. 


Solan (Baghat Dist.) 


w 


t> 


. 


23-45 




• 


Thanesar. 


., 


ft 


. 


23-50 




• 


Pimdri. 


M 


*t 


,, 


23-50, sharp .... 




• 


Rurki. 


M 


tt 


. 


11-50 p.m 




• 


Dehra Dun. 


»t 


ff 


• 


11-53 p.m. .... 




. 


Do. 


»» 


ft 


. 


11-65 p.m., slight . 




• 


Sikanderabad. 


ft 


ft 


• 


23-55, 1 sec. • 




. 


Muzaffamagar. 


»f 


ft 


. 


11-55 p.m. .... 




, 


Nalapani Camp. 


ft 


ff 


. 


11-55 p.m 




. 


Pauri 


f» 


ft 


a 


11-55 p.m., slight . 




• 


Moradabad. 


l» 


ff 


. 


11-55 p.m., 20 sees. 




. 


Nalapani Camp. 


If 


ft 


. 


23-57 Mag H. F. also felt 




. 


Dehra Dun. 


f» 


tt 


• 


11-57 P.M. .... 




• 


Deoband, Saharanpur 
Dist. 


ft 


ft 


. 


11.57 p.m. . 




. 


Dehra Dun. 


ff 


n 


. 


11-58 p.m. . 




, 


Rurki 


•» 


ft 


. 


12 p.m. midnight, intense 




4 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


f» 


t» 


. 


12 midnight . . • 




• 


Amballa. 


ff 


tt 


. 


12 




. 


Kaithal (Karnal Dist.), 


»f 


tt 


• 


12 „ . . . 




• 


Rohtak. 



380 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 





Date. 




Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, 


April 4th 




12 Midnight, severe 




Mussoorie. 


»' 


it 


. 


12 p.m. (10 sees, mild) . 


. 


Panipat, Karnal Dist. 




,, 


, 


12 midnight 


. 


Rurki. 


>» 


»> 


. 


12 „ (distinctly felt) . 




•Meerut. 


»» 


*y 


. 


12 „ slight. ' . 


. 


Moradabad. 


»» 


ft 




12 „ 


. 


Muzaffarnagar. 


»» 


>» 


. 


12 „ (not severe). 


. 


Amballa. 


»» 


»> 


• 


12 „ (1 sec.) 


• 


Ramnagar, Gujran- 

wala. 
Garhmuktesar, Meerut 


»» 


i> 


• 


12 „ . 














Dist. 


»> 


ii 


• 


12 P.M 




Rambagh, Dehra Dun 
Dist., U. P. 


»» 


i» 


. 


12 midnight, guessed 4 sees. . 


. 


Sardhana, Meerut. 


»» 


• • 


. 


12 , 




Dehra Dun. 


M 


»i 


. 


24 .... 




Thanesar. 


>* 


II 


. 


12 p.m. midnight . 


. 


Amritsar. 


if 


»» 


. 


12 midnight .... 




Mussoorie and Landour. 


II 


it 


• 


At night 2 shocks . 


. 


Amritsar. 


»» 


„4- 


5th 


Midnight, severe . . • 


. 


Saharanpur. 


II 


*i 





Twice in night ... 


. 


Delhi. 


II 


»» 


' 


12-30 after midnight 


• 


Jhajjar, Rohtak Dist, 
(Panjab). 


>» 


ii 


. 


(10 p.m. to 4 a. m., 4 slight shocks) 


. 


Faridkot. 


II 


»» 




Midnight .... 


. 


Delhi. 


>i 


»4- 


9th 


Rate decreased to 8 to 12 shocks 
24 hoars. 


in 


Naggar. 


»» 


>, 4th 


— 


Day and night at various intervals 


Bajaura (Kula). 


May 19th. 




and intensity 






1905, 


April 5th 


. 


2 a.m. (2 sees.) 


. 


Karnal. 


»» 


>> 


• 


2 A.M 


• 


Ramnagar (Gujran- 
wala). 


>» 


i» 




2 a.m., severe 


• 


Mussoorie and Lan- 
dour. 


ii 


»» 


. 


2-30 a.m. (2 sees.) . 


, 


Karnal. 


>» 


>> 




3 A.M. (10 sees., mild) 


. 


Panipat, Karnal Dist. 


m 


j> 


, 


4 A.M. • 


. i 


Amritsar. 


ii 


ii 


. 


6 a.m., slight 




Dalhousie. 


ii 


ii 


, 


7 A.M. ..... 


1 


Thanesar. 


»i 


ii 


, 


7-4 a.m. Mag. H. F. 




Dehra Dun. 


i, 


ii 


t 


12 noon .... 


• 


Thanesar. 


ii 


ii 


. 


2 P.M 


. 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


ii 


ii 




2-30 p.m. ? . 


. 


Rurki. 


>» 


ii 




3 P.M 




Thanes«*r. 


ii 


•i 


, 


16 




Do. 


>» 


'» 


. 


9 P.M 




Shahpui (Kangra Dial. 


>> 


>» 




9-40 p.m 


. 


Rurki. 


t» 


ii 


* 


22-10, slight .... 


"I 


Do. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



381 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, 


April 


5th . 


11 P.M. ? 




Rurki. 


»» 


n 


. 


11 p.m., fairly severe 


. 


Islamabad, Kashmir. 


»» 


*> 


. 


12 midnight, 2 other shocks 


, 


Ranikhet. 


»» 


» 


. 


Loud noises like cannons 


. 


Bhajji State (Simla). 


»» 


»» 


5 -6th 


In night several 


• 


Meteorological Obsy. 
Simla. 


m 


»» 


6tb . 


1-55 A.M., very slight 


. 


Rurki. 


M 


»» 


. 


2 a.m. .... 


. [ 


Do. 


H 


»» 


. 


8-45 a.m 


. 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


»» 


»> 


, 


21-21 Mag. H. F. . 


. 


Dehra Dun. 


»» 


»> 


. 


10 p.m., 2 shocks . 


. 


Mussoorie and Landour 


»» 


»» 


. 


Several tremors 





Rurki. 


»» 


»J 


7th . 


Loud noises like cannons 


. 


Bhajji State, Simla. 


N 
if 


» 


8th j 


Continuous slight shocks 


. 


Kulu. 


»> 


>» 


9th ^ 








m 


»> 


10th C 


Continuous slight shocks 


. 


Do. 


»» 


»» 


11th ) 








»» 


»» 


8th. 


4-30 a.m. . . . 


, 


Ludhiana. 


»» 


»> 


. 


10-43 a.m., 35 sees. 


. 


Rurki. 


»f 


*» 


. 


7 p.m. slight .... 


. 


Dalhousie. 


»> 


>» 


8— 9th 


Night, 2 or 3 slight shocks 


p 


Simla. 


»» 


»» 


9th . 


2-10 A.M 


• 


Faridkot. 


t» 


»» 


# 


3-5 A.M 


• 


Do. 


M 


»» 


10th . 


6 a.m. 6 sees. 


. 


Rurki 


»» 


>» 


. 


1-45 a.m., 3 or 4 sees, distinct move- 


Dehra Dun, 








ment. 






t» 


»» 


• 


9-45 p.m 


- 


20 miles fromjhelum 
R. 
Simla. 


»» 


M 




11 p.m., sharp 


. 


«» 


n 


10-1 1th 


In night, 2 slight . 


• 


Meteorological Obsy., 
Simla. 
Gurdaspur. 


»» 


»> 


11th . 


10-30 A.M 


u 


t» 


>» 


. 


10-30 a.m. tremors 


. 


Simla. 


»> 


»» 


• 


10-30 a.m., severe . 


« 


Mussoorie and Land- 
our. 


»» 


»> 


• 


10-39 a.m 


• 


Mussoorie and Land- 
our. 


N 


»» 


. 


10-47 a.m. Mag. H. F. . 


. 


Dehra Dun. 


»» 


»» 


• 


10-45 a.m 


• 


Mussoorie and Land- 
our. 


• » 


»» 


. 


About 11 a.m., feeble 


. 


Mussoorie. 


»» 


>» 




11 a.m., slight 


• 


Manglaur, Saharanpur 
District. 


»» 


»» 


. 


12 A.M. .... 


. 


Mandi. 


N 


»» 


• 


12-11 afternoon 


• 


Meteorological Obsy., 
Simla. 


M 


»» 


* 


1 P.M. .... 


• 


Lahore. 



382 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 




Place. 


1905, 


April 11th . 


12 midnight . 






Lahore. 




»> 


,, 


12th . 


1-36 a.m. Mag. H. F. . 


. 


. 


Dehra Dun. 




tt 


n 


. 


1-41 a.m. Mag. H. F. . 


. 


. 


Do. 




*» 


»» 


. 


10-30 a.m., several 


. 


. 


Mussoorie and Landour. 


»» 


»» 


. 


4 P.M 


. 


. 


Lahore. 




m 


ii 




7-39 p. m. a few people still sleep 


Simla. 










in the open. 










»» 


»» 


. 


19-40, smart 


. 


. 


Do. 




ii 


»» 


• 


20-21 Mag. H. F. . 


• 


• 


Meteorological 
Simla. 


Obsy., 


,, 


»» 




20-30 Mag. H. F. . 


. 


, 


Dehra Dun. 




» 


11 


. 


21-2 Mag. H. F. . 


. 


. 


Do. 




»» 


II 


. 


21-9 Mag. H. F. . 


. 


. 


Do. 




»» 


II 


. 


10 p.m., severe 


. 


. 


Do. 




i» 


»• 


• 


11 P.M 


• 


• 


Mussoorie and 
dour. 


Lan- 


»> 


II 


12—13 


Night fresh shocks . 


. 


. 


Lahore. 




»> 


II 


13th . 


2 A.M 


. 


. 


Simla. 




h 


11 


. 


About 4 a.m. 


. 


. 


Hoshiarpur. 




»> 


11 


, 


2 p.m., moderate, 3 sees. . 


t 


. 


Kulu. 




»» 


11 


. 


8 p.m., moderate, . 


. 


. 


Do. 




»> 


1, 




8-50 p.m., moderate 


, 


. 


Do. 




» > 


11 


. 


Night 


. 


. 


Gujrat City. 




» 


H 


uth : 


4-17 a.m., 3 sees* 


• 


• 


Dhadur, near 
(Baluchistan). 


Sibi 


*♦ 


II 




4-30 a.m. moderate, 2 Bees. 


. 


, 


Kulu. 




>» 


11 




11-25 a.m., moderate 


. 


. 


Do. 




>> 


11 


. 


5-30 p.m., moderate 


. 


. 


Do. 




»» 


11 


. 


6-30 p.m., slight, 2 sees. . 


. 


. 


Do. 




»» 


n 


. 


7-30 p.m., moderate, 2 sees. 


• 


. 


Do. 




»» 


11 


, 


8-30 p.m., moderate, 2 sees. 


. 


. 


Do. 




ii 


»» 


, 


9-5 p.m., moderate, 2 sees. 


. 


. 


Do. 




»» 


11 


15th . 


3-40 a.m., severe, 3 sees 


. 


. 


Do. 






II 




4-10 a.m., slight 


. 


. 


Do. 




>» 


II 


. 


5-14 x\..m., slight, 5 sees. . 


. 


. 


Do. 




»» 


II 




6 (about) a.m. 


• 


• 


Mussoorie and 
dour. 


La*n- 


# 


11 


. 


6 a.m., distinct, doors rattled 




. 


Rurki. 




>» 


11 


. 


6 a.m., worst since 4th April, 


1905 


. 


Kulu. 




n 


,» 


• 


6 a.m., severe 


• 


• 


Mussoorie and 
dour. 


Lan- 


»» 


II 


•1 


6-4. A.M. 


• 


• 


Mussoorie and 


Lan- 



15th 6.15 a.m. 

8-21 A.M., slight, 2 sees. 

I 10 A.M. 
. 2 P.M. 

. Afternoon . 



dour. 
Muzaffarnagar. 
Kulu. 
Lahore. 

Do. 
Gurdaspur. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



383 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, 


April 15th . 


About 7 p.m. .... 


Hoshiarpur. 


»» 


»> • 


7-20 p.m., moderate, 3 sees. , 


Kulu. 




M 


»> • 


8 p.m., moderate, 3 sees.. 


Do. 




»l 


»; • 


10 p.m., moderate, 3 sees. 


Do. 




»» 


»» • 


12 midnight, moderate, 3 sees. 


Do. 




»» 


»» • 


4 a.m., severe, 3 sees. . 


Do. 




»» 


16th 


6 a.m., slight .... 


Muhammadpur. 


»» 


>r • 


1-55 p.m., moderate, 2 sees. 


Kulu. 




M 


♦ » • 


4-15 p.m., moderate, 2 sees. 


Do. 




M 


» • 


10-10 p.m., moderate, 2 sees. . 


Do. 




»» 


»» • 


12 midnight, very slight 


Manglaur, 
District. 


Saharanpur 


>> 


» 


Midnight., distinctly felt. 


Dehra Dun. 


»> 


17th , 


12-30 a.m., severe 


Mussoorie 
dour. 


and Lan- 


n 


»» • 


1-55 p.m., moderate, 3 sees. 


Kulu. 




»» 


»» • 


4 p.m., moderate, 2 sees.. 


Do. 




>» 


»» • 


Night, severe shock 


Do. 




*» 


>» • 


(Between 11— 12 night.) . 


Mussoorie 
dour. 


and Lan- 


»» 


18th 


(Between midnight and 1-5 a.m.) 


Mussoorie 
dour. 


and Lan- 


N 


»i • 


1 a.m., severe .... 


Mussoorie 
dour. 


and Lan- 


»» 


r» • 


1 A.M., very slight . 


Manglsur, 
District. 


Saharanpur 


»» 


t» • 


6 a.m.; severe, 3 sees. 


Kulu. 




M 


*» • 


6-10 a.m., moderate, 2 sees. 


Do. 




»» 


*» • 


12-55 [ ? a.m. or p.m.] most severe 


Mussoorie 
dour. 


and Lan- 


»» 


»» • 


2-25 p.m., moderat 


Kulu. 




»» 


»» » 


4 p.m., moderate \ 


Do. 




»» 


»> • 


Night, 2 slight shocks 


Do. 






»» • 


8 P.M. 


Mussoorie 
dour. 


and Lan- 


If 


19th 


0-55 not severe .... 


Meteo. Obsy., Simla. 


M 


»» 


1 a.m., smart .... 


Mussoorie. 




M 


>> 


1 A.M. 


Mussoorie 
dour. 


and La 


»» 


»» • 


3 A.M. ..... 


Mussoorie 
dour. 


and Lan 


>» 


»» • 


Between 5 and 6 a.m. 


Dhadur 


near Sibi 








(Baluchistan), 4 sees. 


»» 


»» 


6 a.m., severe, 3, sees. 


' Kulu. 








14-15, very slight . 


Mastuj (Chitral). 


• t 


20th 


Between 5 and 6 a.m., 4 sees. . 


i Dhadur 


near Sibi 








(Baluchistan). 


»' 


23rd 


3 A.M. slight .... 


Meteo. Obsy., Simla. 



384 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE 




1905, April 23rd 

Z 24th 

»» »» 

27 th 



28th 
1905, May 1st 
3rd 



7th 



>> 


»> 


II 


7 — 8tl 


»• 


9th 


»l 


10th 


II 
»« 
'» 

»» 


14th 
15th 
16th 


»» 
tf 


18th 


1* 


19th 


>» 


»» 


»l 


>» 


»» 


»» 



22nd 



very sharp 



? time 

Early morning "> 

9-15 . j * 

9-30 a.m. 

11 A.M. 

5 P.M. 

10-15 p.m., slight 

10-45 p.m. 

11 p.m., very slight 



About 7-30 a.m. slight . 

8 a.m. ... 
7-45 a.m 

12 noon, slight with dull thud and 
rock slip from head of Neogal Gorge. 

Afternoon, slight with dull thud and 
rock slip from head of Neogal Gorge 

time ? with landslip from TMun Hill 
[reported by Major Lane.] 

3-30 a.m., feeble .... 

10-15 p.m., feeble .... 

11 p.m., sharp shock 

Midnight, sharp preceded by rumble 
and thud from W. Sound woke me 
and bed swayed N.— S. 

5 a.m., sharp 

12 noon about 

6 p.m., sharp shock 

9 p.m. 

3 slight shocks during day 
2 p.m., slight at night . 
2 slight shocks, night 

2 slight shocks, day 
3-15 p.m., smart N — S. directions, pre- 
ceded by dull distant roar from S. 

6-30 a.m., smart quiver, sound from S. 
7-15 A.M., feeble .... 
Little after 2 p.m., sharp brief . 
3-25 or 3-48 p.m., smart prolonged 

shake, 2 sees, duration, loud rumble 

from S. 
10-9 or 10-30 p.m., feeble 
2-45 p.m., smart preceded by distant 

boom. 

3 [p.m. , severe (from N. N. W. — 
S. S. E.) 

7-21 p.m., smart double shock prece- 
ded \ sec. by deep boom. 



Gurdaspur. 

Dharmsala. 

Chamha. 
Mandi. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Gujrat City. 
Manglaur, Saharanpur 

District. 
Bala (Baluchistan). 
Mandi. 

Do. 
Palampur. 

Do. 

Dharmsala. 

Mussoorie. 

Do. 
Drang (Salt mines). 
Dhelu. 



Kulu. 

Do. 
Drang (Salt mines). 
Mandi. 
Kulu. 

Do. 

Do 

Do. 
Bajaura 

Do. 
Do 

Simla. 
Sultanpur (Kulu). 



Sultanpur. 

Sultanpur and Chan- 

ni (Kulu). 
Bajaura. 

Channiand Bajaura. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS 



385 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, May 22nd . 


8 p.m., severe (from N. N. W 


Bajaura. 






S. S. E.) 




»> 


27th . 


? time, considerable earth tremor 
(Pioneer, 4th June). 


Kangra Valley. 


»» 


28th . 


8-45 a.m., very feeble 


Naggar. 


»» 


>» • 


10 a.m., slight, li seconds N.E.— S.W. 


Deesa, Eajputana 


»» 


» • 


4-5 p.m., smart N.— S. . 


Naggar and Sultanpur 


»' 


»» • 


5-40 p.m., slight .... 


Simla. 


H 


29th . 


2-8 A.M., smart .... 


Naggar. 


J» 


»» • 


8-15 a.m., smart to slight 


Do. 


»> 


30th . 


2 a.m. 


Naggar and Kulu. 


»» 


;» • 


2-18 p.m. Madras time (Seis.), not felt 


Simla. 


»> 


».« • 


6-35 p.m., not felt (Seis.) 


Do. 


>» 


»> • 


8.30 p.m. .... 


Sultanpur. 


»* 


31st . 


0-21 a.m., felt (Seis.) 


Simla. 


»» 


»> 


5-54 a.m., not felt (Seis.) . 


Do. 


n 


» • 


3-8 p.m., not felt (Seis.) . 


Do. 


-J 


May — June 


1 or 2 each day and night 


Naggar. 


„ June 1st . 


7-8 a.m. Madras time, not felt (Seis.) 


Simla. 


»i 


»» 


5-20 p.m., very slight W.—E. . 


Bajaura. 


i 


»» • 


11-12 p.m., felt (Seis.) . 


Simla. 


n 


5th . 


1-7 a.m., felt (Seis.) 


Do. 


>» 


»» 


(At night) shght . . . . 


Mussoorie. 


»> 


6th . 


7-45 or 8-15 p.m., sharp with deep 
rumble. 


Jibhi (Kulu). 


»» 


7th . 


8-14 a.m., not felt (Seis.)- 


Simla. 


»> 


»> • 


12-47 p.m. (Seis.) .... 


Do. 


»» 


»» 


3-20 p.m. (Seis.) .... 


Do. 


t> 


8th . 


6 a.m., sharp thud from below preced- 
ed' by boom. 


Kot (Kulu). 


n 


9th . 


1-50 a.m., slight, 4 sees., to and fro . 


Dehra Dun. 


»» 


10th . 


1-20 a.m., felt (Seis.) 


Simla. 


u 


»» 


2 a.m , very severe, shock beds and 
house from E. 


Naggar. 


»» 


»» 


10-34 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 


Simla. 


»t 


11th . 


2-2 a.m., felt (Seis.) 


Do. 


>» 


13th . 


7 p.m., slight .... 


Naggar. 


»> 


»» • 


10 p.m., slight .... 


Do. 


»i 


14th . 


About 3 a.m., slight, about 6 sees. 


Mussoorie. 


!» 


»» 


3 a.m., slight .... 


Naggar. 


» 


*» • 


7 a.m. all felt it ... . 


Do. 


»' 


15th . 


9-15 p.m., not felt (Seis.) . 


Simla. 


•» 


20th . 


9-30 p.m., not felt (Seis.) . 


Do. 


M 


22nd . 


Bed time, tremors 


Naggar. 


»> 


26th . 


1-54 a.m. Madras Time, not felt (Seis.) 


Simla. 


»* 


27th . 


About 6-15 p.m., smart . 


Mussoorie. 


>» 


>» 


6-17 p.m., smart Town Hall rocked 


Simla (felt also at 






endwise, long slow motion. 


Mussoorie). 



2o 



386 



MIDDLEMISS: KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Plaoe. 


1905, June 27th . 


G-17 p.m., very smart (Seis.), felt gene 


- Simla. 






rally. 




>• 


»> • 


6-28 p.m., sudden, 2 sees., slight 


Dehra Dun. 


»» 


»> • 


9-53 p.m., not felt (Seis.) 


Simla. 


'» 


>> • 


18-0 G.M.T. (Seis. Omori) 




Do. 


ii 


»> 


3-50 A.M., feeble . 




Mussooriet 


»» 


28th . 


7-42 a.m., felt (Seis.) 




Simla. 


»> 


29th . 


5-5*6 a.m., not felt (Seis.). 




Do. 


>» 


»» 


3-4 p.m., felt (Seis.) 




. Do 


»> 


»> • 


3-12 p.m. (Seis. Omori) . 




Do. 


,, 


30th . 


10 p.m., sharp 




Naggar. 


1905^ July 


9-07 a.m., 1 severe shocjj, W.-— E. 3( 


) Dras. 






seconds. 




»> 


** 


9-8 a.m., 2 shocks W.—E., lasting 2 sec 


s. Skardu. 


»» 


3rd . 


7-22 p.m., 2 light shocks from W., 1' 
sees. 


> Dras. 


»» 


» 


8-55 p.m. Standard time, not felt (Seis. 


) Simla. 


»» 


jj • 


9 p.m. Standard time (Seis. Omori) 


Do. 


»> 


4th . 


2-3 a.m., not felt (Seis.) . 


. Do. 


» 


>> • 


4-15 p.m., not felt (Seis.) . 


. Do. 


»» 


6th . 


5-45 a.m., not felt (Seis.) . 


Do. 


»» 


*> • 


16-20 (Seis. Omori) 


Do. 


*> 


»> 


17-50, not felt (Seis.) 


. Do. 


*> 


7th . 


4-15 a.m., felt (Seis.) 


. Do. 


>» 


5> * 


(During, night), feeble 


. Mussoorie, 


>> 


10th . 


11-5 p.m., sharp 


. Naggar. 


>» 


>» 


23-11, not felt (Seis.) 


. Simla. 


»» 


14th . 


14-0, not felt (Seis.) 


■ Do. 


u 


»> 


15-55 Standard time (Seis. Omori) 


. Do. 


>» 


j» 


16-6, not felt (Seis.) 


Da. 


♦» 


15th . 


14-30, not felt (Seis.) 


Do. 


>» 


18fh . 


2-6 a.m., not felt (Seis.) . 


. Do. 


»> 


»» 


3-0 a.m. Standard time (Seis. Omori) 


Do. 


>♦ 


>> • 


15-15, not felt (Seis.) 


Do. 


»> 


21st . 


7-58 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 


Do. 


» 


23rd . 


9-5 a.m., not felt (Seis.). . 


Do. 


i» 


25th . 


3-40 a.m., sharp and severe, awok( 
people. 


i Naggar. 


s» 


»> 


4-30 a.m., 2 or 3 sees., rather severe 


Dharmsala. 


>» 


>> * 


18-50 felt (Seis.) . 


Simla. 


>> 


26th . 


2-30 a.m., smart . 


Dharmsala Cantt, 


»» 


> ■» • 


3-25 (local mean time), smart . 


Dehra Dum . 


•» 


>> 


3-43 a.m., to and fro. smart wavj 


7 Do. 


»> 




motion. (Severest since 4th Apri 
1905). 


1 


»t 


i» • 


3-43 a.m., (6 sees.) roused the statior 


i Mussoorie. 



•From July onwards the times given in the Seismograph record are " Standard time 
6h. 30m. E. of Greenwich and from that date became railway time in India. 



which Is 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



387 



Date. 


Tune and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, July 


26th . 


3-45 a.m., smart 


Dehra Dun. 


»» 


>» 


3-45 a.m., sharp several seconds, many Simla. 






people rushed out of houses. 




TT 


»i 


3-45 a.m. (Seis. Omori, max. amp 
1-75 mm.) 


1. Do. 






N. B. — Not recorded on Milne Seismograph 






at Calcutta. 




» 


»» 


3-50 a.m., severe, disturbed man 


y Ferozepur. 






people. Fumbling noise from N. — E 








shook walls, roof and bed. 




»J 


>» 


3-50 a.m., very severe, (Seis.) 30 sees, 
felt by all. 


, Simla, 


»» 


»> • 


4-30 a.m., smart 


. Dharmsala Cantt. 


»» 


» 


(During night), smart 




Mussoorie, 


»» 


28th . 


2 a.m., felt (Seis.) . 




Simla. 


»» 


»> 


2-25 a.m. 




Dharmsala. 


» 


• ' i 


4-30 a.m. 




Do. 


J» 


1 
»» 


8-10 a.m. (Seis. Omori . 




Simla. 


»» 


.. • 


8-25 a.m. 




Dharmsala. 


>> 


>, • 


10-40 p.m., an upward push 




Naggar. 


»» 


>> 


11-35 p.m., distinct tremors, glighl 
noise. 


b Do. 


>* 


>> 


6-5 a.m., not felt (Sei3,) . 


Simla. 


»» 


» 


9-20 a.m., not felt (Seis.). 




Do. 


»> 


»» 


9-25 a.m. 




Dharmsala. 


M 


» • 


9-30 a.m., slight . 




Dharmsala Cantt. 


1905, August 1st . 


6-15 A.m., (about) feeble . 




Rurki. 


>» 


3rd . 


2-57 a.m., not felt (Seis.) . 




, Simla. 


» 


>> 


20-40 (Seis. Omori) 




Do. 


»> 


>, • 


22-8 felt (Seis. ) 




Do. 


>> 


>f 


10 p.m., feeble 




Mussoorie. 


» 


4th . 


10 p.m., feeble 




Holta, Palampur. 


>> 


i> 


10-6 A.M. (Seis.) . 


. 


Simla. 


and 5th 










1G05, August 6th. 


13-57, not felt (Seis.) 




Do. 


>> 


j> • 


4 P.M., slight 




Naggar. 


M 


8th . 


6 a.m., smart 




Do. 


»> 


>j • 


15-0, not felt (Seis.) 


. 


Simla. 


>> 


9th . 


9 A.M., feeble 




Naggar. 


»> 


>t 


20-25, not felt (Seis.) 


• « 


Simla. 


»» 


10th . 


No record. (Seismograph undej 


r Do. 


September 


repair). 




15th. 








1906, August 11th. 


5 a.m., slight .... 


Bajaura. 


»» 


" 


3-15 p.m., smart .... 


Dharmsala Cantt. 


»> 


12th . 


3-40 A.M., feeble .... 


Chakrata. 


pr 


., . 


10 p.m. (about), severe W. — E. first 
of any importance sine j 4th April 
1905. 


Murree. 

i 



2c2 



388 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 



Time and details of shocks. 



Place. 



1905, August 12th 10-9 p.m., smart S.— W., somewhat 
heavy, 3£ sees., accompanied by 
grating sound, no damage. 
10-10 p.m. 



10-14 p.m. (Seis. Omori) 

10-20 p.m., sharp, 6 sees 

10-30 p.m., smart . 
13th . 6-15 a.m., slight . 
15th . 2 a.m., slight 

2-45 a.m., feeble . 

7-53 a.m. (Seis. Omorii 

7-55 a.m., slight . 

8 a.m. 

1-10 p.m., slight . 
1-30 P.M., feeble . 
18-57 (Seis. Omori) 
10 p.m., smart 
5-45 p.m., slight . 
5-30 a.m., feeble . 
4-30 p.m., slight . 
1 A.M., slight 
5-45 p.m., slight . 
5 A.M., feeble 

9 p.m., slight 

9 p.m., smart 

10 p.m., slight 
4-17 A.M., slight . 
4-30 a.m., smart 
11-1 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 
1 p.m., feeble 

„ . 1-30 p.m., slight . 
22nd. 4-40 a.m., feeble . 

8 a.m.> feeble 
4-30 p.m., smart . 
4-50 p.m., sharp . 
7-15 p.m., slight . 
7-20 p.m., smart . 

11 p.m., feeble 
7-30 A.M., smart . 

9 p.m., slight 

11-55 p.m., short and extensive 
5 a.m., sharp, awoke men from sleep 

i J6-0 p.m., slight 

! 6-30 p.m., slight . 





16th 


>» 


17th 


»» 
>» 


18th 




19th 


t» 


n 


»» 


20th 


»» 


21st 



23rd 



24*th 



Ghoragali (Murree). 



Khanspur near Dunga. 

gali, also Murree and 

Rawal Pindi. The last 

place gives 10-20 as 

the time. 
Simla. 
Dungagali. 
Naggar. 
Bajaura. 
Naggar. 

Holta, Palampur. 
Simla. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 
Naggar. 
Simla. 
Naggar. 

Dharmsala Cantt. 
Holta (Kangra Valley). 
Naggar. 

Do. 
Dharmsala Cantt. 
Naggar. 

Dharmsala Cantt. 
Holta, Palampur. 
Naggar. 
Bajaura. 
Naggar. 
Simla. 
Naggar. 

Dharmsala Cantt. 
Chakrata. 
Naggar. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 

Dharmsala Cantt. 
Holta. 
Naggar. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 

Do. 
Naggar. 

Do. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



389 



Date 


1 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 

i 
1 


1905, August 25th 


9-0 a.m., feeble 




Naggar. 


»» 


»» 


11-13 p.m. Tele, time, 2 severe shocks 


Deesa (N. Gujrat). 






at intervals of 5 sees. N.- 


-S.direotioE 








25 sees. 2nd more severe than firsl 


'» 






sound like thunder. 




1 


»» 


26th 


11-30 p.m., slight . 




Naggar. 


»» 


27th 


8-30 A.M., fee le . 






Do. 


>> •• 


»» 


6 p.m., smart 






Do. 


>» 


28th 


10-0 p.m., slight . 






Do. 


;» 


29th 


15-5 (Seis. Omori) . 






Simla.* 


J» 


» 


3-45 p.m., sharp shock 
sound from S. 


rumbling 


Bajaura. 


»» 


30th 


8-30 a.m., feeble . 


, . 


Naggar. 


1905 Sept. 


1st . 


3 p.m.. slight 


. . 


Bajaura. 


N 


»> • 


3-30 p.m., slight . 


. , 


Dharmsala Cantt. 


>* 


»» 


10-30 p.m., (about) feeble, direction 


Rurki. 






W.— E. 






>» 


2nd . 


6 a.m., smart 


. . 


Naggar. 


»» 


»» • 


14-45, (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Simla. 


»» 


>» 


4 p.m., feeble 


. 


Naggar. 


»» 


4th 


5-50 p.m., sharp and noisy 


. Bajaura. 


»» 


5th . 


15-41 (Seis. Omori) . 


. 


. Simla. 


>J 


6th 1 - . 


3-27 p.m. standard time, slight, 5 sees. 


, Jaipur (Rajputana). 






house shook. 






!» 


7th . 


3-55 A.M. slight, 5* or 6 people rushec 


i Mussoorie. 






out at night. 






M 


>» • 


4 a.m., slight 




Do. 


>» 


„ . 


About 4 [a.m.], feeble 






. Chakrata. 


M 


8th . 


10 a.m., feeble 






. Naggar. 


»> 


„ • 


11 p.m., slight 






Do. 


»> 


9th . 


1 p.m., slight 






Do. 


»» 


iOth. 


9 p.m., smart 






Do. 


»> 


11th 


2 a.m., slight 




. Dharmsala Cantt. 


>i 


»» • 


11 a.m., very severe, nous 
all went out. 


e shook an( 


1 Bajaura. 


»» 


>» . 


12-44 p.m. (Seis. Omori) 




Simla. 


?» 


13th. 


5 a.m., slight 






• Naggar. 


»» 


14th. 


1 p.m., slight from S. 






. | Bajaura. 


M 


>» 


22-53 (Seis, Omori) . 






• i Simla. 


»» 


15th . 


8 A.M., feeble 






• | Naggar. 


»> 


»» 


9-40 a.m., severe 






. ! Bajaura. 


>» 


»» 


11 p.m., smart 






• j Naggar. 


»> 


16th . 


4 a.m., smart 






• j Do. 


M 


»» • 


(Early morning), slight 






• ! Bajaura. 


»» 


>♦ 


9 a.m. , slight 






Do. 


»> 


»♦ 


( (Afternoon) 4-30, slight 






Do. 


It 


•i • 


1 6 p.m., feeble 






• Naggar. 



1 Separate earthquake, not aftershock, recorded by F. E. Place, B. Sc, 



390 



MIDDLEMISS ; KANGRA EARTHQUAKE^ 



Date. 



1905, Sent. lStb 
19th 
»» »? 



20th 



21st . 



»» 


»» 




22nd 




23rd 
24th 




25th 
26th 



» 


t» 


»» 


" 


»» 


27th 
28th 


»» 


>> 



29th 



>» 


30th 


1905',' Oct. 


l3t 


»» 


»» 


>> 


J5 

2nd 


*> 


»» 

3rd 



6th 






Time and details of shocks. 



4-15 r.M., slight with noise 
2 p.m., slight 
5-30 p.m., slight 
11 p.m., slight 
11-33 a.m., feeble . 
9-50 p.m., long tremor 

10 p.m., feeble 
(No time given) resembling hard push 

from N. — S. 

4 a.m., smart 
3-45 p.m., slight . 
8-15 p.m. slight 

5 a.m., smart 
2 a.m., smart 
10-40 p.m., longish sound 
12-15 p.m., slight . 

8 p.m., severe with noise 
2-30 a.m., smart 

4 p.m., longish and noisy 

I a.m., slight 
5-30 a.m., slight 
6-55 a.m., severe, rest-house3 at Ran 

kan and Khan Mahomedkct damag 
ed. 1 
7-55 a.m., severe . 

7 a.m., Ry. time E.— W. 30 sees. 2 
7-2 a.m., felt (Seis.) 
7-58 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 

5 a.m., feeble 

9 p.m., slight 

11 p.m., feeble 

6 a.m., feeble 
11-20 A.M., feeble . 
9 p.m., smart 

7 a.m., smart 

8 p.m., slight 
2-10 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 

8 A.M., feeble 

9 p.m., slight 

10 a.m., slight 
9 p.m., strong shock with great noise 
5 a.m., slight 
8 p.m., smart 

II .a.m., slight 



Place. 



Baj aura. 

Naggar. 

Dharamsala Cantt. 

Naggar. 

Rurki. 

Mussoorie. 

Do. 
Baj aura. 

Naggar. 
Dharm&ala Cantt. 

Ditto. 
Naggar. 

Do. 
Baj aura. 

Dharmsala Cantt. 
Bajaura. 

Dharmsala Canlt. 
Bajaura. 
Do. 
Do. 
Barkhan, Loralai. 



Ditto. 
Multan Cantt. 
Simla. 

Do. 
Naggar. 

Do. 
Holta. 
Naggar. 
Holta. 
Naggar. 

Do. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Naggar. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 
Naggar. 

Do. 

Do. 



Local earthquake. 
Same earthquake. 
Ghazi Khan 



Information supplied by Political Agent, Loralai. 
Information supplied by Executive Engineer, 



Dera 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



391 



Date. 



Time and details of shocks. 



Place. 



1905, Oct. 


7th . 


20-18, not felt (Seis.) 




pi 


,. • 


20-29, (Seis. Omori.) 


. 


»» 


n ■ 


8 p.m., S3yere or smart with rumbling 


i» 


„ • 


8 p.m., smart 


, . 


N 


8th . 


2 p.m., slight 


. 


»» 


9th . 


2 a.m., smart 


. . 


»» 


10th . 


3 a.m., smart 


. . 


»» 


>» 


1 8-03, not felt (Seis.) . 




ft 


»» 


7 p.m., slight 


'. • ! 


** 


11th . 


12 p.m., slight 


. . j 


n 


14th . 


2 a.m., smart 


• • > 


» 


»» • 


5-40 a.m., slight . 


. 


i» 


»» 


3-55 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 


. 1 


» 


»» • 


6-13 a.m., (Seis. Omori) 


. i 


» 


15th . 


5 a.m., smart 


. , 


»» 


»» » 


11 a.m., sharp 


. ■ . 


»» 


»? • 


1 p.m., slight 


. 


»> 


»» 


3 p.m., sharp 


. 


»» 


»» 


7-10 p.m., feeble . 


* * ! 


»» 


16th . 


About 3-4 a.m., feeble . 


. 1 


»» 


»» 


9 a.m., slight 


| 


»» 


»» 


5 p.m., slight 


i 


»» 


>» 


10 p.m., smart 




»» 


17th . 


7 A.M., smart 




*» 


>» • 


9 a.m., smart 


* 


»» 


»» 


3 p.m., slight 


. | 


»» 


«» • 


10-45 p.m., feeble . 


* 


»» 


>» • 


22-40. (Seis. Omori.) 




»» 


»» 


22-52, felt distinctly as 
in rapid succession (Seis. ) 


2 shocks 

I 


»» 


»» • 


11 p.m., smart 


• i 


>» 


18th . 


2-5 a.m., smart 




»> 


»> 


3 p.m., smart 


. . 


>» 


»» • 


14-12, not felt (Seis.) 


. 


»» 


»» • 


5 p.m., slight 




»» 


19th . 


0-44 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 


. . 


»» 


»t • 


8 a.m., slight 


. 


>» 


»» • 


9 p.m., smart 


. 


»» 


20th . 


11-5, not felt (Seis.) 


. . 


»» 


»» 


2-30 p.m., slight . 


. . 


»» 


»» 


About 6-30.P.M. 


. 


»» 


<» 


19-30 (Seis. Omori). 




» 


»» • 


19-37, felt distinctly as 
shocks (Seis.) 


2 distinct 


>» 


»» • 


8 p.m., smart 




»» 


21st . 


10-51 p.m., feeble . 


• . 


>» 


22nd . 


9-20 p.m., feeble . 


. .1 


»» 


23rd . 


4 p.m., slight 


. 



Simla. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 
Najrgar. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Naggar. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 
Simla. 

Do. 
Naggar. 
Bajaura. 
Naggar. 
Baj-aura. 
Holta. 
Mussoorie. 
Naggar. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mussoorie. 
Simla* 

Do. 

Naggar. 
Holta. 

Naggar. 

Simla. 

Naggar. 

Simla. 

Naggar. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Naggar. 
Mussoorie. 
Simla. 

Do. 

Naggar. 
Holta. 

Do. 
Naggar. 



392 



MIDDLEMISS : KAttGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 



Time and details of shocks. 



Place. 



1905, Oct. 


23rd . 




24th . 


if 


25th . 


» 


»» • • 


» 


>» • 


»» 


»» 


m 


»» • 




26th ! 



27th 



n 


29th 


»> 


30th , 


f» 


»> 


»» 


»» 


»t 


1st 


tt 


»» 


1905, Nov 


. 1st 


?» 


»» 


»' 


2nd 


»» 


3rd 


>> 


»» 


>» 


3-4th 


» 


4th 


/> 


8th 


» 


9th 


»» 


12th 


tt 


14th 


tt 


15th 



16th 
17th 
18th 



22nd. 
23rd . 



16-20 (Seis. Omori) 
16-20, not felt (Seis.) 
9-45 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 

3 p.m., smart 
1-19 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 
8-36 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 
1-23, felt (Seis.) . 
1-30 p.m., slight 
1-30 p.m., slight 

5 P.M., smart 

I a.m., smart 

4 a.m., slight 
2-5 a.m., not felt (Seis.) 

6 a.m., slight 

II a.m., slight 
14-8, not felt (Seis.) 
18-12, not felt (Seis.) 
4 a.m., slight 
11-10 a.m., feeble . 
11-11 a.m. (Seis. Omori.) 
11.12, not felt (Seis.) 
8 a.m., slight 
11-35 a.m., smart . 
2-45 p.m., feeble . 
10 p.m., slight 
11-54 p.m., slight but long 
0-20, slight but long 
7-15 p.m., slight 
Midnight., feeble . 
7-50 p.m., slight . 

I p.m., slight 

8-20 p.m., tremor and noise 
6-29 a.m., (Seis. Omori.) 
8 a.m., slight 
6 a.m., feeble 2 sees 
11-50 a.m., feeble . 
17-24 (Seis. Omori.) 
16-24 (4-24 p.m.) . 
4-23 p.m., feeble . 
4-30 p.m. slight, furniture creaked, 

etc. 
2-30 a.m., smart 
10 p.m., sharp 
3 a.m., slight 
10-15 p.m., sharp 

II p.m., smart 
11-30 p.m., smart 
3-15 a.m. (Seis. Omori.) 



Simla. 

Do. 

Do. 
Naggar. 
Simla. 

Do. 

Do. 
Naggar. 

Do, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Naggar. 

Do. 
Simla. 

Do. 
Naggar. 
Mussoorie. 
Simla. 

Dp. 
Naggar. 
Holta. 

Do. 
Naggar. 
Dehra Dun. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 
Dehra Dun. 
Bajaura. 
Naggar. 
Bajaura. 
Simla. 
Naggar. 
Dehra Dun 
Rurkii . 
Simla. 
Dehra Dun 

Do. 

Do. 

Holta. 

Bajaura. 

Naggar. 

Bajaura. 

Naggar. 

Do. 
Simla. 



Cantt. 



Cantt. 







LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 


393 


Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1905, Nov. 


23rd • 


2 or 3 hours before sunrise, feeble 


Dehra Dun. 


»» 


»> 


3-35 A.M., sharp strong and longish 
from N.; all ran out of house. 


Bajaura. 


»» 


»» 


3-55 a.m., feeble .... 


Rurki (also Simla). 


» 


24th . 


2 a.m., smart .... 


Naggar. 


>» 


?» 


8 a.m. (Seis. Omori.) 


Simla. 


>» 


)> 


7 p.m., slight .... 


Naggar. 


'» 


28th . 


5-15 a.m., smart, .... 


Holta. 


,» 


>> 


10-20 a.m., slight with noise . 


Bajaura. 


1905, Dec 


1st . 


9-45 p.m., loud noise like thunder 


Do. 


»> 


4th . 


8 p.m., rumbling noise from N. 


Do. 


>» 


5th . 


11-35 p.m., sharp preceded by rumbl- 
ing noise from N. N. E. 


Do. 


> j 


7th . 


9-15 a.m., feeble .... 


Holta. 


>» 


10th . 


3 a.m., sharp 6 sees, with upward push 


Bajaura. 


»» 


11th . 


2-53 (Seis. Omori) .... 


Simla. 


•» 


12th . 


8-54 p.m., feeble felt by 2 people 


Rurki. 


»> 


13th . 


5-25 p.m., severe prolonged shock 30 








sees, with rolling noise . 


Bajaura. 


«» 


»» 


17-28 (Seis. Omori.) 


Simla. 


»» 


>» • 


5-48 p.m., less severe 


Bajaura. 


»> 


>> • 


18-7 (Seis. Omori.) 


Simla. 


»' 


14th . 


17-24 (Seis. Omori.) 


Do. 


»» 


15 th . 


2-10 a.m, smart . . . . . 


Bajaura. 


?» 


17th . 


6-13 a.m., smart .... 


Holta. 


W 


»» ■ 


11-41 a.m. (Seis. Omori.) 


Simla. 


>» 


»> 


11-50 A.M., smart .... 


Holta. 


»» 


18th . 


3 p.m., slight .... 


Bajaura. 


»? 


19th . 


10-15 p.m., upward push and booming 
noise. 


Do. 


;> 


21st . 


7-15 p.m., upward push and noise 


Do. 


>» 


22nd . 


5-20 a.m., slight with noise 


Do. 


„ 


»> 


17-20 (Seis. Omori) 


Simla. 


»J 


23rd . 


3-15 p.m., a quiver 


Bajaura. 


»» 


24th . 


12-15 p.m., feeble .... 


Rurki. 


>» 


25th . 


2-45 a.m., very sharp 


Bajaura, also felt at 
Belaspore and at 
Serohe and Abu Road, 
Rajputana. 


>» 


26th . 


2-34 (Seis. Omori) 


Simla. 


». 


28th . 


All day at intervals of 1 hour . 


Bajaura. 


J» 


29th . 


About 4-30 P.M., feeble . 


Balolpur Camp, Sir- 
hind. 


»> 


29th . 


7-30 p.m., feeble .... 


Holta. 


1906, Jan 


. 3rd . 


21-14, severe shock 


Bajaura. 


»» 


6th . 


6-55 p.m., smart .... 


Holta. 


>» 


7th . 


23-19, severe .... 


Bajaura. 


" 


8th . 


8-40 a.m., smart .... 


Holta. 



394 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1906, Jan 


9th . 


9-15 a.m., slight .... 


Bajaura. 


>» 


11th . 


16-13, slight 




Do. 


» 


14th . 


20-10, slight 




Do. 


»» 


16th . 


10-12 a.m., slight . 




Do. 


»» 


»» • 


17-20, slight 




Do. 


»> 


17th . 


20-31, severe 




Do. 


>> 


21st . 


14-12, slight . 




Do. 


>» 


24th . 


8-40 p.m., sharp preceded by pro- 
longed rumble, many people rushed 
out of houses. 


Lahore. 


»' 


25th . 


9-47 (Seis. Omori) . 


Simla. 


»» 


29th . 


3-30 p.m., sharp 


. 


Shahpur (Kangra). 


»» 


»» 


15-47 (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Simla. 


»» 


»» • 


3-45 p.m., smart 


> . . 


Holta. 


»> 


»» • 


15-37 (Seis.) . 


• • • 


Simla, Kelvin Grove.* 


>» 


31st . 


6-10 a.m., feeble 


. • . 


Holta. 


1906, Feb. 


2nd . 


7-26 (Seis. Omori.) . 


. . . 


Simla. 


»» 


»» 


7-30 (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


• • • 


Do. 


>» 


»» • 


15-3 (Seis. Omori.) . 


. . . 


Do. 


a 


>t • 


15-30 (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


Do. 


>» 


>» 


16-58 (Seis. Omori.) 


Do. 


>• 


» • 


16-55 (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


Do. 


>> 


»» • 


20-20 (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


Do. 


»» 


9th . 


7-10 a.m., severe .... 


Bajaura. 


»> 


10th . 


2-20 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove . 


Simla. 


»» 


»» • 


14-29, slight 


Bajaura. 


»» 


i> 


18-7, slight 


Do. 


»» 


12th . 


13-15 ? (Seis.) Kelvin Grove . 


Simla. 


»> 


13th . 


19-3, slight 


Bajaura. 


♦> 


14th . 


12-15 p.m. (Seis. Omori) . 


Simla. 


»> 


„ 


12-15 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


Do. 


,, 


15th . 


(Night), feeble . 


Rurki. 


>• 


16th . 


23-35, severe 


Bajaura. 


»> 


»» 


16-0 (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


Simla. 


» 


17th . 


20-8 (Seis. Omori) .... 


Do. 


>» 


»» 


8-15 p.m., slight, E.—W. • . 


Mussoorie. 


»» 


18th . 


19-30 (Seis. Omori) 


Simla. 


>> 


». 


19-35 (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


Do. 


» 


23rd . 


21-0 (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


Do. 


!» 


25th . 


12-45 (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


Do. 


>» 


27th . 


4-10 p.m., slight tremors 3 sees. 


Jaipur. 


»> 


*» . 


7-15 p.m 


Larji, Kulu. 


>» 


28th . 


1-12 (?) a.m., beginning of large waves 
(Seis. Omori) Amplitude 4 mm., du- 


Simla. 






ration 2*5 minutes. 





* Recorded by Mrs. W. Henry on the Agamennone Seismoscope. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



395 



Date. 



1906, Feb. 28th . 



Time and details of shocks. 



Place. 



1-15 a.m. (Seis). Kelvin Grove, crao- Simh 
ked a few buildings and is reported i 
from many places in Punjab. 



Note : — The records which follow at the various times indioated on the 28th 
obviously refer mostly to the single big afterHhock as timed abovo. The varied 
times are therefore due to inaccurate estimates, and Iho shocks must not be con- 
sidered as separate subsequent shocks, the more correct list of which is given later 
derived from the seismographs at Simla. 



1900. Feb. 28th . 



»» »» 



Midnight, slight . . . . ! 

About 12 o'clock. From Paiampur j 
direction. Next in severity to ; 
that of 4th April 1905. Some j 
houses have partially suffered, people! 
greatly frightened. 

12-30 a.m. From E. In Kothi Hinuri, 
seven persons killed, 8 wounded anoj 
5 cattle, 22 sheep, 1 goat killed. In 
Kothi Koh 1 person killed, 19 cattle 
22 sheep and goats killed, 111 houses 
demolished. In Kothi Srigarh 3 
persons wounded. In Kothi Kandi 

I person killed, 19 houses demolished. 
In Kothi Tung 9 persons killed, 

II wounded, 124 cattle tind 22 sheep 
killed. 

The District Board road from Chuna- 
gali to Kundagali badly damaged 
in several places. The Tahsil school 
and other District, Board buildings 
badly damaged, but can bo repair- 
ed. 

0-35 a.m., very severe, 2 people kill- 
ed, 21 injured in Rampur town. 
Court-house and buildings damaged. 
Post Office and police station 
collapsed. At Kakoota, 5 miles S. of 
Rampur, dwellings wore destroyed, 

men killed and 2 injured. 

0-45 A.M., very severe, the worst 
since 4th April 1905 ; lasted 50 
seconds. 

1 a.m., slight, N. — S., duration about 

1 min. 

1 a.m. (approximately), from S. E. 
No loss. 



Ladak (Loh). 
Hamirpur (Kangra 
District). 



Saraj Tehsii. 



Bash ah r 
States). 



Bajaura. 



(Simla Hill 



Sirsa. 

Dehra Gopipur (Kangra 
diet). 



396 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 



1906, Feb. 28th 



Time and details of shocks. 



Place. 



About 1 a.m., strong 1 prolonged 
shock. Duration 1 min. 

l-0(?), very slight ; no damage. 
1-0 (?), severe N. — S., no damage. 
After 1-0 a.m., slight W.— E. 
After 1-0 a.m., 8 sees, duration. 

E. — W. with gentle rocking. No 

damage. 

After 1 a.m., from E., some build- 
ings have cracked. No serious loss. 
Between 1 and 1-30 a.m., distinct 

tremor. 
1-5 a.m., sharp, duration 5-6 seconds. 
1-8 a.m., smart, N. — S., noticed by 
all, 20 — 30 seconds duration ; 3 dis- 
tinct movements. 
1-10 a.m., severe. All rushed out of 
houses. Panic and great noise in the 
city. 
1-10 a.m. Decided shock. Heavy 

rumblings, W. — E. 
1-10 a.m., smart distinct oscillation. 

Roof creaked. 
1-12 a.m., duration 6-7 seconds, S.— 

N. not very severe. 
1-14 a.m., severe shock, direction 

N.— S. 
1-14 a.m. 2 sharp shocks. Few sec-' 

onds duration. No damage. 
1-14 a.m., severe. Direction N. — S. 

Damage slight, 
1-15 a.m., smart. Nearly everyone 
awakened. Many left beds or 
houses. Rumbling noise. Punkah 
frame swung fully 15 inches. 
1-15 a.m., 8 seconds duration . 
1-15 a.m., N. W.— S. E. No loss. 

Cracks in 2 or 3 buildings. 
1-17 a.m., smart .... 
1-18 a.m., slight. A quite noticeable 
tremor. Small articles shook. Du- 
ration 10 seconds. 
1-19 a.m., fairly severe with slight 
noise. N. — S. 4 or 5 oscillations. Du- 
ration 1 min. Wall of Hindu tem- 
ple cracked. 



All Kulu from Sutlej 
to Manali, also at 
Leh. 

Cherat. 

Amballa. 

Dehra Ismail Khan. 

Murree. 



Kangra. 
Montgomery. 



Rohtak. 
Mussoorie. 



Amballa. 



Agra. 

Jawalapur (about 20 

miles E. of Rurki). 
Lahore. 

Chakrata. 

Dehra Dun. 

Simla. 

Rurki. 



Sialkot. 
Palampur. 

Saharanpur. 
Jaipur. 



Ludhiana. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



397 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1906, Feb. 28th . 


1 -20a.m., severe. W. — E. No damage 


Meerut. 


♦» 


»> • 


1-22 or 23 a.m., very smart. Woke 
all people up. They left houses. 
Magnetic records show that the 
shock was preceded by a magnetic 


J Dehra Dun. 






disturbance. 






»; 


» 


1-25 a.m., duration 5 seconds, S. 
— N. E. a.m., damage not great 


W. 


Shahdara (Kangra Dis- 
trict.). 


»> 


»> 


1-28 mild with tremor 10 mins. after. 


Delhi. 


» • 


»» 


1-30 a.m., duration a fewseconds. 
damage. 


No 


Srinagar. 


» 


>' • 


1-30 a.m., from N.E. No loss 




Nurpur (Kangra Dist.) 


»> 


» 


Here follow seismographic records 








from Simla for aftershocks of 


the 


) 






above occurring on the 28th. 


Al 


i 






are grouped together for coiiven] 


- 






ence. 






>» 


»» • 


1-25 (?) a.m. (Seis. Omori) 




Simla. 


»» 


>» • 


1-25 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 




Do. 


♦ » 


>> • 


1-34 (?) a.m. (Seis. Omori) 




Do. 


»> 


» 


1-25 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 


. 


Do. 


>> 


>> • 


1-36 (?) a.m. (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Do. 


*» 


»» • 


1-37 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove 




Do. 


»» 


» • 


1-45 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove . 


. 


Do. 


>» 


»» 


1-46 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 


. 


Do. 


»» 


j» • 


2-20 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove . 




Do. 


>» 


>> • 


2-27 (?) a.m. (Seis. Omork) 




Do. 


j> 


>» 


2-45 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove . 




Do. 


*» 


»» 


3-20 (?) a.m. (Seis. Omori) 




Do. 


)> 


»» • 


3-20 a.m. (Seis.) Kelvin Grove i 




k Do. 


5' 


>» 


10-42 (?) a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 




Do. 


>> 


»> • 


21-37 (?) (Seis. Omori) . 




Do. 


>» 


> > • 


2-20 a.m., 3 slight shocks, duratioi 


i Bareilly. 






6 — 7 seconds. N.— S. 






» 


»> • 


About 4 a.m. feeble 




. Kalsi (W. Dun). 


„ 


,, . 


4 a.m. small 




. A&ra. 


» 


»» • 


5 a.m. [probably an error] W.- 


-E 


. Dehra Dun. 






sharp. Lasted 5 seconds ; most seven 


3 






since 4th April 1905. 






1906, March 1 


(2 shocks per hour) 




Banjar, Kulu. 


>> 


> > • 


6-20 {?) a.m. (Seis. Omori) 




. Simla. 


>t 


» 


10-53 (?) a.m. (Seis. Omori) 




. Do. 


» » 


»> • 


14-16 (Seis. Omori) 




Do. 


» 


» 


15-13 (Seis. Omori) 




Do 


»> 


2nd . 


(About 1 shock per hour) 




. Banjar Kulu. 


>> 


" * 


11-55 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 




. Simla. 



1 After this date the instrument at Kelvin Grove was out of working order. 



398 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 


Time and details of shooks. Plaoe. 

i 




1906, Mar. 3rd . 


(Shooks continuing) 


. f Banjar, Kuln. 




II 


7th . 


23-24 (Seis. Omori) 




4 Simla. 




II 


8th . 


8-35 a.m., felt 




. Do. 




n 


i» 


9-37 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 




. Do. 




»» 


it 


21-48 (?) (Seis. Omori) 




. Do. 




• i 


9th . 


16-33 (Seis. Omori) 




. Do. 




»« 


10th . 


15-14 (Seis. Omori) 




. Do. 




n 


nth . 


1-15 a.m. very severe 




. Bajaura. 




1 * 


12th . 


5 a.m., felt . 




. Simla. 




II 


i» • 


9-30 a.m., slight . 




. Bajaura. 




»> 


»i • 


14-45 (Seis. Omori) 




. Simla. 




„ 


13th . 


2-48 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 




. Do. 




>» 


» • * 


17-53 (Seis. Omori) 




. Do. 






14th . 


10 28 a.m. (Seis. Omori). 




. Do. 




II" 


»> 


14-59 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 




. Dp. 




„ 


15th . 


8-21 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 




. Do. 




II 


17th . 


4-36 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 




. Do. 






l8tb . 


18-30 (Seis. Omori) 




. Do. 




„ 


19th . 


5-35 a.m., slight . 




. Bajaura. 




II 


ii • 


11-15 a.m., slight . 




. Do. 




»» 


20th . 


3-35 a.m., slight . 




. Do. 




If 


i> • 


6-20 a.m., slight . 




. Da. 




II 


»i • 


10-42 a.m., (Seis. Omori) 




. Simla. 




|| 


ii • 


10-45 a.m., felt 




Do. 




II 


22nd. 


12-10, tremor and noise 




. Bajaura. 




»» 


26th . 


3-20 a.m., to \ Strong shoo! 
5-30 a.m., 1 about 7 seooi 


:b of Do. 
ids. 




»» 


ii • 


9-20 a.m., j Felt in Bomba 


y too. 




•| 


i» • 


21-2 p.m., felt 


Simla. 




II 


27th . 


2-30 a.m., *) Snarp quick sh 
7-20 a.m., j seconds. 


ocks Bajaura. 




,, 


•i 






»> 
If 


29th . 

i» * 


6. A.M., 7 , ,. 

7-50 a.m., j Rumbling no* 


3 . Do. 




|| 


M • 


6-52 a.m., felt 


. Simla. 




II 


ii 


7-25 a.m., felt 


. Do. 




M 


31 at . 


£ 3 pm' M ' ] Sharp short sh 


Doks . Ba an a. 




1900," April 1st . 


12-55 a.m., noise and shook 1 


Do. 




ii 


2nd . 


7-20 a.m., slight 


Do. 




H 


6th . 


Sharp .... 


Do. 




II 


♦i 


Slight .... 


Do. 




l» 


7th . 


12-10 a.m., sharp, made observ 
out of bed. 


sr jump Do. 




l| 


8th . 


16-43 (Seis. Omori). 


. Simla. 





l Col. Rermick describes all these noises and shocks of 
nearly instantaneous like the passing of an express train. 
N. N. E.— S. S. W. 



this month as being 
All seemed to travel 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



399 



Date. 



1906, April 9th 
10th 
15th 



17th 



21st 
23rd 
25th 
28th 

30th 



1906, May 4th 



7th 

10th 

»> 

nth 

>» 

12th 



16th 

17th 
18th 
19th 
20th 



Time and details of shocks. 



14-10 (Seis. Omori). 

16-35, felt also (Seis. Omori) . 

4-5 a.m., a noisy shore . 

1-53 p.m., a sharp shook noticed all 

over the place. 
6*45 a.m., felt .... 
12-0 a.m. [(?)midday], noise and shore 

up. 
4- a.m., noise and shore up . . 
2-53 a.m., sharp " woke me" . 
9- p.m., sharp, noticed by all 
3 p.m., a smart shock with noise, 

noticed also in Sultanpur. 

slight, no noise . , 

2-30 p.m., a very sharp shook, duration 

5 — 6 sees., servants began to run. 
2-40 p.m., slight .... 
2-40 p.m., felt .... 

14-41 (Seis- Omori). 
4-20 p.m., great rumbling without 

shock. 
21-0, distinctly felt ; sitting 
3-50 a.m. 1 Severe, most residents 

aroused from sleep. Duration 4 sees 
10-30 p.m. Slight with upward push 
7-47 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 
2- a.m. Sharp, li awoke us from sleep 

2-p.m 

0-15 A.M. ... 
1-18 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 
Generally noticed 
11-22 a.m (Seis. Omori) Estimated 

distance 852 miles. 
1-49 a.m. to 2-6 a.m. (Seis. Omori j 
11-23 a. M. (Seis. Omori) 
17-8 to 17-13 (Seis. Omori) 
2-40 a.m. to 2-44 (Seis. Omori) 
4-30 p.m. Smart, doors and windows 
rattled, lamps swung E. — W. 
Duration 6 sees. 
4-35 P.M. Smart, E.— \V. Preceded 
by a rumbling. No damage. Fol- 
lowed by slighter shock 2 mins. 
after. 



Place. 



Simla. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 

Do. 

Simla. 
Bajaura. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Simla. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 

Simla. 
Darjeeiing. 

Bajaura. 

Simla. 

Bajaura. 

Do. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Darjeeiing. 
Simla. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Mussoorie. 



Delhi. 



1 Probably local shock nnd not connected with the Kailgra cirthquako aftershock*. 

2 Separate local shock, also recorded by the Allpur MiittOgraph* 



400 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date 


' 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1906, May 


20th . j 


4-40 p.m. Smart, E — W. Noticed by all. 
Doors and windows rattled. Dura- 
tion 3 — 4 sees., 2 shocks with 1 min. 
interval. 


Lynndale, Mussoorie. 


■>> 


»» • 


4-40 p.m. 2 shocks with 1 min. 
interval. Smart, 3 sees, duration 
each. Preceded "by a rumbling. 


Dehra Dun. 


»• 


>> • i 


16-42 to 17 (Seis. Omori) 


Simla. 


>> 


>» 


4-43 p.m. Two bumps followed by a 
tremor and another shock at 4-46. 


Jaipur, Rajputana. 


>» 


>» • 


4-45 p.m. Slight .... 


Lahore. 


„ 


»» 


4-45 p.m. Smart .... 


Bijnor. 


»> 


„ • 


4-45 p.m. Smart. W. — E. Doors rattled. 
Person seated felt sharp blow on 
chair legs (W. side) just before 
rattling began. 


Rurki. 


»> 


24th . 


19-38 (Seis. Omori) 


Simla. 


>» 


26th . 


3-30 a.m. A severe shock felt from 
Manali to Larji. All left their 
beds. 


Bajaura. 


»> 


28th . 


8-40 a.m. Sharp felt by all 


Do. 


>» 


»» • 


11 A.M. 


Do. 


»» 


»» • 


12 midnight 


Do. 


»» 


31st . 


3-30 a.m. Very sharp. Noticed by all. 


Do. 


1906, June 


1st . 


10-20 a.m. to 10-23 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 


Simla. 


>> 


9th . 


2-30 p.m. Great rumbling noise 


Bajaura and Naggar. 


»> 


11th . 


20-10 (Seis. Omori) 


Simla. 


» 


12th . 


17-36 (Seis. Omori) 


Do. 


»» 


13th . 


11-10 p.m. Severe. Every one ran 
out alarmed. Felt all through the 
Valley of Kulu. 


Bajaura, Naggar, etc. 


» 


>» 


23-15 (Seis. Omori) Also reported 
from Chakrata to Meerut. 


Simla. 


•' 


» • 


11-15 p.m. 1 Smart N.-S. ? Noticed 
by a great number. House shock. 
Doors rattled. 


Lynndale, Mussoorie. 


>? 


»» • 


11-19 p.m. Sharp tc severe oscillation, 
lasted 3 — 4 sees. The most severe 
since 28th February 1906. Impe- 
rial Secretariat Buildings on Gorton 
Hill slightly damaged. Also many 
natives spent the night in the open. 
Felt also at Mahasu and Mashobra. 


Simla. 


>» 


» 


11-20 p.m. Smart 


Dehra Dun. 


J» 


» 


11-35 p.m. Rather severe, lasted few 
seconds. 


Saharanpur. 



1 Given as June 14th in Mr, Mackinnon's form, doubtless a slip. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



401 



Date. 



Time and details of shocks. 



1906, June 13th . 
14th . 
15th . 




16th . 
18th . 


»» 


»» • 


»» 


20th . 


M 
»» 


21st . 



Place. 



»! 
ff 


24th 
26th 


1906, July 


3rd 


»> 

IS 

»> 
>> 


4th 

7th 
10th 


'» 


18th 
21st 



Midnight 

2 a.m. Feeble .... 
2-30 a.m. Sharp, felt all through 

Kulu Valley. 
20-29 (Seis. Omori) 
13-30 to 13-31 (Seis. Qmori) . 
1-30 p.m. Sharp, felt all through 

Kulu Valley. 
2-40 a.m. Sharp upward shock 

1 p.m. Sharp upward shock 

6-45 p.m. Sharp. Duration 2 or 3 

sees. All fled out of house. 
6-45 p.m. Slight : 
18-48 to 18-51 (Seis. Omori) . 
6-50 p.m. Smart but very short. 
7 p.m. Smart. Duration 2 or 3 

sees. only. 
21-50 (Probably local) . 
22-30 (Probably local) . 
15-20 (Seis. Omori) 
4-15 a.m. Sharp shock coincident 

with cloud burst which did great 

damage. 
10 p.m. Slight 
22-28 (Seis. Omori) 
1-45 p.m. 1 shake . 
8-40 p.m. Slight . 
1,-55 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 
10-30 a.m. Slight 
3-40 p.m. Slight . 
]-45 a.m. Very severe. Duration 

5-10 sees. No damage. 
1-50 a.m. Severe. " Sent us out of 

bed . Wired to Civil and Military 

Gazette." 
1-50 a.m. Severe. People much 

scared. 
1-55 a.m. Smart. Very short 4-5 

sees. 
1-57 a.m. (Seis. Omori). Generally 

felt in Kashmir and reported from 

Rawalpindi and Lodhiana. 

2 a.m. Smart. Duration 5 sees, 
followed by slighter one hour after. 

2 a.m. Slight. Duration 4-5 sees. . 



Bajaura and Naggar. 
Dehra Dun. 
Bajaura, Naggar, etc. 

Simla. 
Do. 
Bajaura, Naggar, etc. 

Bajaura and Naggar. 
Ditto. 
Ditto 

Lynndale, Mussoorie. 
Simla. 
Dehra Dun. 
Simla. 

Mount Abu. 

Ditto. 
Simla. 
Bajaura and Naggar. 



Ditto. 
Simla. 
Bajaura and Naggar. 

Ditto. 
Simla. 
Bajaura and Naggar. 

Ditto, 
Kangra. 

Bajaura and Naggar. 



Naggar. 
Dehra Dun, 
Simla. 

Mussoorie. 
Lahore. 1 



l This shock also reported from Delhi, Dalhousie and a wide area in western 
Himalayas. Several shocks were felt for nearly a minute in some places whilst tremors 
continued for 2 — 13 minutes. 

2 D 



402 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 



1006, July 21st 



1900 



1906 



1906 



2fith 

\ 29th 
Aug. 9th 
10th 
Jlth 
15th 
16th 



17th 
23rd 
28th 
31st 
Sep. 1st 1 
, 10th 
15th 
16th 
19th 
26th 
Oct. 4th 
5th 
6th 
11th 
12th 
13th 
21st 
24th 
20th 

27th 



1906, Nov 



28th 
.3rd 
5th 
6th 
8th 
9th 



Time and details of shocks. 



2h. 27'-30" (local mean time whioh 
is 5b. 53'-27" E. of Greenwich 2h. 
3'-45 ¥ standard time. Tremor felt 
and recorded bv H. F. Magneto- 
graph. 

7-70 (iSfi'o.) (?) a.m. or p.m. Smart 

22-40 (Sois. Omori) 

0-33 a.m. (Sois. Omori) . 

13-58 (SeiA. Omori) 

2-30 a.m 

1-26 a.m. (Self, Omori) ... 

16-55 (Seis. Omori) 

3-45 a.m Lasted for several .seconds 

3-48 a.m 

3-56 A.M 

4-20 a.m. . 

Valpara iso Earthquake 

11-42 a.m. Sharp .... 

1 -50 p.m. With a great rum blifig noise 

U p.m. Sharp .... 

12-40 p.m. Sharp . 

1-16 A.M. Sharp .... 

21-51 to 21-53 (Seis, Omori) . 

9-53 p.m. Steady push . 

14-52 (Seis. Omori). 

12-10 a.m. Sharp . 

3 a.m. (about) .... 

10-6 to 10-7 (Seis. Omori) 

2-15 A.M. Sharp .... 

2-5 a.m. Sharp .... 

1 p.m. One strong shake . 

5-6 a.m. Sharp .... 

12-23 to 12-26 (Seis. Omori) . 

8-21 p.m. (Seis). . 

10-9 a.m. Rumbling noiie and aharti 

shock. 
9-44(?) a.m. Rumbling noise arid sharp 

push upward. 
9-35 P.M. (Seis.) 
11-45 P.M. (Seis.) . 
8-40 to 8-45 (Seis. Omori) 
11-51. Lasting 25 eecs. . 
16-26. Lasting 14 sees. . 
1-56 r.M. (Seis.) Felt by some 



Plane. 



Barwokpore. 



Bajaura and Naggar 

Simla. 

Do. 

Do. 
Sonemasg and Dras. 
■Simla. 

Do. 
Rajputana and Gujmt, 
Mount Abu. 

Do. 

Do. 

Bajaura. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Bajaura. 
Simla. 
Bajaurn. 
Darieeling.s 
Simla. 
Bajaura. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Do. 
u:a, 

Do. 

Simla. 

Do, 

Do. 
Mount Abu. 

Do. 
Simla. 



1 all September m Kulu shocks oame from N.E. — S. W. 
• Probably a local shock. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



403 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 




Place. 




1906, Nov. 


11th . 


10-15 p.m. Sharp push with I 


rumbling 


Bajaura 


and 


Kulu 






noise from N. 






Valley. 






«» 


12th . 


21-48 to 22-1 (Seis. Omori) 


. 


. 1 


Simla. 






»» 


13th . 


10-10 p.m. Very sharp shock N.— 


-S. | 


Bajaura 


and 


Kulu 






Duration 5 — 8 sees. All 


servants 


Valley. 










ran out of their houses, 


preceded 












by a great noise. 












»» 


19 th . 


10 a.m. (Seis.) 


, 


. 


Simla. 






»» 


20th . 


3 a.m. Slight 


• 


• 


Bajaura 
Valley. 


and 


Kulu 


»» 


•> • 


6-22 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 


. 


. 


Simla. 






ii 


»» • 


8-30 a.m. (Seis.) Felt by some . 


. 


Do. 






t , 


» • 


1-50 f.m. Very sharp shock 


stronger 


Bajaura 


and 


Kulu 






at Manali and Naggar 


than 


at 


Valley. 










Bajaura. 












i> 


>♦ • 


13-54 (Seis. Omori). 




. 


Simla. 






5» 


»> • 


1-55 p.m. (Seis.) 




. 


Do. 






» 


21st . 


12-36 to 12-38 (Seis. Omori) 




. 


Do. 






»> 


22nd . 


4-20 a.m. Sharp 




• 


Bajaura 
Valley. 


and 


Kulu 


M 


»» 


8-20 a.m. (Seis.) . 




. 


Simla. 






!l 


24th . 


8 a.m. (Seis.) . 




. 


Do. 






»* 


25th . 


5 a.m. (Seis.). 




. 


Do. 






»» 


»» ■ 


9 a.m. (Seis.). 




. 


Do. 






»» 


27th . 


11-17 (Seis. Omori). 




. 


Do. 






1906, Dec 


. 1st . 


7-2 a.m. (Seis.) Felt in bed 




i 


Do. 






N 


2nd . 


9-20 a.m. (Seis.) '. 




. 


Do. 






>» 


3rd . 


8-20 a.m. (Seis.) . 






Do. 






>» 


5th . 


11-12 a.m. (Seis.) . 




, 


Do, 






»1 


6th . 


17-39 (Seis. Omori) . 




, 


Do. 






»» 


M 


17-45 (Seis. Omori). 






Do. 






»> 


7th . 


5-20 a^m. Strong shock . 




. 


Bajaura 


and Kulu Val 












ley. 






»» 


10th . 


0-37 to 0-38 (Seis. Omori) 




. 


Simla. 






>» 


13th . 


6-10 a.m. Slight 




• 


Bajaura and Kulu Val 


»> 


>» • 


18-40 to 18-50 (Seis. Omori) 






ley. 
Simla. 






»> 


14th . 


1 7-7 p.m. Very slight tremor 




. 


Rurki. 






,. 


18th . 


| 5-8 a.m. (Seis.) Felt in bed 




# 


Simla. 






»» 


»> • 


19-40 a.m. (Seis.) . 






Do. 






»» 


19th . 


: 14-22 to 14-25 (Seis. Omori) 


. 




Do. 






> » 


21st . 


! 11-30 a.m. (Seis.) Felt 


sitting in 


Do. 










verandah. 












»» 


22nd . 


8-30 a.m. (Seis.) . 






Do. 






»> 


23rd . 


12-10 a.m. (Seis.) . 






Do 






>> 


»> 


2 long distance shocks 






Do. 






»» 


25th . 


8-7 a.m. (Seis.) 






Do. 






»» 


29th . 


3 p.m. (Seis.) 






Do. 







2d2 



404 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 






Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1906, Dec. 


31st . 


6-5 p.m. (Seis.) 




Simla. 


1907, Jan. 


1st . 


7-55 p.m. (Seis.) 


, 


Do. 


„ 


4th . 


Longdistance shock 


. 


Do. 


>» 


10th . 


19-35 to 19-36 (Seis. Omori) . 


. ' 


Do. 


»» 


'» • 


8-0 p.m (Seis.) Smartly felt . 


. 


Do. 


>» 


., . 


8-7 p.m. Sharp 


• 


Bajauraand Kulu Val- 
ley. 
Simla. 


»» 


11th . 


12-15 a.m. (Seis.) . 


' 


>> 


>> • 


22-3 (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Do. 


»» 


>> • 


10-10 p.m. (Seis.) Felt in bed . 




Do. 


if 


13th . 


9-15 a.m. (Seis.) . . 


. 


Do. 


if 


16th . 


10-5 p.m. (Seis.) . 


. 


Do. 


»' 


17th . 


11-10 p.m. Slight with rumbling 


• 


Bajaura and Kulu Val- 
ley. 


» 


19th . 


22-2 to 22-3 (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Simla. 


»» 


. 


10-5 p.m. (Seis.) Distinctly felt 


. 


Do. 


» 


23rd . 


1-18 to 1-19 (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Do. 


J» 


>» • 


1-20 a.m. Smart. Two shocks with 


Mussoorie. 






interval of a few seconds. 






»> 


31sfc . 


6-5 a.m. Sharp with rumbling 


• 


Bajaura and Kulu Val- 
ley. 


»> 


„ . 


1-10 p.m. Sharp with rumbling 


. 


Ditto. 


1907, Feb 


1st . 


7-55 a.m. Slight . 


. 


Bajaura. 


>> 


•16th . 


10-11 p.m. Slight shock. Club 
glasses rattled. 


bar 


Delhi. 


>» 


17th . 


4 a.m. (about). Doors slammed, 
shook. 


bed 


Do. 


.«» 


20th . 


9-15 a.m. (Seis.) 


. 


Simla. 


>» 


23rd . 


15-30 (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Do. 


» 


» • 


4-10 p.m. Sharp 


• 


Bajaura and in Kulu 
Valley and Parba 
River to Manikarn. 


>> 


-j . 


4-23 p.m. (Seis.) Distinctly felt 


. 


Simla. 


1907, Mar 


. 2nd . 


21-34 to 21-36 (Seis. Omori) . 


. 


Do. 


if 


3rd . 


9-20 p.m. Sharp from N. N. W. 


. 


Bajaura. 


» 


»■ 


9-30 p.m. (Seis.) Very smart shock . 


Simla. 


j> 


4th . 


1-21 a.m. Sharp from N. N. W. 


. 


Bajaura. 


» 


19th . 


17-51 to 17-52 (Seis. Omori) . . 


. 


Simla. 


» 


• 


5-55 p.m. (Seis.) . 


. 


Do. 


»» 


»> • 


9-30 p.m. (Seis.) Very smart . 


. 


Do. 


»> 


20th . 


Three sharp shocks during night 


. 


Bajaura. 


>» 


>» • 


6-50 a.m. (Seis.) Felt by all . 


. 


Simla. 


>y 


21st . 


5-14 a.m. Severe push upwards 


. 


Bajaura. 


>> 


V * 


5-45 a.m. (Seis.) 


. 


Simla. 


j) 


»» * 


5-45 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 


• 


Do. 


>, 




3 p.m. (Seis.) 


. 


Do. 


>> 


5> • 


9-25 p.m. Very sharp shock from 


Bajaura and Kulu Val- 






S. s. w. 




ley and Mandi. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



465 



Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Place. 


1907, 


Mar. 22nd . 


8-53 (?) to 8-60 (Seis. Omori) 




Simla. 




23rd . 


8-30 a.m. (Seis.) 


. 


Do. 




25th . 


7-50 a.m. (Seis.) Felt in bed . 


. 


Do. 




27th . 


11-45 a.m. (Seis.) . 


. 


Do. 




28th . 


11-45 p.m. Slight . . - . 


. 


Bajaura. 




29th . 1 


Long distance 


. 


Simla. 




30th . 


2-25 a.m. (Seis) Felt in bed . 


. 


Do. 




31st . 


11-25 to 11-31 (Seis. Omori) 




Do. 


1907 


April 7th . 


10-5 p.m. With rumbling noise 




Bajaura. 




8th . 


12-16 a.m. Sharp . 


. 


Do. 




10th . 


8-39 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 




Simla. 




►» »» • 


8-45 a.m. (Seis.) . ' . 


. 


Do. 




13th . 


12-45 p.m. (Seis.) . 


. 


Do. 




»• >» • 


15-44 (Seis. Omori) . 


. 


Do. 




»» >» 


3-43 p.m. (Seis.) felt distinctly . 


. 


Do. 




» » 


4-45 p.m. Severe shock followed 
smaller ones. 


by 


Bajaura. 




» » • 


17-58 to 18-15 (Seis. Omori) . 




Simla. 




> »» 


11-37 p.m. (Seis.). Slight shock fol- 
lowed by a rumbling and prolonged 
gentle wave. Also felt in Peshawar 


I*. 






and Lahore. 






> 


15th . 


Long distance. Mexico (Seis. Omori) 


Do. 


* 


17th • 


Long distance. Askabad (Seis. Omori) 


Do. 


t 


18th . 


Long distance. Spain (Seis. Omori) 


Do. 


> 


20th . 


10-45 p.m. Two sharp shocks with 


noise 


Bajaura. 


3 


22nd . 


11-55 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Simla. 


9 


27th . 


7-10 a.m. Sharp 


. 


Baraura, 


1907 


, May 9th . 


2 p.m. Two Sharp shocks which made 


Bajaura and Kulu 






the poeple run out of the tahsil. 




Valley. 




15th . 


1 p.m. A sharp downward fall. Felt 


Ditto. 






also in Mandi. 








18th . 


8 a.m. (Seis.) Felt upstairs in 
distinctly. 
8-7 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 


bed 


Simla. 
Do. 


i 


24th . 


j 21-58 (Seis. Omori) 
10 p.m. (Seis.) Not felt . 




Do. 
Do. 




25th . 


7-40 p.m. (Seis.) . 




Do. 




30th 


23-32 (Seis. Omori) 
11-34 pji. (Seis.) . 




Do. 
Do. 




, 31st . 


2 a. m. A sharp shock with minor ones 


Bajaura and Kulu 






afterwards which lasted over 


a 


Valley. 






minute. No damage. 






1907 


June 2nd . 


2-10 a.m. Sharp strong shock about 


Bajaufa. 






4 seconds in duration, as if 


the 








ground gave way under one's 


feet. 








Also recorded at Simla. 







406 




MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKP. 


Date. 


Time and details of shocks. 


Plaoe, 


1007, June 2nd . 


2-35 a.m. (Seis.) Awakened by the 


Simla. 






shook. 




N 


>f 


4-35$ a.m. (Seis. Omori), Distant re- 
oord lasting 14} mins. 


Do. 


»i 


13th . 


6-5 a.m. A sharp push 


Bajaura. 


n 


21st . 


0-51-24 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 


Simla. 


n 


•i • 


1-5 a.m. (Seis.) , 


Do. 






12-48 p.m. Houses (wooden) rocked 


Dunga Gali- 






and shock. Probably a local shock. 




it 


23rd . 


2-10 a.m. A sharp shock 


Rajaura. 






2-5 p.m. Smart shock . 


Simla. 


ii 


i» • 


14-5-6 (Seis. Omori). Sharp looal 
shook. Maximum displacement of 
style 16 mm. 


Do, 






2-7-p.m. (Seis.) Distinctly felt . 


Do. 


>» 


25th . 


6-10 a.m. A sharp shock, as if ground 
gave way under one. People ran 
out of houses. 


Bajaura. 


»• 


»» • 


23-34-6 (Seis. Omori). Distant record 
lasting 26 mins. 


Simla. 


>» 


26th . 


1 1 -35 p.m. (Seis. ) Not felt 


Do. 


»» 


27th . 


5-10 a.m. Sharp shock of 5 or 6 
sees, duration. 


Bajaura. 


n 


»> • 


5-51-54 a,m. (Seis. Omoriji 


Simla. 






5-53- a.m. (Seis.) Awakened by the 


Do. 






shook. i 




»» 


28th . 


6.A.M. Sharp . 


Bajaura, 


»» 


ii • 


6-53-18 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Simla. 






6-58 a.m. (Seis.) Slight . 


• 


Do. 






6-16 p.m. (Seis.) Felt . 


• 4 


Do. 


»> 


ii • 


18-16 (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Do. 


ii 


29th . 


9-15-30 a,m, (Seis. Omori) 


. 


Do. 


♦» 


»» • 


9-15 p.m. (Seis.) Distinctly felt 


Do. 


1907, July 4th . 


14-53-12 (Seis. Omori) Distant 


Do. 






records, origin probably 1,700 miles 








away. Duration 20 mins. 




»» 


9th . 


9-5 a.m. (Seis.) Not felt . 


Do. 


»» 


12th . 


22-52-48 (Seis. Omori) Distant 


Simla. Felt at Ahme- 






record. Duration 20 mins. . * 


dabacL 


»» 


»» • 


10-55 p.m. (Seis.) Not.felt 




Do. 


»t 


14th . 


12-4-54 (Seis. Omori) . 




Simla. 


»» 


15th . 


16-6-12 (Seis. Omori) . 




Do 


»» 


>» • 


4-10 p.m. (Seis.) Not telt 




Do; 


»» 


17th . 


1-36 a.m. (Seis.) Awakened 




Do. 


ii 


»» • 


1-39-0 (Seis. Omori) 




Do. 


»» 


19th . 


3-5 p.m. Sharp from N.E. 




Bajaura and Naggar. 


»» 


27th . 


5-50 a.m. Sharp from N.E. 




Ditto. 


»» 


28th . 


2-5 a.m. Sharp, Sent us out 


of bed 


Ditto. 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



407 




1907, July 30th . 


»» 


31et . 


;> n ■* 

ii Aug. „ . 


„ 


12th . 


t% 


»t • 


»» 


15th . 
17th . 


»t 


>i • 


1907, Sept 


. 2nd . 


»• 


10th . 
12th . 
13th . 
15th . 


5> 




>• 


20th . 
23rd . 
24th . 


» 


a 


1907,' Oct. 


25 th . 
23 th . 
29th . 
30th . 
3rd . 


,5 


5th . 


ff 


9th . 
21st . 



22nd 
25th 



5-30. a.m. Severe shock lasting 8-10 

sees. Houses vibrated. 
8-35 a.m. (SeisJ Very distinctly 

felt. 

8-35-24 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 
No shocks felt this month 

5-10 p.m. (Seis.) Not felt 

17-11-12 (Seis. Omori) Tremor lasting 
4*4 mins. 

7-36-12 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 

9-55 A.M. (Seis.) Severe . 

9-56-24 a.m. ;Seis. Omori) Local shock 

$-5$ a.m. (Seis.). Slight 

21-42-18 (Seis. Omori) Distant record 
lasting 1 h. 8 m. 

10-10 P.M. Moderate shock 
I 18-^-6 (Seis. Omori} Local 
! 11-0 a.m. Moderate . ... 

'. 23-18-12 (Seis. Omori) Distant shock 
| lasting 22 mins. 
I 4-48-48 a.m. /Seis. Omori) Distant 

shock lasting 18-2 mins. 
I 1 7 - i 7 • 30 ( Seis . Omori ) Local tremor 
I 2 p.m. Moderate .... 
\ 17-54-48 (Seis. Omori) Local . 
j 5-55 p.m. (Seis..) Distinct . 
! 5-57 p.m. Severe .... 
i 1-25 a.m. Smart .... 
; 14-43-48 (Seis. Omori) Local . j 

| 11-5 p.m. Smart, also felt at Mandi . j 

8-15 a.m. Smart . . . . 

10-10 p.m. Sharp from N.N.E. . j 

13-24-42 (Seis. Omori) Local . 

1-25 p.m. (Seis.) Long tremor distinct 

10-45 a.m. (Seis.)Shght . 

6-5 a.m. Sharp and strong shock. 

Sent people flying out of their 

houses. Some walls cracked. 
9-56-30 to 10-21-42 a.m. Bokhara 

Earthquakes followed by aftershocks. \ 

Registered (Seis. Omori). 
10 a.m. (Seis.) Not felt. Bokhara shock 
10-0 a.m. Slight. Bokhara shock 
10-15 a.m. Slight. Bokhara shock . j 
8-45 A.M. (Seis.) Slighty felt . 
5-36-30 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 



Bajaura and Naggar. 

Simla. 



and Kalu 



Do. 

Bajaura 
Valley. 

Simla. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Bajaura. 
Simla. 
Bajaura. 
Simla. 

Do. 



Do. 
Bajaura. 
Simla. 

Do. 
Bajaura. 

Do. 
Simla. 
Bajaura. 

Do. 
Bajaura and Kulu 

Valley. 
Simla. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bajaura and Kulu 

Valley. 

Simla. 



Do. 
Oghi, Hazara. 
Do. 

Simla. 
Do. 



408 



MIDDLEMISS : KANGRA EARTHQUAKE. 



Date. 



1907 Oct. 25th 
26th 



27th 



30th . 
1907, Nov. „ . 

2nd . 
3rd . 



13th 



16th 
22nd 



30th 
1907, Dec. 1st 
4th 



5th 
»» >» 



8th 

>» 

9th 



10th 



Time and details of shocks. 



earthquake, 

miles away, 

hour (Seis. 



5-40 a.m. (Seis.) Not felt . 

7-49 a.m. Slight .... 

7-51 a.m. (Seis.) Very distinctly felt . 

7-53-6 a.m. (Seis. Omori) . 

10-48-54 a.m. (Seis. Omori) Distant 

shock, estimated at 600 miles away. 

Duration 31 mins. 
10-50 a.m. (Seis.) Not felt 
23-13-30 (Seis. Omori) . 
3 small shocks during the month 

7-26 p.m. (Seis.) Felt distinctly 
3-46-6 a.m. (Seis. Omori) Distant 

shock. Duration 14 mins. 
— — a.m. (Seis.). Felt in bed . 

17-21. Felt 

18-44-18 (Seis. Omori) Duration 1V7 

mins. 
-6-10 p.m. (Seis.) Not felt 
1 38-12 a.m. Distant 

centre estimated 2,900 

Registered duration 1 

Omori). 
9-40 a.m. (Seis.) Not felt 
7-20 a.m. (Seis.) Not felt 
Midday (Seis.) Very distinct . 
12-2-18 (Seis. Omori) 
About midday. Of unusual force. The 

hill-range was shaken, landslips 

and dust clouds formed. People 

frightened. 

12-2 felt 

1-13 p.m. (Seis.) Felt distinctly u 
3-40 p.m. Sharp shock. People ran 

out. 
11-43-12 a.m. (Seis. Omori) 
11-45-0 a.m. An upward slanting 

thrust from the N. Reported by H. 

Duperney. 
11-50 a.m. (Seis.) Felt 
9-30 p.m. Sharp . 

4-3 p.m. (Seis.) Smart 
16-5-42 (Seis. Omori; 
12-25 p.m. Slight . 



Place. 



1-15 A.M. 
7-28 a.m. 



Slight . 
(Seis.) Not felt 



Simla. 

Oghi, Hazara. 

Simla. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 

Do. 
Bajaura and Kulu 

Valley. 
Simla. 

Do. 

Do. 

Oghi, Hazara. 
Simla. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Dharmsala. 



Lahore. 
Simla. 
Bajaura and 

Valley. 
Simla. 
Saharanpur. 



Kulu 



Simla. 
Bajaura and 

Valley. 
Simla. 

Do. 
Bajaura and 

Valley. 
Ditto. 
Simla. 



Kulu 



Kulu 



LIST OF AFTERSHOCKS. 



409 



Date. 



Time and details of shocks. 



PL 



26th . 



30th 



4-6 a.m. (Seis.) Prolonged tremor 
4-7-48 a.m. (Seis. Omori). Duration 16 
mins. 

11-19-30 a.m. (Seis. Omori) Duration 
$•5 mins. 



1907, Dec. 13th . 4-40 a.m. Caused doors and windows | Jaipur. 

to rattle. 
15th . ! 23-21 (Seis. Omori) . . . jSimla. 

18th . J 4-58 A.M.^Seis. Omori) Distant, dura- Do 
! tion 15-7 mins. 



Do. 
Simla, also felt, in 

Kashmir, Kabui and 

Lahore. 
Simla. 



2e 



INDEX, 




A 






Page 


Abbottabad ..... 


. . . 214 


Acceleration of wave particle at Kangra . 




36 


„ ,, ,, at Dehra Diui and 


Rajpur 


323 


Achipur ...... 




2C5 


Aftershock? ..... 




356 


„ analysis of ... 




359 


at Bashahr of 28th February [906 




365 


„ frequency shown by magi 




361 


„ „ since Ai>ii3 11th 1905 




364 


,, 'ist of ... 




370 


Agra ... 




230 


Agucha ..... 




254 


Ahmedabad. 


. 250, 


251, 329 


Ajmer ..... 




241 


Akola ... 




255 


Alampur ... 




253 


Aliearb 




236 


„ (Meerut District) 




210 


Alipura ... . . 






253 


Aliwal 






182 


Allahabad . . 






247 


Ahnora 






202 


Alston, Licurerj; t ut t . C. W. . 






358 


Aisundi ... 






78 


Alwar 






234 


Am balls ..... 




. ' . 194, 


195, 196 


Ami riv^r, ;v i,--.< on 






347 


Amplitude of wave motion at KaDgra 






36 


Amraoti ..... 






255 


Amritsar ..... 






151 


Amroha ...... 






213 


Anderson, Captain A. . 






. 80, 358 


Animate affected . 




. 45, 125, 


150, 352 


Arrah ..... 






265 


Asabutat ..... 






206 


Astor ..... 






187 


Attock 






216 

2e2' 



11 



Aurnngabad 
Avalanches, rock 
., now 

Azamgarh 



Page. 

203 

54, 66, 62, 63, 64, 68, 70 

. 59, 75 

203 



B 



Babugarh . 

Bachranwala 

Bag pet 

Bahala 

Bahraich 

Baijnath 

Bajaura 

Bakloh 

Balasore 

Ballard, W. 

Ballia 

Banda 

Bandipur 

Banigram 

Banikpore 

Bannu 

Banon, Capt 

Banuri 

Bara Banki 

Baramulla 

Baran Ckokia 

Baran 

Baraut 

Bareilly 

Barisal 

" Barisal guns" at 

Barkot 

Barmer 

Barwar lake 

Bashahr aftershock of 28th February 1906 

Basti . 

Batala 

Bazpur 

Beas R. 

Beawar 

Begu Saraj 

Benares 



Ludhiana 



66 



210 
230 
210 
265 
238 

45 

54 
182 
257 
42, 44, 358 
249 
247 
187 
267 
263 
228 
75, 318 

44 
245 
187 
258 
243 
210 
213 
266 
177 
184 
239 

69 
365 
247 
182 
200 
55,67 
242 
262 
249 



Ill 

Page. 

Berhampore .......... 262 

Beri 221 

Bettiab .258 

Bhadaywar .......... 187 

Bhajjie State 184 

Bharatpur 235 

Bhatinda 207 

Bhawarna ............ 44 

Bhilsa , 253 

Bhinigoda "bund" 116,345 

Bhimpur 182 

Bhim Tal 200 

Bhiwani 219 

Bhug 251 

Biaora ........... 255 

Bihar 263 

Bihia • 265 

Bijawar ........... 253 

Bijnor 199 

BikaDer 232 

Bilaspur 223 

Bina Etawah 257 

Birds affected 45, 125, 150, 328, 352 

Bissau 232 

Bogra 267 

Bolpur 257 

Boom across Ganges broken ........ 116 

Borso Pass 59 

Boulders in wall construction . . . . . . . 51, 53, 57 

Boya 228 

Bridges, broken 40, 57, 70 

Bridge, pinnacles shifted ........ 51 

Brindaban 235 

Bubu Pa<?s 47 

Budaun .223 

Budge Budge 265 

Building methods in Kulu . . . . . . 57, 60 

Buildings, construction of Dehra Dun ...... 80 

„ affected within Xth isoseist, Summary .... 309 

,. IXth „ .... 313 

„ unaffected „ IV-Vth „ ,, .... 327 

„ earthquake proof ..... 310 



IV 



Ruin 

Bulandshahr 

Bundi 

Bund Karai 

Bunji 

Burdwan 

BurkM, H. . 

Burrard, Lieut. -Col. 

Buxar 



Page. 

57 

223 

243 

229 

189 

258 

76, 318 

90, 92, 346, 348, 358 

265 



Cachar 

Calcutta 

Calvert, A. 

Campbellpore 

Canals affected 

Canning town 

Casualties, Dharmsala 

Caves fallen in 

Cawnpore 

Centrum, see Focus. 

Chakdara 

Chakrata 

Chamba 



to Lahoul 



Chanda 

Chandernagar 

Chandpur 

Chapra 

Chaprauli 

Charag 

Charahamna 

Chari 

Charsadda 

Chatali 

Chatelpur . 

Chawal 

Cherat 

Chhatak 

Chilas 

Chindi 

C'hiniot 



196, 204, 208 



, 344, 



267 

258 

59, 365 

215 

345, 346 

265 

21 

68 

244 

227 

185 
181 

75 
256 
261 
269 
264 
210 

77 
209 

13 
225 
269 
209 

73 
225 

269 

187 

78 

219 



Page. 

Chiniot Road 230 

Chiiavra ........... 232 

Chitral 224 

Chor Peak 184 

Chunar .248 

Church beil set ringing ......... 112 

Clock re-started .......... 104 

Cochin 350 

ComiUa . . 269 

Coseismal lines .......... 281 

Cossipur ........... 265 

Crops and vegetation unaffected ....... 10, 305 

Crushed rocks at main boundary fault ...... 53 

Cuttack 259 



D 



Dacca . 
Dadupur 
Dagshai 
Dalash 
Dalhousie 
Daltonganj 
Dandot 
Darahan 
Darazanda 
Darbhanga 
Bargai 
Darjt-eiing 
Datta Khei 
Daulatpur 
Dun 



Delhi . 

Denehy, P. 

Deob i 

Deod 

Deoli . 

Deori 

Deoria 

Dera Gl Lhaz 

Dera Gopipur 

. 



variation oi 



evels 



267 
196 
183 

73 
182 
263 
217 
229 
229 
259 
225 
260 
228 

38 

80 
348 
221 
346 
198 
197 
242 
256 
249 
230 

39 
229 



VI 



Dharrnsala 

Cantonment. 

Civil Hill 
Dhadur 

Dhak 
Dhakauli 
Dhanaura . 
Dbanotu 
Dbariwal 
Dhelu . 
Dholpui 

Diamond Harbour 
Did w ana 
Digwara 
Dinapur 
ilpur 

Dig . 
Donald, W. H. 
Dras 
Drang 
Drosh 

Dudhamb . 
Dulchi Pass 
Dust cloud, Fojal N. 
Larji 
„ Palampur 

Dutton, Major C. E. 
Dwarabath 



Page. 

14 

15 

26 

250 

200 

207 

210 

208 

13 

182 

46 

237 

265 

239 

264 

263 

219 

235 

66 

187 

48 

225 

13 

54 

66 

68 

42 

332 

202 



Earth quak< 



Ellicbpur 

Etah 
Etawah 



cause of 
question form 
rate of propagation 
shadows 
sound 



335 
3 
281 
15, 21, 22, 26, 45, 307 
341 
256 
237 
243 



Faizpur 
False Point . 



251 
259, 328 



Vll 



Faridkot 

Faridpur 

Farukhabad 

Fatehabad . 

Fatehgarh . 

Fatehjung . 

Fatehpur 

Fatehpur (Jaipur district) 

Fault. '• main boundary ' 

Fazilka 

Ferozepur . 

Fissures, earth . 11,13, 14, 

Focus, nature of, etc. 

,, pitch of * 
Fojal N., dust cloud 
Foreshocks 
Forests destroyed . 
Fort Lockhart 
Forts, ruined 
Foundations, Mussoorie 
Fyemo 
Fyzabad 

Gadawara 

Gahana 

Ganda Singh wala . 

Gandevi 

Ganges, boom across, broken 

,, waves on . 
Garhmuktesar 
Gate pillars overturned . 
Gaya 
Geological structure — 

Beas R. below Bajaura 
Geological structure, Dehra Dun 
Dharmsala 
„ Epicentral tracts 

., Hardwar 

,. Kangra-Kulu area 

,. Kangra 

Kulu division . 
„ Mussoorie 



30, 33, 48, 5 



5, 62, 



31, 46, 47 



68, 7 



48. 53 



1, 106, 



122, 



,80, 



329, 



U 



Page, 
207 
268 
238 
267 
237 
215 
246 
233 
336 
206 
159 
349 
329 
■334 

66 
355 

63 
227 
,33 

95 
189 
246 



256 
221 
205 
251 
J 16 
347 
211 
34, 95 
260 

67 

79 

15, 16 

335 

114 

9 

32 

47. 53 

95 



VU1 



Geological structure, near " main boundary " Mandi 
,, „ Parbati R., Kulu 

„ ,, south of Kangra 

„ ,, Sub -Himalayan zone 

Geri 

Gharhi 

Ghaziabad 

Ghazipur 

Ghora Gali 

Gidhaur 

Gilgit 

Gokal 

Gonda 

Gopalganj 

Gorakpur 

Gorges near Larji 

Gravitational wave 

Gujrat 

Gujranwala 

Guma 

Gupis 

Gnpka 

Gurais 

Gurdaspur 



II 



Hafizabad 

Haldwani 

Halwari 

Hamirpur 

Handwara 

Hansi 

TIapur 

Harboe, earthquake propagation 

„ nature of centrum 
Hardoi .... 
Hardwar . 

Haripur .... 
Hatch, Major A V. 
Hathras .... 
Hathwa .... 
Hayden, H. H. . 
Hayes, Colonel 



Page. 

53 

62 

38 

335 

77 

187 

211 

249 

215 

262 

188 

236 

246 

264 

248 

68 

326 

J 67, 203 

165 

46 

188 

188 

188 

182 

204 
200 
268 
246 
188 
219 
211 
282 
329 
238 
114 
215 
17, 358 
236 
264 
320 
318 



IX 



Hazaribagh ..... 

Henry, Mrs. W. . 

Hill slopes '• influence on character of shock 

„ „ fall of buildings . 

Himalayan range ; arc -like curve 
Hissar .... 

Hobbs nature of centrum 
Holland, Lady 
Holta Tea Estate . 
Hooghly Point 
Hoshiarpur 

House damage ; scale of terms 
Houses in Kulu 

I 
Idak .... 

Ilampur .... 
Immunity of hollows in the hills 

„ river beds 

,. bridges and watermill 

„ glass windows . 

,, Law Courts, Lahore 

„ strong domed structures 

„ tall factory chimneys 

„ tombstones, Dharmsala 

„ „ Palampur 

Indore ..... 

Indus R.: waves on 
Intensity at surface evenly distributed 

„ ,, rapid decline . 

,, ,, in Isoseismals . 

„ scale, Rossi-Forel . 

», „ ,, ; modifications of 

Inversions of strata near " main boundary " fault: 
Islamabad .... 

Isostasy .... 

Isoseists, concentric arrangement of 
II III . . 

IV- V .... 

„ VI-VII. 

n VIII, General description 

., Dehra Dun-Mussoorie area 

„ Index to chief towns in . 



13, 



32. 



Page. 

260 

358 

306 

307 

338 

220 

329 

357, 358 

44 

265 

183 

8 

60 

229 

228 

21 

14 

54,63 

21, 29 

135 

19 

142 

22 

42 

254 

347 

330 

39,79 

300 

302 

303 

337 

188 

339 

331 

328 

327 

325 

31"/ 

320 

320 



Isoseisfc 



I tarsi 



VIII — Kangra-Kulu area 
IX— General description 
IX — Index to chief towns in 
X — General description 
X — Index to chief towns in 



Jagadhri 

Jagraon 

Jaipur 

Jaisalmer 

Ja Hal pur Jattan 

Jalori Pass . 

Jalpaiguri 

Jalrapatan . 

•Jamniu 

Jamo Baza" 

Jamrud 

Japla , 

J&ri . 

Jawalamukhi 

Jawalapur . 

Je'lalabad . 

Jeolikot 

J ess ore 

Jh tjjar 

Jhana Ghazi 

Jhang 

Jharla 

Jhatingri 

Jhelum 

J h el ran R., 

Jhuugi 

Jhuhjhnu 

Jibhi 

Jighni 

Jo bra 

Jodbpur 

Jowaiapui 

Jubbulpore 

JuUundm 



v.;w es 



on 



XI 



K 



Kadaura (Baoni 


district) 


„ (Jalaun 


district) 


Kadi . 




Kapti R., waves 


on 


Kaithal 




Kalabagh . . 




Kalakankar . 


. 


Kalighat 




Kalka 


. 


Kalpi 


. 


Kalpi(Orai) 


. 


Kalunaur 


. 


Kamalia 


. 


Kamptee 




Kamtaul 


. 


Kanaud 




Kandi 


. 


Kangah-Dogran 




Kangra Bhawan 




Kangra Fort 




Kangra town 


. 


Kankhal . 


. 


Kanya 


. 


Kapurthala . 


. 


Karanpur . 


. 


Karauli 


. 


Karnal 




Kartarpur . 


. 


Kasauli 




Kashmir Seismograph trace 


Kataula 




Kathgodam 




Kathmandu 




Kathyaia . 




Katni 




Katirhat 




Keatinge, J. A. 


. 


Kettle well, Lieutenant H. V 


Khairana 


. 


Khajuri 




Khandhla 





w. 



Page. 

252 
243 
25] 
347 
208 
228 
247 
258 
197 
237 
244 
221 
219 
256 
260 
207 
54, 262 
204 
32 
33 
31 
117 
230 
193 
185 
242 
208 
193 
197 
352 
53 
200 
269 
206 
256 
267 
106, 358 
111 
209 
229 
209 



Xll 



Khanki 

!\ n anna 

Kharr 

Khatauli 

Kberi 

Khewra 

Khiderwala 

Khikhi 

Khost 

Knotri 

Khulna 

Khushab 

Kidderpore 

Kiugh, Rev. L. 

Kishengarh 

Kiskengarh (Alvvar) 

Kiaoriah 

Kodaikanal Seismograph 

Kohala 

Kohat 

Kolakam 

Koai 

Kot 

Kotah 

Kot Kapura 

Kot Naja . 

Kotputli 

Kotla 

Kotla Lodian 

Kousanie 

Kulacbi 

Kuhi (town) 

Kumalgark . 

K unch 



trace 



La hi ... 

Lachmangarh . 

Lahoul ..... 

Lake formed by landslips, Sainj R. 

,, ,, ,, at Jiurwar, 

Lakeria Serai .... 
LakV:impur 



Tirtban R. 



227 

233 

75 

68 

69 

260 

268 



Xlll 



Lakhimpur (Kheri district) 224 

LakhiSarai 262 

Lalganj .......... . 263. 

Landour ....... .... 107 

LandiKotal 225 

Landslips 30, 42, 46, 57, 69, 105, 314 

Lansdowne ........... 185 

Larji 67 

Leh 189 

Levels, movements of bubbles in tubes ... . . . . 328 

„ variation of, near Dehra Dun . . . . . . 348 

Lahore . . . . . . . . . . . 131 

Lighthouse, False Point, movement of . . . . . 328 

Lucknow . . «. . . . . . .*::.. . 246 

Ludhiana . . • . • . • • • : » • • ? 173 

Lurches of ground . . , . . . . . 308 

Luri 73 

Lyallpur 231 

M 

Machli Shahr ; . . . . . . -'■.'•' • . 244 

Mackinnon, P. . . : . . . . . . . 107, 358 

Mackinnon's Brewery, springs affected ...... 346 

Madhipur . 267 

Magnetic disturbance, Dehra Dun . . . . . . . 91 

Magnetograph time records . . . . . . 292 

„ aftershock record*, Dehra Dun 361 

Maharajganj . . . . . . . . 264 

Main boundary fault 30, 46, 47, 48, 53, 79, 336 

Mainpuri ........... 237 

Mairwa ........... 264 

Malakand ........... 227 

Malana ........... 65 

Malana glen 62 

Manali Valley .......... 75 

Manasa ........... 254 

Mandalgarh 254 

Mandawar ......... 233 

Mandi ........... 49 

Manglaur . • ... 71, 198 

Mangra tower 39 

Manikarn ........... 63 



XIV 



Mantai 

Mardan 

Marh-Balochan 

Mashobra 

Mastig 

McKechnie, Captain, I. 

Meagherganj 

Medlicott, H. B. 

fifeerut 

Mian Mir 

Mian wall 

Miduapur 

Minimarg 

Miranshah . 

Mirzapur 

Miscellaneous effecte of 

Mitra, Dr. A. 

Mokamah Ghat 

Monghit 

Montgomery 

Moradabad . 

Morina 

Motihari 

Mount Abu . 

Mod. za-Boodhgam 

Mud Point . 

Mud Point time record 

Muktcaar 

Multan 

Mundri 

Mungra Badshahpu 

Murreo 

Muasoorie 

Muttra 

Muzaffarnagar 

Muzafferabad 

Myinensingh 

Nadia 

Nadiad 
Naggar 



the earthquake 



8. 



N 



XV 

Pago. 

Nagina 200 

Nagpur 256 

Nahan 199 

NainiTal 201 

Najibabad 200 

Nakadar 193 

Nanpara 239 

Naraya 260 

Narayanganj . . . . . . . . . . 267 

Narnaul . . . . 208 

Nvsingarh 264 

Natural gas, Jawalamukhi 40 

Nawalgarh 234 

Nawashahr 193 

Neemuch 253 

Nilikuch 230 

Nowgong . 252 

Nowshera (Sialkote district) ... . . . 192 

„ (Peshawar district \ ....... 226 

Nurpur (Jhelum district) ........ 217 

„ (Kangra ) 9 

O 

Oldham, R. D 281, 304, 307, 335 

Omori, Prof. F 35, .290, 298, 305, 311, 323, 340 

Ongole earthquake of 2nd April 1905 361 

Orai 244 

Osborn, General W. 66, 358 

Overturned bodies . . . .34, 37, 38, S4, 95, 109, 310, 323, 327 

P 

Pachbadra 240 

Paohraari . 256 

Pakur . 265 

Palampur ........... 40 

Palwal 235 

Pandaul 260 

Panipat 209 

Panna 254 

Paprola 44 

Parachinar ......... . 227 

Partabgarh 248 

Patan 251 

2F 



XVI 



Page. 

Pathankot 8 

Patharkandi .......... 

Pathri 

Patiala 

Patkabarie .......... 

Pauri ............ 



269 

199 

208 

262 

185 

Pegan Chowkie 209 

Pendra Road . 255 

Period of wave motion 36, 89, 111 



Peshawar .... 
Phagwara .... 
Phillaur .... 
Pilibhit .... 
Pind Dadun Khan 
Playne, Miss A. E. 
Pokaran .... 
Poonch .... 

Pope, Miss M. E. . 
Projection of bodies 
Propagation of earthquake wave 

„ „ large surface waves 
Purnea .... 
Pusa 



223 

. ■ ..' . . 182 

193 

214 

217 

358 

240 

...... 189 

358 

25, 42, 44, 58, 138, 168, 307, 311, 327 
281 



264 
260 



Question -forms?, earthquake 
Quetta 



3 

250 



Rae Bareli . 
Raewind 
Rahon 
Raipur 

„ (Muzaifarpur district) 
Raiwala 
Rajauri 
Rajgarh (Malwa district 

„ (Rajgarh district) 
Rajnagar 
Rajpur 
Raksal 
Rambagh . 
Ramgarh 



f r 



246 
206 
194 
256 
263 
185 
190 
254 
255 
260 
94 
258 
185 
234 



xvu 

Page* 
Ramnagar .... ••..._.. 205 

Ranohi 264 

Raniganj ........... 258 

Ranikhet 202 

Ranipur ... 199 

Ranital .... 39 

Rashole 64 

Rasulpur 206 

Ratangarh . . . . . 232 

Rawalpindi ........... 216 

Rawat, M. S 344 

Raya ........ ,192 

Rehlu 11 

Rennick, Colonel R. F. H. 56,66,358 

Revelganj 265 

Ridges, damage intensified on. . . . . . .15,20 

Rishra 261 

Rivers affected ......... 186, 191, 347 

Rock avalanches 54, 55, 58, 62, 63, 64, 68 

„ fissures . . . . . . . . . 14, 71 

Rohru 184 

Rohtak . . 221 

RohtakMandi . . . . \ . . .221 

Ronder 251 

Roofs : construction of Dehra Dun . . . . . . . 80 

heavy slate, Kangra and Kuln . . . .26, 51, 57, 65, 309 

Rosa 224 

Rossi- For el scale of intensity ........ 302 

Rupar 198 

Rurki 122 



S 

Sadda 227 

Sadra .251 

Saharanpur 126 

Sajat 240 

Sakandra Rao . . . 236 

Salt be/is, position a'long main boundary fault ..... 48 

Salt mines, Drang ......... 48 

„ „ Guma ......... 46 

Salt springs, Barogi, Girauli, Larji and Jawalamukhi . 49 

Sambalpur ^ 257 



IS. 

£viu 



Sambhar 

Sambrial 

Saraer 

Sanisi 

Sanawar 

Sangla . 

Sangri . 

Sangrur 

Sarail . 

Sardanshahr 

Sardhana 

Sargodha 

Sarila . 

Sarsa . 

Saugor 

Saugor Island 

Segoulie 

Segpoora 

Seismograph records 

„ ,, extra- Indian 

Seoni . 

Serampore . 

Shadows, earthquake 

Shahabad (Hardoi district) 
,. (Karnal district) 
„ (Patna district) 



Shadara 
Shah pur 



(Kangra district) 



Shahpura 

Shaikohabad 

Shajahanpur 

Shankargarh 

Sholashahar 

Sialkot 

Sibsagar 

Sikandrabad 

Sikar 

Simla 

Sirsa 

Sitamarhi 

Sitapur 

„ (Lucknow district) 



290. 



15, 21, 



Page. 
240 
192 
248 
57 
184 
205 
190 
220 
269 
232 
213 
218 
253 
247 
257 

266, 285 
259 
190 

300, 352 
340 
256 
261 

22, 26, 45, 307 
238 
209 
264 
145 
218 
9 
242 
237 
224 
226 
267 
168 
268 
223 
234 
73 
220 
263 
238 
245 



XIX 

Page. 

Sitarampur . . . . 258 

Siwan » 265 

Skardu . . 190 

State roofing, heavy . 26, 51, 57, 65, 309 

Slopes and cliffs affected . . . 22, 31, 38, 39, 40, 44, 70 

Snow avalanches and mist, Kulu . . . . . . 59, 75 

Snow dam, Manali R. ........ 59 

Solani aqueduct 124, 345 

Solon 184 

Sonemarg 189, 191 

Sonpur . 265 

Sopor 191 

Sounds, underground at Ludhiana . . . . . • 177 
Springs affected 40, 76, 101, 113, 347 

„ boiling, Manikarn 63 

„ salt {see Salt Springs). 
Srinagar (Garhwal) ..... .... 186 

(Kashmir) 191, 192 

Streams affected . ....... . 344 

Sub -recent debris fans, affected .... 10 

Suket 53 

Suket to Simla ? 76 

Sultanpur Kulu town) ......... 57 

„ (Sitapur district) 238 

Sujangarh ... 232 

Sun -photographs 93 

Surajgarh • • • • • 234 

Surat 252 

Surface waves, visible . . x . 17, 45 

Suri 257 

Survivors* experiences, Dharmsala . . . . . . . 16, 27 

„ „ Palampur 41 

Suttee pillars overturned 37 

Sntna 252 

Sylhet 269 

T 

Tajawaia . • 198 

Tanda 204 

Tando Masti Khan 252 

Tank 229 

Tank water, movements of .... 329 



XX 

Page. 
Tarakeshwar ......... 261 

Tarkham ......... 231 

Tarn Taran ......... Igg 

Taunsa ........ 230 

Tectonic origin of earthquake ••'.'.*. 340 

Tehri 186 

Telegraph damaged . . . . . u 3 5 2 

Temple, Kangra Bhawan, destroyed 33 

„ Devtas at Bajaura, destroyed . 57 

„ Sikras overturned ...... .37 305 

„ not overturned . . . . . # 50> 56 ] 58 

Tbanesar 209 

Thedaw . . . . . . . t , 264 

Thomas, Captain R. H. R # 292 

Thornhill, B. . . . . . . . # .347 

Thull [ [ 227 

Tikamgarh .......... 255 

Tilhar 224 

Timber -bonded hill houses . . . . . . . . 60 72 

Time-keeping in India . 2gi 

Time of earthquake ••••.... 281 

„ records, instrumental ••.... 290 

„ signal, daily in India . . . t # 282 

„ standards •••..... 281 

T^'* 1 192 

Tombstones destroyed . . . , . . # 22 24 

displaced Be, 102 

fallen • • • • 34, 110 

t , twisted ••»••••. 22 

undamaged 22, 37, 83 

Tonk 242 

Towers, hill in Kulu .■ . m . . 68 60 

Travellers' bungalows affected . . . , # 305 313 319 

Trees affected 15, 32, 63 

Tret 216 

TripanliaMuhalla. . . . . 238 

Twisted gatepost 23 

„ tombstone 22 

„ stone dovecot • •••..... 56 

u 

Udaipur 242 

Ugbana 231 



XXI 



Page. 

Ujjain 253 

Ukhara 258 

Unao 246 

Undulose surface waves , ... 8, 45, 75, 125, 158, 326 

Urifort 189 

Urla ........ 47 

V 

Vadanagar ......... 252 

Valley bottoms 307, 337 

Vaughan, Colonel. ......... 76 

Velocity of wave particle ....... 36 



W 



Walker, Dr. G. T. 




357 


Wan 




218 


Wano . 




230 


Warcha .... 




218 


Warshand .... 




227 


Water-tanks affected, Ahmedabad 




329 


Wave motion elements . 


35, 89, 92, 


310 


Waves on rivers and canals . 


. 117, 118, 186, 191, 196,204, 208, 


344 


„ semi-gravitational 


. 


306 


Wazirabad .... 


...... 


164 


West's formula . 


• ..... 


35 


Wesleypore , 


• • . • • . 


224 



CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA 

8, HASTINGS STREET 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 




BAZAR, KANGRA BHAWAN, 




C. S. Middlemiss, Photo. Beuirose, Co/to.. Do-by, Eng. 

EARTH FISSURES, KANGRA BHAWAN. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PL 2. 




REHLU FORT. 



i-r ***** 




C. 5. Middlemissy Fh r . 



Bemrvse, Collo., Dtrby, Eng. 



DAULATPUR. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 3. 




CHARI VILLAGE. 



^ 



•S.i 



S,- 




C. S. Afrefflemiss, Photo. 



Bemrose, Colio., Derby, Ettg. 



SHAHPUR. 



GEOLOGICAL SU.RVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 4. 




OLD BRITISH BARRACKS, DHARMSALA. 











C .V. Middlemiss, Phoio. 



Bemrose, Collo., Derby, Eng. 



CHURCH, DHARMSALA. 



C. S. Middlemiss. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 

Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 5- 




BAZAR, DHARMSALA CANTT. 




C. S. Middlemiss, Photo. u *«..o ai a *""""' C ° ll °" *"*"' *"*' 

MCLEODGANJ, DHARMSALA. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE INDIA. 



C S. Middlemisj. 



Memoirs, VoL XXXVIII. PI. 6. 




KOTWALI BAZAR, DHARMSALA. 




C. 5. Middlemiss, Photo 



, Coil:, Derby ; Emg. 



JAIL SITE, DHARMSALA. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. - Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 7. 




FORSYTHGANJ, DHARMSALA CANTT, 




C. S. Middlemiss. Photo. Bemtose, Colla., Derby, Eng. 

GURKHA LINES, DHARMSALA CANTT. 



C. S. Middlemiss. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 

Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 8. 




TWISTED MONUMENT, DHARMSALA CHURCHYARD. 



- til l 




im^mmfm 



C. S. Middlemiss, Phott. 



Be w rose, Collo., Derby, Eng. 



BRYN," DHARMSALA. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 9. 




DUST CLOUD AND LANDSLIP, NEOGAL GORGE. 




C. S. Middlemiss, Photo. 



mm 

Benirose, Collo., Derby, Eng. 



BAZAR, PALAMPUR 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 10. 




From Old Photos. 

DHARMSALA AND PALAMPUR CHURCHES, BEFORE THE EARTHQUAKE. 




GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, ft 




BAUNATH 




C. S. Middlemiss , Photo. 



Beturose, Collo., Derby, Eng. 



JAWALAMUKHI. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Midcllemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 12. 




A. Gardner, Photo. 



MANDI, BEFORE THE EARTHQUAKE. 




C. S. Middlemiss, Photo. Bemrose, Colto., Derby, Eng. 

MANDI, AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 13. 




SULTANPUR, KULU. 




■WW 

C. S. Middlemiss, Photo. 



TEMPLE, SULTANPUR. 



Bemrote, Collo., Derby, Eng. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 14. 




C. S. Middlemiss, Photo. 



TIPRI VILLAGE KULU. 




Cap/am J. Hodgkinson, Photo. Bemrose, Lotto., Derby, Eng. 

FALLEN ROCK NEAR MANALI. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII. PI. 1$. 




ROCK SLIDES, MALANA GLEN, 




Btmrnt, Col/o., Dtrby t Eng % 



LAKE NEAR BARWAR, KULU, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middleraiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 16. 




THE CONVENT. MUSSOORIE. 




GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 17, 




VERONA VILLA, DEHRA DUN. 




R. R. Simpson, Photo. 



POLICE STATION, DEHRA DUN. 



Bemrose, Collo., Derby, Eng. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE INDIA. 



C. S. Middlemiss. 



Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 18. 



to 




^» 



;i U$i*-tf' ' 



: 



ft*«r •■ *^ hXlLi lahqre • BEFORE THE EARTHQUAKE. 



mm^M 




„,. Bemrose, Collo., Derby, Eng. 

C. S. MUidlemtss, Photo. ....,- 

THE SAME, AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 19. 




MARKET, LAHORE. 




E. H. Pascoe. Photo. 



LAW COURTS, LAHORE. 



Bentrose, Collo., Derby, Eng. 



*> 



c 

> 



r- 



3 



'0 



£ 
•o 

9 

CO 

U 





a. 
« 
U 



1 

S3 

C/i 




UJ 

oE 
o 
o 

tn *; 
* J& 

2 Os 



uj ^ 

> «5t 

O $ 
O 

u 

X 

I- 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 23. 




E. H. Pascoe, del. 

PLAN OF TOWN HALL, LAHORE, SQALE 4*o 

Fallen parts 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G y H.^ Position of Brick Globes 67 ft. front ground 
K, Z, M, N. = do: 56% do: 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 
C. S. Middlemiss. Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PL 24. 




E. H. Pascoe. del. 

PLAN OF POST OFFICE, LAHORE. 



5 

1 



s 

S 

1 



> 
X 

X 

X 



£ 



i 



(A 

u 




z 

Q 

< 

X 
UJ 
D 

CO 



> 
UJ 



z 
o 

I- 

< 

> 







Jaa/uti 

-■- s> 

: ' : u£jn^ ..... 







C. S. Middlewiss. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. ^8. 




GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



Memoirs, Vol. XXXVIII, PI. 29. 




The publication is available for sale from the office of the 
Director, Publication & Information Division, Geological Survey 
of India, 29, Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Calcutta-700 016; from 
the Controller of Publications, Government of India, Department 
of Publications, Civil Lines, Delhi-110 054, and the Regional 
Offices of the Geological Survey of India given below : 

Central Region 

New Secretariat Building, 
Nagpur-440 001 

Eastern Region 

1 2A & B, Russel Street, 
Calcutta-700 016 

Northeastern Region 

Kumud Villa 

Nongrim Hills, Shillong-793 003 

Northern Region 

3, Gokhale Marg, 
Lucknow-226 001 

Southern Region 

5-5-449, Monoranjan Building, 
Mukharamjahi Road, Hyderabad-500 001 



Western Region 

A/3, Swai Jaisingh Road, 

Bani Park, Himangshu Bhavan, Jaipur-302 006. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



XXXVUI, PL 30. 




KANGRA EARTHQUAKE 
SHOWING THE KANGRA-KULU EPICENTRAU REA